Digital @ Scale

The Playbook You Need to Transform Your Company
Wiley (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 1. Juni 2017
  • |
  • 288 Seiten
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978-1-119-43377-4 (ISBN)
A blueprint for reinventing the core of your business
Value in the next phase of the digital era will go to those companies that don't just try digital but also scale it. Digital@Scale examines what it takes for companies to break through the gravitational pull of their legacy organizations and capture the full value of digital. Digging into more than fifty detailed case studies and years of McKinsey experience and data, the authors, along with a group of expert contributors, show how companies can move beyond incremental change to transform the business where the greatest value is generated--at its core. The authors provide practical insights into the three pillars of digital transformations that successfully scale: reinventing the business model, building out a business architecture from the customer back into the organization, and establishing an 'amoeba' IT and organizational foundation that learns and evolves. This is the ideal guide for all leaders who recognize the power and promise of a digital transformation.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • New York
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 4,68 MB
978-1-119-43377-4 (9781119433774)
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Dr. Jürgen Meffert is a Senior Partner in the McKinsey Düsseldorf office. He is both the Director of Digital McKinsey in the area of B2B, and founder of McKinsey's initiative for SME growth companies. He advises several leading global firms in the telecommunications, high-tech, and media industries, and has overseen extensive transformation programs in various fields, from growth and innovation strategies, marketing, and sales through to processes and organization.
Anand Swaminathan is a Senior Partner in the McKinsey San Francisco office. He is a leader at the intersection of Digital McKinsey and McKinsey New Ventures and focuses on helping organizations across industries leverage technology and digital capabilities to evolve their operating models, transform their businesses to effectively serve their customers, and scale operations efficiently. For over 20 years he has focused on serving clients in the financial services, technology, retail, and industrial sectors. In 2015 Anand was named to Fortune magazine's 40 under 40 most influential young people in business.
  • Intro
  • Digital @ Scale
  • Contents
  • Preamble: Thinking Digital
  • 1 Digital Is Changing Our World, Quickly and Irreversibly
  • 1.1 What Is a Digital Transformation?
  • Digital Players Conquer and Disrupt All Industries
  • Digitization Is Relevant for All Industries-Only Scale and Speed Will Vary
  • New Business Models Follow a Classic Pattern
  • Consumer Behavior Has Dramatically Changed in Recent Years
  • 1.2 Established Market Definitions Don't Apply Anymore
  • Innovations Arise at Industry Boundaries
  • Blurring Boundaries between B2B and B2C: B2B Becomes B2B2C
  • Managing Channel Conflicts
  • Software and Analytics Competencies Becoming Increasingly Important
  • The Battle for Digital Talent
  • 1.3 The Pace of Change Is Increasing Exponentially
  • Progress and Moore's Law
  • 1.4 Those Who Turn a Blind Eye to Digital Risk Failure and Extinction
  • 2 Digitization Requires Fundamental Renewal: Digital@Scale
  • 2.1 Why? Things Are Going Well, So Why Do We Need to Change?
  • Creating a Sense of Urgency: The Key Challenge
  • Determining the Nature of the Change Requirements
  • Identifying Barriers to Change Early
  • Identifying Relevant Assets and Setting the Aspiration Level
  • 2.2 What? What Does Digitization Mean for My Company, and What Priorities Are Derived?
  • Building New Ecosystems
  • Developing Business Architecture
  • Strengthening the Foundation
  • 2.3 How? How Do I Manage the Tasks Resulting from a Digital Transformation?
  • Create a Plan
  • Ramping Up the Digital Company
  • Consistent Scaling
  • 2.4 Cargo Cults Don't Work
  • The CEO Must Take the Lead
  • 3 Why? The Clock Is Ticking
  • 3.1 Creating a Sense of Urgency: How Urgent Is Digitization?
  • Taking Leadership in Hand
  • Benchmarking to Assess Starting Position
  • Experiencing Digital Live
  • Sampling Digital at a Hackathon
  • Mobilizing Your Employees to Uncover Weaknesses
  • 3.2 Determining the Kind of Change Required
