Environmental Mycology in Public Health

Fungi and Mycotoxins Risk Assessment and Management
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 3. August 2015
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  • 458 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-411535-4 (ISBN)
 

Environmental Mycology in Public Health: Fungi and Mycotoxins Risk Assessment and Management provides the most updated information on fungi, an essential element in the survival of our global ecology that can also pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they are present in buildings.

As the exposure to fungi in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms, including allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, this book presents information on fungi and their disease agents, important aspects of exposure assessment, and their impacts on health.

This book answers the hard questions, including, 'How does one detect and measure the presence of indoor fungi?' and 'What is an acceptable level of indoor fungi?' It then examines how we relate this information to human health problems.


  • Provides unique new insights on fungi and their metabolites detection in the environmental and occupational settings
  • Presents new information that is enriched by significant cases studies
  • Multi-contributed work, edited by a proficient team in medical and environmental mycology with different individual expertise
  • Guides the readers in the implementation of preventive and protective measures regarding exposure to fungi
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 9,03 MB
978-0-12-411535-4 (9780124115354)
0124115357 (0124115357)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Environmental Mycology in Public Health
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Part I - Fungal Specificities in Environmental Mycology
  • Section I - General FungalCharacteristics
  • Chapter 1 - Cellular Constitution, Water and Nutritional Needs, and Secondary Metabolites
  • FUNGAL STRUCTURES
  • GROWTH CONDITIONS
  • FUNGAL METABOLITES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 2 - Dispersion Forms
  • REFERENCES
  • Section II - Outline of FungalPathologies
  • Chapter 3 - Fungal Infections
  • SUPERFICIAL FUNGAL INFECTIONS
  • SUBCUTANEOUS INFECTIONS
  • INVASIVE FUNGAL INFECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 4 - Allergic Response to Fungal Exposure
  • ALLERGIC DISEASE AND FUNGAL SENSITIZATION
  • IMMUNE RESPONSE AND HYPERSENSITIVITY TO FUNGAL EXPOSURE
  • ALLERGIC RHINITIS
  • ALLERGIC FUNGAL RHINOSINUSITIS
  • ASTHMA
  • ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS
  • ATOPIC DERMATITIS
  • OTHER DISEASES
  • DIAGNOSIS OF FUNGAL-RELATED ALLERGIC DISEASES
  • TREATMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 5 - Mycotoxicoses
  • AFLATOXINS
  • FUMONISINS
  • OCHRATOXINS
  • ZEARALENONE
  • TRICHOTHECENES
  • REFERENCES
  • Section III
  • Chapter 6 - Risk Groups for Acquiring Fungal Infections
  • REFERENCES
  • Part II - Environmental Mycologyin Public Health
  • Section I
  • Chapter 7 - Pathways and Routes of Natural Exposure to Fungal Infection
  • EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AND ROUTES OF INFECTION IN HUMANS
  • DERMATOPHYTOSIS
  • SUPERFICIAL CANDIDOSIS
  • MYCOTIC KERATITIS
  • OTOMYCOSIS
  • ASPERGILLOSIS
  • SYSTEMIC CANDIDOSIS
  • CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
  • MUCORMYCOSIS
  • PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII PNEUMONIA
  • BLASTOMYCOSIS
  • COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS
  • HISTOPLASMOSIS
  • PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS
  • CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS
  • ENTOMOPHTHOROMYCOSIS
  • MYCETOMA
  • SPOROTRICHOSIS
  • PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS
  • HYALOHYPHOMYCOSIS
  • INHALATIONAL MODELS OF INFECTION
  • MUCOSAL MODELS OF INFECTION
  • DIRECT INFECTION
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Section II - Occupational Settings
  • Chapter 8 - Highly Contaminated Workplaces
  • INTRODUCTION
  • FUNGAL AEROSOLS IN ANIMAL CONFINEMENT BUILDINGS
  • FUNGAL AEROSOLS IN SAWMILLS
  • FUNGAL AEROSOLS IN WASTE SECTORS
  • FUNGAL AEROSOLS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY
  • FUNGAL AEROSOLS DURING PLANT AND GRAIN HANDLING
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 9 - Fungi in Low-contamination Occupational Environments
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MEASUREMENT ASPECTS
  • FUNGAL SPECIES IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS
  • GENERAL ASPECTS OF FUNGAL CONTAMINATION
  • ESSENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR FUNGI
  • ROLE OF VENTILATION IN FUNGAL CONTAMINATION OF INDOOR SPACES
  • CARPETS
  • FUNGAL GROWTH DUE TO MOISTURE OR DAMPNESS
  • GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE DATA FROM LOW-CONTAMINATION ENVIRONMENTS
  • OFFICES
  • SCHOOLS AND DAY CARE CENTERS
  • HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS
  • OTHER LOCATIONS
  • EXPERIENCES FROM INTERVENTIONS
  • APPLICATION OF GUIDANCE REFERENCE VALUES FOR FUNGAL CONTAMINATION
  • IMPORTANCE OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
  • REFERENCES
