Deep Earth

Physics and Chemistry of the Lower Mantle and Core
 
 
American Geophysical Union (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. März 2016
  • |
  • 311 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-99249-4 (ISBN)
 

Deep Earth: Physics and Chemistry of the Lower Mantle and Core highlights recent advances and the latest views of the deep Earth from theoretical, experimental, and observational approaches and offers insight into future research directions on the deep Earth. In recent years, we have just reached a stage where we can perform measurements at the conditions of the center part of the Earth using state-of-the-art techniques, and many reports on the physical and chemical properties of the deep Earth have come out very recently. Novel theoretical models have been complementary to this breakthrough. These new inputs enable us to compare directly with results of precise geophysical and geochemical observations. This volume highlights the recent significant advancements in our understanding of the deep Earth that have occurred as a result, including contributions from mineral/rock physics, geophysics, and geochemistry that relate to the topics of:

I. Thermal structure of the lower mantle and core

II. Structure, anisotropy, and plasticity of deep Earth materials

III. Physical properties of the deep interior

IV. Chemistry and phase relations in the lower mantle and core

V. Volatiles in the deep Earth

The volume will be a valuable resource for researchers and students who study the Earth's interior. The topics of this volume are multidisciplinary, and therefore will be useful to students from a wide variety of fields in the Earth Sciences.