  • Those at the Top Right Need an Entirely New Business Model
  • Extensive Interventions in the Existing Business Model
  • Targeted Innovations in the Value Chain
  • Targeted Additions to the Existing Business Model
  • Those Who Know the Roadblocks Overcome Them More Easily
  • 3.3 Identifying Relevant Assets
  • Powerful Brand
  • Strong Customer Relationship
  • Extensive Installed Base
  • Deep Customer Insights
  • Emotional Ties
  • 3.4 Determining the Aspiration Level for the Transformation
  • Conclusion: Bring on the New Ecosystems
  • 4 What? Doing the Right Things Intelligently
  • 4.1 Always Online, Gladly Electric, Often on Autopilot: Mobility in the Digital Age
  • Connectivity Will Define the Fate of the Industry
  • Daimler Swarming to Digital
  • 4.2 Digital Commerce: One Channel Is No Longer Enough-Today's Mobile Customer Blithely Switches between the Real and Virtual Worlds
  • Advanced Analytics to Personalize the Offering
  • Traditional Retail Strikes Back
  • Customers Want Seamless Switching between Channels
  • Intermediaries Vie with Retail for Customer Contact
  • 4.3 Who Still Needs Banks? Fintechs Threaten the Established Business Model
  • Much Is at Stake
  • The Bank of the Future
  • 4.4 Digital Health: The First Innovation in Health Care That Can Reduce Costs in the Long Term
  • Lack of a Suitable Business Model
  • Who Will Establish a Central and Open Innovation Platform?
  • Predictive Maintenance for People
  • 4.5 Connected Buildings
  • Commercial: Shopping and Working in Smart Buildings
  • Consumers: Comfortable and Safe Living
  • Industrial: Robots as Workmates
  • Public: schools, universities, and public administration
  • Whose Standard Will Prevail?
  • 4.6 The Digital Revolution Has Reached Electricity Utilities
  • Digital Means Increased Competition
  • Energy Companies Want to Digitize Their Entire Value Chain
  • Customer Loyalty via Digital Contact
  • Challenges across Three Dimensions
  • 4.7 Telecom Giants under Pressure: Who Will Be at the Heart of the Emerging Communications Ecosystems?
  • Who Will Win in the Battle for the Center of the New Ecosystems?
  • Streamline Core Business
  • Opportunities in New Service Sectors
  • Battle of the Business Models
  • 4.8 Digital Logistics: The Drone Always Rings Twice
  • Will Traditional Haulers Become Redundant?
  • Revolution on the Last Mile
  • 4.9 E-Government: Public Administration Goes Online
  • Win Government-Wide and Agency-Deep Commitment to Specific Digital Targets
  • Establish Government-Wide Coordination of Digital Investments
  • Redesign Processes with the End User in Mind
  • Hire and Nurture the Right Talent
  • Use Big Data and Analytics to Improve Decision Making
  • Protect Critical Infrastructure and Confidential Data
  • Conclusion: Opportunities in the Emerging Ecosystems
  • 5 What? Developing Business Architecture
  • 5.1 Omnichannel: A Presence across All Channels
  • Omnichannel Is Both a Challenge and Opportunity for All Industries
  • In Five Years, the Millennials Will Be the Strongest Consumer Group
  • Strategy and Implementation: Structure Is Everything
  • Set the Right Targets
  • Keys to Success: Data
  • Keys to Success: Organization and Culture
  • Keys to Success: Technology
  • 5.2 Dynamic Pricing: Up-to-the-Minute Prices
  • Algorithms Find the Best Prices
  • Individually Tailored Prices
  • Five Modules of Dynamic Pricing
  • 5.3 Digital Marketing: Tailored Messages across All Channels
  • Finding the Right Channel for Each Message
  • Content Is King
  • How to Succeed in Content Marketing
  • After Content Marketing Comes Programmatic Marketing
  • 5.4 Digital Product Development and Open Innovation: Rethinking Product Development
  • Open Innovation and Open Development: Tapping into the World's Creativity
  • Agile Product Development of Digital Products: Faster and Smarter to Market
  • 5.5 Product Design: Learning from Software Development
  • Rapid Improvements Rather Than Long Product Life Cycles
  • The Customer Is King-and Codeveloper
  • Incorporating Data in Real Time
  • Feature-Based Design: Gradual Improvement
  • Process Digitization-Acceleration and Virtualization
  • Virtual Training Is Faster and Cheaper
  • Simpler Development with PLM and PDM
  • Transparency Drives Efficiency
  • Artificial Intelligence Even Calculates Profitability in Advance
  • Further Disruption to Be Expected
  • 5.6 Faster, More Flexible, More Efficient: Supply Chain 4.0
  • Seven Innovations That Revolutionize the Supply Chain
  • Logistics Platforms and Shared Planning