  • Section III - Non-occupationalExposure
  • Chapter 10 - Domestic Environment: Indoor Mycobiota As a Public Health Risk Factor
  • Indoor Mycobiota As a Public Health Risk Factor
  • PREVENTIVE MEASURES
  • COLLABORATORS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 11 - Urban Environment: Fungal Specificities: Nonoccupational Exposure and Urban Environment
  • Fungal Specificities: Nonoccupational Exposure and Urban Environment
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
  • SPOROTRICHOSIS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 12 - Urban Settings: Fungi in Archives: A Double Concern
  • Fungi in Archives: A Double Concern
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 13 - Recreational Environment: Pathogenic Fungi in Public Places, Information Gaps in Assessing Public Health Risk
  • Pathogenic Fungi in Public Places, Information Gaps in Assessing Public Health Risk
  • INTRODUCTION
  • QUANTITATIVE MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT
  • DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 14 - Hospital Environment
  • CONTAMINATION SOURCES
  • THRESHOLD VALUES USED TO EVALUATE MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION IN THE HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT
  • WHEN SHOULD A HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS BE PERFORMED?
  • REFERENCES
  • Section IV
  • Chapter 15 - Fungal Disease Outbreaks and Natural Disasters
  • INTRODUCTION
  • FUNGAL DISEASES AFTER NATURAL DISASTERS
  • OUTBREAKS CAUSED BY DIMORPHIC FUNGI
  • OUTBREAKS CAUSED BY MOLDS
  • CONCLUSION
  • DISCLAIMER
  • REFERENCES
  • Part III - Fungi and Metabolites
  • Chapter 16 - Dietary Exposure Assessment of European Population to Mycotoxins: A Review
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY
  • EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF EUROPEAN POPULATION
  • CONCLUSION AND FUTURE NEEDS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 17 - Mycotoxins as Food Carcinogens
  • MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATING FOOD
  • TOLERABLE DAILY INTAKES AND MAXIMUM LEVELS IN FOODSTUFFS
  • CARCINOGENIC RISK TO HUMANS: IARC AND NTP CLASSIFICATIONS
  • AFLATOXIN B1: GENOTOXIC CARCINOGEN
  • OCHRATOXIN A: LONG GENOTOXIC-EPIGENETIC DILEMMA
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 18 - Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Indoor Environments
  • INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE
  • MYCOTOXINS IN BUILDING MATERIALS, DUST, AND AIR FROM INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS
  • MYCOTOXINS IN THE CONTEXT OF MOISTURE DAMAGE
  • SUMMARY, CONCLUDING REMARKS, FUTURE CHALLENGES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 19 - Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxins and Preventive Measures
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF OCCUPATIONAL MYCOTOXIN EXPOSURE
  • INDICATIONS OF OCCURRENCE OF MYCOTOXINS IN OCCUPATIONAL SETTINGS
  • AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION, DURATION, AND FREQUENCY AS CRITERIA FOR OCCUPATIONAL MYCOTOXIN EXPOSURE
  • ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
  • PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 20 - Mycotoxins: Genotoxicity Studies and Methodologies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CYTOKINESIS-BLOCK MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY
  • MICRONUCLEUS
  • NUCLEOPLASMIC BRIDGES
  • NUCLEAR BUDS
  • ASSESSING GENOTOXIC EFFECTS OF MYCOTOXINS BY CBMN
  • COMET ASSAY
  • ASSESSING GENOTOXIC EFFECTS OF MYCOTOXINS BY COMET ASSAY
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 21 - Mycotoxin Analytical Methods
  • EXTRACTION AND ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
  • FOOD AND FEED OF CEREAL ORIGIN
  • OTHER FOOD MATRICES
  • SEPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF MYCOTOXINS
  • IMMUNOASSAY AND OTHER METHODS
  • ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 22 - Indoor Microbial Volatile Organic Compound (MVOC) Levels and Associations with Respiratory Health, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), and Allergy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF MVOC
  • MVOC LEVELS IN INDOOR AND OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS
  • MVOCS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AS INDICATOR OF HIDDEN MICROBIAL GROWTH
  • HEALTH EFFECT AND SICK BUILDING SYNDROME
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Part IV - Methods in Environmental Mycology
  • Section I - Environmental Sampling
  • Chapter 23 - Air, Surface and Water Sampling
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PASSIVE METHODS
  • ACTIVE METHODS
  • STRATEGY
  • SURFACE SAMPLING
  • WATER SAMPLING
  • REFERENCES
  • Section II
  • Chapter 24 - Sand and Soil Sampling
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 25 - Processing Methodologies
  • MICROSCOPY
  • CLASSICAL CULTURING METHODS
  • BIOCHEMICAL METHODS
  • IMMUNOLOGICAL ASSAYS
  • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY APPROACHES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 26 - Molecular Approaches to Detect and Identify Fungal Agents in Various Environmental Settings
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
Chapter 1