  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • USA
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 14,32 MB
978-1-118-99249-4 (9781118992494)
1118992490 (1118992490)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Intro
  • TITLE PAGE
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • CONTRIBUTORS
  • PREFACE
  • Part I: Thermal Strucure of Deep Earth
  • 1 Melting of Fe Alloys and the Thermal Structure of the Core
  • 1.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF MELTING
  • 1.3. RESULTS ON MELTING OF IRON
  • 1.4. RESULTS ON MELTING OF IRON-RICH ALLOYS
  • 1.5. APPLICATION TO THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE CORE
  • 1.6. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 Temperature of the Lower Mantle and Core Based on Ab Initio Mineral Physics Data
  • 2.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2. AB INITIO METHODS FOR MINERAL PHYSICS
  • 2.3. ADIABATIC TEMPERATURE PROFILES
  • 2.4. THERMAL STRUCTURE IN D? LAYER
  • 2.5. CMB HEAT FLOW
  • 2.6. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 Heat Transfer in the Core and Mantle
  • 3.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF EARTH'S CORE
  • 3.3. MANTLE
  • 3.4. HEAT TRANSPORT ACROSS CORE-MANTLE BOUNDARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 Thermal State and Evolution of the Earth Core and Deep Mantle
  • 4.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2. PRIMER ON THERMAL EVOLUTION OF EARTH
  • 4.3. THERMAL EVOLUTION OF CORE
  • 4.4. IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL EVOLUTION OF EARTH
  • 4.5. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • Part II: Structures, Anisotropy, and Plasticity of Deep Earth Materials
  • 5 Crystal Structures of Core Materials
  • 5.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 5.3. THE FE-H SYSTEM
  • 5.4. THE FE-C SYSTEM
  • 5.5. THE FE-O SYSTEM
  • 5.6. THE FE-SI SYSTEM
  • 5.7. THE FE-P SYSTEM
  • 5.8. THE FE-S SYSTEM
  • 5.9. OTHER LIGHT ELEMENTS
  • 5.10. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVE
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 Crystal Structures of Minerals in the Lower Mantle
  • 6.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2. BRIDGMANITE, (Mg,Fe)SiO3
  • 6.3. FERROPERICLASE, (Mg,Fe)O
  • 6.4. CaSiO3 PEROVSKITE
  • 6.5. CaIrO3-TYPE POST-PEROVSKITE PHASE
  • 6.6. SiO2 POLYMORPHS
  • 6.7. ALUMINOUS PHASES
  • 6.8. POSSIBLE HYDROUS PHASES
  • 6.9. SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 Deformation of Core and Lower Mantle Materials
  • 7.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2. METHODS
  • 7.3. LOWER MANTLE
  • 7.4. D? LAYER
  • 7.5. INNER CORE
  • 7.6. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 Using Mineral Analogs to Understand the Deep Earth
  • 8.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 8.2. ANALOGS OF EARTH'S CORE MATERIALS
  • 8.3. MIMICKING LOWERMOST MANTLE
  • 8.4. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • Part III: Physical Properties of Deep Interior
  • 9 Ground Truth
  • 9.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2. MODELS AND DATA
  • 9.3. CORE WAVE SPEED MODELS
  • 9.4. ANISOTROPY AND INNER CORE
  • 9.5. LIQUID OUTER CORE
  • 9.6. CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 Physical Properties of the Inner Core
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 Physical Properties of the Outer Core
  • 11.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 11.2. DENSITY AND COMPRESSIBILITY OF LIQUID Fe ALLOYS
  • 11.3. SOUND VELOCITY OF LIQUID Fe ALLOYS
  • 11.4. CONSTRAINTS ON THE OUTER CORE COMPOSITION FROM DENSITY AND SOUND VELOCITY
  • 11.5. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF LIQUID Fe ALLOYS
  • 11.6. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • Part IV: Chemistry and Phase Relations of Deep Interior
  • 12 The Composition of the Lower Mantle and Core
  • 12.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 12.2. CHONDRITES: BUILDING BLOCKS OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS
  • 12.3. COMPOSITIONAL MODEL FOR CORE
  • 12.4. COMPOSITIONAL MODEL FOR BULK SILICATE EARTH (BSE) AND LOWER MANTLE
  • 12.5. OUTSTANDING ISSUES AND WHAT LURKS DEEP IN MANTLE
  • 12.6. FUTURE PROSPECTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 13 Metal-Silicate Partitioning of Siderophile Elements and Core-Mantle Segregation
  • 13.1. PLANETARY DIFFERENTIATION AND CORE-MANTLE SEGREGATION
  • 13.2. EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF P, T, FO2 AND COMPOSITION
  • 13.3. METAL-SILICATE PARTITIONING
  • 13.4. MODELING OF SIDEROPHILE ELEMENTS
  • 13.5. SUMMARY AND FUTURE
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 Mechanisms and Geochemical Models of Core Formation
  • 14.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 14.2. MECHANISMS OF METAL-SILICATE SEGREGATION
  • 14.3. GEOCHEMICAL MODELS OF CORE FORMATION
  • 14.4. CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 15 Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamics of Core Materials
  • 15.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 15.2. THERMODYNAMIC BASIS
  • 15.3. APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTAL MELTING TEMPERATURES
  • 15.4. PHASE RELATIONS AT ICB CONDITIONS
  • 15.5. OUTLOOK
  • REFERENCES
  • 16 Chemistry of Core-Mantle Boundary
  • 16.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 16.2. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR CMB CHEMISTRY
  • 16.3. METAL-SILICATE EQUILIBRIA
  • 16.4. DYNAMICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF CMB REACTIONS
  • 16.5. SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 17 Phase Transition and Melting in the Deep Lower Mantle
  • 17.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 17.2. POST-PEROVSKITE PHASE TRANSITION
  • 17.3. H-PHASE?
  • 17.4. MELTING UNDER DEEP LOWER MANTLE PRESSURES
  • 17.5. GEOPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS
  • 17.6. FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 18 Chemistry of the Lower Mantle
  • 18.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 18.2. EVIDENCE FOR CHEMICALLY DISTINCT LOWER MANTLE
  • 18.3. POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF CHEMICALLY DISTINCT LOWER MANTLE
  • 18.4. MINERALOGY AND CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF THE LOWER MANTLE
  • 18.5 LOWER MANTLE MINERAL COMPOSITIONS
  • 18.6. OXIDATION STATE OF IRON BRIDGMANITE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS
  • 18.7. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 19 Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamics of Lower Mantle Materials
  • 19.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 19.2. METHODS FOR DETERMINING PHASE EQUILIBRIA
  • 19.3. THERMODYNAMICS AND STABILITY
  • 19.4. PHASE DIAGRAMS OF LOWER MANTLE MINERALS
  • 19.5. CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • Part V: Volatiles in Deep Interior
  • 20 Hydrogen in the Earth's Core: Review of the Structural, Elastic, and Thermodynamic Properties of Iron-Hydrogen Alloys
  • 20.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 20.2. STABLE PHASES OF IRON-HYDROGEN ALLOYS
  • 20.3. HIGH-PRESSURE PROPERTIES OF FeH
  • 20.4. HYDROGEN IN EARTH'S CORE
  • 20.5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 21 Stability of Hydrous Minerals and Water Reservoirs in the Deep Earth Interior
  • 21.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 21.2. HYDROUS MINERALS AND NOMINALLY ANHYDROUS MINERALS
  • 21.3. EXISTENCE OF NEW HYDROUS PHASE, MgSiO2(OH)2 (PHASE H) AND ITS RELATION TO d-ALOOH
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 22 Carbon in the Core
  • 22.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 22.2. COSMOCHEMICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CONSTRAINTS ON EARTH'S CARBON BUDGET
  • 22.3. CARBON CONTENT OF CORE FROM SOLUBILITY AND PARTITIONING EXPERIMENTS
  • 22.4. MINERAL PHYSICS CONSTRAINTS ON CARBON IN CORE
  • 22.5. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND IMPLICATIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • INDEX
  • END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT

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