  • First Steps toward Supply Chain 4.0
  • 5.7 Digital Lean: The Digitization of Production
  • Digital Lean: The Same Aims as Lean Production
  • Five Central Themes for the Transformation
  • 5.8 Digitization in the Office: Bots Take the Reins
  • Smart Process Automation Is Revolutionizing Office Work
  • How Will Companies Change When Office Work Is Automated?
  • Automation Is Relevant Even for Complex Jobs
  • Automation Is More Than a Technological Decision
  • Conclusion: Digitization Is Changing Every Function in the Company
  • 6 What? Strengthening the Foundation
  • 6.1 Two-Speed IT: Accelerating the Pace for the Digital Age
  • Three Routes to a Two-Speed IT
  • The Agile IT Often Accelerates All Elements of the Organization
  • 6.2 Big Data and Advanced Analytics
  • The Three Success Factors of Big Data and Advanced Analytics
  • The Foundations
  • Artificial Intelligence: The Next Disruptor
  • 6.3 Cyber Security: The Art of the Secure Digital Economy
  • Seven Steps toward Cyber Resilience
  • Priority Lists: Which Data Represent the Greatest Business Risk?
  • Customer-Facing Managers Must Be Part of the Team, and Recognize That Data Is an Asset
  • Cyber Resilience as Part of Risk Management
  • Cyber War Games: Continuously Testing Prevention Systems
  • Security Technology: An Integral Element of the IT Architecture
  • Protection Levels: Not All Data Needs the Same Level of Protection
  • Active Defense, Preferably Before an Attack
  • 6.4 Embedded Software: Machines and Equipment Go Digital
  • Strategy: Focusing on What Creates Value
  • Implementation: Recruiting Talent and Expertise
  • 6.5 The Chief Digital Officer: A Steve Jobs for Every Company
  • The CDO Must Break Up Silos
  • Developing Internal Talent
  • 6.6 The Digital Organization: All Power to the Multifunctional Teams
  • How Do Agile Organizations Work?
  • Many Employees Have to Take on New Roles
  • 6.7 Talent Management: Everyone Wants Digital Natives
  • Companies Fighting for Digital Talent
  • What Can Established Companies Do to Become Attractive for Digital Talent?
  • New Ways to Search for Talent
  • How Can Companies Retain Digital Talent?
  • 6.8 Partner Management: Stronger Together
  • Finding and Managing the Right Partners
  • Coopetition: When Competitors Collaborate
  • 7 How? Decisive, Holistic, and Rapid Implementation
  • 7.1 Creating a Plan
  • How to Create a Blueprint for the Digital Transformation
  • How to Make a Digital Transformation Work
  • 7.2 Think Big: Digitizing the Entire Enterprise
  • Holistic Thinking
  • Prioritize by Value Contribution
  • Close the Gaps
  • 7.3 Surprise! It's about the Customer
  • Optimizing Critical Processes
  • Concept Iteration: Learning with the Customer
  • Driving Digitization According to Value Contribution
  • 7.4 Breaking Up Functional Silos
  • How Digitally Advanced Is the Company?
  • Establishing a New Digital Business Unit
  • Establishing a Digital Competence Center
  • Assigning a Mandate and Building Digital Talent
  • 8 How? Ramping Up the Digital Company
  • 8.1 Switching to the Digital Operating System
  • Recruiting and Expanding the Team
  • Ability to Establish Fast Concept Iteration
  • Establish Steering by Milestones
  • 8.2 Anchoring the Culture Change
  • Developing a Work Environment
  • Cultural Transformation: Addressing Four Dimensions at the Same Time
  • Communication: Talk Digital and Act Digital
  • 8.3 Steering Change
  • CDO: Hero or Fig Leaf?
  • Manage Like a VC: Link Budgets to Milestones
  • Measure, Analyze, Optimize: Resolute Application of New Steering Systems
  • 8.4 Encouraging Leadership at All Levels
  • Top Management Must Lead by Example
  • License to Kill
  • 9 How? Scaling Forcefully
  • 9.1 It's about the Whole
  • The Plan Is Alive!
  • Turbocharging with Digital Build-Operate-Transfer
  • 9.2 How to Turn IT into a Weapon
  • The Method Greatly Depends on the Starting Point
  • Success Factors for Two-Speed Companies
  • Transforming Agile into the Leading System
  • 9.3 Collaborating Closely with Start-Ups
  • New Business Ideas Stimulate the Organization and Deliver Fresh Impulse
  • 9.4 Speed as a Guiding Principle
  • Acting Decisively, Not Hesitantly
  • 9.5 Rapid Scaling: Digitizing the Entire Enterprise
  • An Energy Utility Shows the Way
  • Now That We Have the Tools, It's Time for Action
  • Conclusion: The Digital World Demands a New Way of Thinking
  • 10 Are We in Good Shape for the Transformation?
  • About the Authors
  • Special Thanks
  • Index
  • EULA