Cellular Constitution, Water and Nutritional Needs, and Secondary Metabolites


Robert A. Samson     CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Abstract


The fungal kingdom now contains approximately 100,000 described species and our knowledge of their occurrence and properties is steadily increasing. However, estimates of the real fungal biodiversity indicate that this is only a small portion of the million taxa to be discovered. In our society, fungi can have an important impact that can be useful or harmful. It is therefore essential to understand the structures and growth conditions (nutrients, water, pH, oxygen, temperature, light) of fungi. This chapter gives a general overview of how fungi develop and produce their diverse propagules for distribution and development. In environmental mycology not only is the fungus with its mycelium and various propagules important, but also the metabolites it produces. The diversity of fungi is reflected by a great variety of metabolites, and this is particularly manifested in genera such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. Mycotoxins are important metabolites and in this chapter the significance of toxins in food and indoor environment is discussed briefly.

Keywords


Fungal metabolites; Fungal structures; Growth conditions in fungi; Mycotoxins
Recent taxonomic treatments show that fungi and animals both belong to the group Opisthokonta.1,2 Fungi are considered the sister group of animals and part of the eukaryotic crown group that appeared about a billion years ago. Fungi share with animals the ability to export hydrolytic enzymes that break down biopolymers, which then can be absorbed for nutrition. Fungi live in their own food supply and simply grow into new food as the local environment becomes exhausted of nutrients. The organisms traditionally regarded as "fungi" belong to three unrelated groups: the true fungi in Kingdom Fungi (Eumycota), the Oomycetes, and the slime molds. Our current knowledge shows that there are approximately 100,000 described species, but a conservative estimate of the total number of fungal species thought to exist is 1.5 million.3,4 However, Blackwell5 has indicated that until recently, estimates of numbers of fungi did not include results from large-scale environmental sequencing methods. Newer estimates based on data acquired from several molecular methods have predicted that as many as 5.1 million species of fungi may exist.6,7 In this chapter a summary of important fungal structures and characters is given, with emphasis on the fungi that play an important role in environmental mycology. For more detailed information on fungi the reader should consult books on introductory mycology.8-13

Fungal Structures


Mycelium


The mycelium consists of hyphae, and the type of hyphae is characteristic of specific groups of fungi. Fungi that lack cross walls (nonseptate; aseptate; coenocytic) are found, for example, in the Zygomycetes. In Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes, species form septate hyphae, with perforations at the septa, called septal pores. These allow the movement of cytoplasm and organelles from one compartment to the next. The type and complexity of the septal pore are characteristic of specific groups of fungi. Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular, in the majority of the cases through the formation of strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae. Hyphae elongate almost exclusively at the tips, growing outward from the point of establishment. As a result of apical growth, hyphae are relatively uniform in diameter, and mycelium that grows in an unimpeded manner forms a circular colony on solid substrates that support fungal growth.

Sporangiospores


The asexual propagules that form inside a sporangium, which can be mostly spherical or cylindrical, through a process involving cleavage of the cytoplasm are named sporangiospores. These spores are thin walled, one celled, hyaline, or pale in color, and usually globose or ellipsoid in shape. One to 50,000 sporangiospores may be formed in a single sporangium. When mature, sporangiospores are released by breakdown of the sporangial wall, or the entire sporangium may be dispersed as a unit. Sporangiospores are produced by fungi of the Chytridiomycetes and Zygomycetes groups, as well the Oomycetes, a group of fungi that is phylogenetically unrelated to the true fungi. The sexual propagation of the fungi that produce sporangiospores occurs via the zygospore. The zygospores serve as resting and survival propagules and are found rarely in cultures of common fungi.

Conidiophores and Conidia


Many species that are relevant to environmental mycology are "anamorphic fungi." This is the current terminology for those fungi that used to be called Fungi imperfecti, Deuteromyces, Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes, etc. These names were used for fungi of the Ascomycetes or Basidiomycetes that lack a sexual state, but phylogenetic studies have shown that within many genera, sexual and asexual species are closely related. Hence there is now a change in the nomenclature of fungi, which is based on the one fungus-one name concept.14-16 In some genera, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, with teleomorph connections (Eurotium, Neosartorya, Eupenicillium, etc.), the selection of the current nomenclature of the species follows the anamorphic name, for example, Aspergillus and Penicillium.17,18 Anamorphic fungi were also artificially grouped based on their morphological structures, such as the presence of solitary conidiophores, synnemata, or conidiophores produced within pycnidia. Phylogenetic studies have also shown that within genera or even species these different structures may occur and therefore these, sometimes distinct, morphological structures cannot be used for distinguishing genera or even species. Among the anamorphic fungi various types of conidiogenesis can be seen. The patterns of conidiogenesis are described in detail by Cole and Samson.19 How conidiogenesis takes place in a fungus is relevant to the mode of sporulation, number of conidia produced, and distribution of these propagules. A common type of conidiogenesis is through the phialide, which can produce masses of conidia in dry chains or conglomerates (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillium) or in so-called slimy heads (e.g., Stachybotrys, Fusarium). Other fungi are characterized by thallic, blastic, or poroconidia (e.g., Geotrichum, Cladosporium, Alternaria).20 In addition to the phialide, conidia can be formed from different types of conidiogenous cells, which can be formed singly on hyphae, on the surface of aggregated hyphal structures, or within various types of fruiting bodies. Pycnidia and acervuli are fruiting bodies inside which conidia are formed. Sporodochia and synnemata are other examples of fruiting bodies on which conidia are formed. Conidium-forming fungi are primarily Ascomycetes, although they can also be found as anamorphic Basidiomycete species. A good example is Wallemia sebi, which belongs to a separate family, Wallemiomycetes, and is very common in indoor environments and on low water activity food. For many years it was assumed that the spores/conidia and perhaps large mycelial fragments were the source of exposure to fungi21 and that spore counting could be used for exposure assessment. However, it has been demonstrated that fragments significantly smaller than spores (down to 0.1 µm) are released from the mycelia of infested materials.22-25 These fragments can be liberated in numbers hundreds of times higher than the number of spores, with no correlation between the numbers of released fragments and spores.23 It is important to consider exposure to the small fungal fragments when assessing exposure to fungal allergens.

Ascomata and Basidiomata


The ascoma (plural: ascomata) is the fruiting body of an Ascomycete and mostly consists of very tightly interwoven hyphae and may contain asci, each of which typically contains four, eight, or more ascospores. These fruiting bodies are most commonly bowl-shaped (apothecia), spherical (cleistothecia), or flask-like (perithecia), closed or with an opening. Genera such as Byssochlamys are characterized by naked asci, which lack an ascoma wall. A basidioma (plural: basidiomata) is the fruiting body of a Basidiomycete and consists of a multicellular structure that bears the spore-producing hymenium. Basidiomata are characteristic of the hymenomycetes; rusts and smuts do not produce such structures. Epigeous (aboveground) basidiomata that are visible to the naked eye are commonly referred to as mushrooms, while hypogeous (underground) basidiomata are usually called false truffles.

Chlamydospores


Chlamydospores are survival structures formed from an existing hyphal cell or a conidium that develops a thickened wall and cytoplasm packed with lipid reserves. The thickened cell walls may be pigmented or hyaline, and chlamydospores develop singly or in clusters, depending upon the fungus. Chlamydospores are passively dispersed, in most instances when the mycelium breaks down. Chlamydospores are formed by many different groups of fungi and are often found...
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