WHY? WHAT? HOW? The concept for a successful transformation into a digital company is based on the answers to these three questions.

For a hundred years, Henry Ford defined our image of business: highly specialized assembly line production with a clear division of labor producing mass scale products ("You can have the Ford Model T in any color as long as it's black"). The Taylorist system that focuses entirely on specialization and efficiency has given us affordable cars, washing machines, and holiday travel.

And it is this very model of success from the twentieth century that has now become the obstacle to the successful digital transformation of companies. Indeed, organizations that are built for efficiency fear that change brings disorder, and instead tend toward incremental adoption of innovation in tightly defined niche projects so as not to halt the well-oiled corporate machine. All economists know the S curve concept that defines the performance of a technology as a function of the funds invested for research and development. As such, the transition to a new superior technology-the leap to the next S curve-is initially always met with a loss in efficiency.

Unfortunately, those who hesitate to take this leap will lose in the long term. Although efficiency increases only slowly in the lower curve of the new S, the curve suddenly rises very sharply and is ultimately catapulted far beyond the level of the old technology. But this doesn't help us: those who want to successfully lead their companies into the new digital age need to rethink all structures, processes, and products at scale across the board-that is, Digital@Scale.

It's easy to build an app. A digital transformation is a much harder task. To ensure that the transformation doesn't founder on good intentions and unfinished business, digitization needs to follow a clearly defined concept. To start, we need to leave aside catchphrases like Industry 4.0 in order to prepare for fundamental renewal. Three simple questions point the way forward: Why? What? How?


Companies that are doing good business find it very difficult to suddenly reinvent themselves in order to ensure sales and profit tomorrow. Early indicators of change are often overlooked or seen as unimportant. Even today we still see experiences with the digital revolution like that of Blockbuster, Inc.

In 2004, Blockbuster was the largest video rental company in the United States with 8,000 stores and revenues of $6 billion. No one on the board of the powerful market leader took Netflix seriously, the rival company formed just a few years before where customers could rent DVDs online and receive them in the mail, with attractive subscription models. With no sense of urgency, the Blockbuster engineers worked on a system for online orders. In 2007, Netflix took a huge leap forward by offering video on demand-movies that could be streamed directly via the Internet. The DVD was obsolete. Customers swarmed to Netflix in droves thanks to its attractive offering: no waiting times for mail delivery, no returns to mail, immediate enjoyment.

Only then did Blockbuster react, and developed its own video-on-demand system, but it was too late and of poor quality. Netflix had already gained significant market share, and Blockbuster did not offer any innovative new features that might have won customers back-and to top it all, Blockbuster's level of service and delivery was worse than that of Netflix. Netflix had immediately won over the Internet-savvy, mostly young customer base. And in just a few years, the vast majority of movie fans discovered just how easy it was to enjoy a pleasant evening with Netflix. Today, Netflix is the market leader, while Blockbuster filed for bankruptcy in 2010.

The lesson from this example is clear: regardless of how well positioned a company is, if the management underestimates the potential for change that digitization poses to its business model, it runs the ultimate risk. And those who see the change but delay their response so as not to jeopardize their current revenues are taking a virtually suicidal stance.

Creating a Sense of Urgency: The Key Challenge

Fundamental renewal demands strength, conviction, and, in most cases, a trigger. A little fear-even existential fear-is a good thing. Fear spurs you on. In established companies, it creates the pressure to act and the willingness to embrace innovation-crucial for digitization. After all, it's about developing new products, services, and processes that enable attractive prices-in short, a completely new value proposition. Those who fail to implement the transformation across the board (@Scale) will fall behind. It is simply fatal to underestimate the extent of the impending change.

Bosch CEO Volkmar Denner put it like this: "There are many things that just make it easier to order a pizza or call a taxi. But don't underestimate the influence of such solutions on society; people are changing their consumer behavior. Suddenly others are earning the money." Without a sense of urgency, nothing is possible; we are only too happy to look the other way.

Determining the Nature of the Change Requirements

We've already discovered that digitization affects everyone, just not necessarily to the same degree. The question that CEOs should ask themselves is: is our current business model obsolete, or will targeted changes suffice?

Usually, if the change requirements are high, the business model will look completely different post-transformation. As Jeffrey Immelt, CEO of industry giant General Electric, put it in the summer of 2016: "We need to become a software company in all divisions of GE." In addition to selling machines and equipment as well as maintaining them, software for the networked world of the Internet of Things (IoT) is to become a new business area for the company.

Radical change is also underway. For example, the Chinese iron and steel giant Baosteel has established an open online marketplace called Ouyeel. While initial versions of the e-commerce website allowed Baosteel to offer its products on a new channel, it has since expanded significantly to include competitor products and adjacent offerings such as financing, logistics, data, and technical services. Ouyeel is also supported by a massive analytics engine that provides pricing and analytics insights. Between 2013 and 2015, revenue from digital activities for Baosteel grew at more than 300 percent per annum. By the end of 2015, Baosteel's digital activities contributed more than $800 million to the top line.1

Digitization has also reached manual trades. For example, at elevator maker Schindler, over 50 percent of the staff work in field services. This staff performs activities that are largely manual and heavily reliant on expertise. In the past, the time to resolve an issue was often impacted by the fact that the field service staff had limited information on the issue prior to the site visit, and therefore might not have the required tools and/or parts on hand. Finally, part reorders created extra costs and revisits. Schindler was able to simplify this whole process by automating diagnostics, applying predictive analytics to preemptively address issues and order parts in advance, and the company enabled field services staff with iPhones and supporting apps to help simplify in-field activities. All this has helped significantly improve service efficiency, as well as customer and employee satisfaction.2

Identifying Barriers to Change Early

Traditional organizations have high levels of inertia. When business is going well, managers and employees generally only pay lip service to change requirements. Any manager who still wants the company to change therefore needs to analyze and eliminate the barriers.

Efficient organizations in particular tend to prove especially resistant to change. They follow their own logic: any change to the existing system would create efficiency costs and must therefore be avoided. The most successful managers often slow down transformation efforts behind the scenes. They calculate that they have little to win personally, but much to lose. They are often the opinion leaders and belong to the inner circle-making change twice as difficult. After all, doesn't the team still need these managers? Perhaps not.

Identifying Relevant Assets and Setting the Aspiration Level

Those who want to propel their company from the analog present to the digital future should first focus on the strengths: What sets the company apart from the competition? The technology in the product or service? The strong customer loyalty? The attractiveness of the brand? All of these strengths also count in the digital world. And while they may count differently, whoever retains them will have an advantage.

Without a clearly defined objective, the journey into the digital world can easily become an odyssey. The company management should therefore formulate its quantitative or qualitative objective, and communicate this to the employees. Interim goals-depending on whether and how they are achieved-are also helpful in determining whether the project is on...

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