Deer Management for Forest Landowners and Managers

 
 
Routledge Member of the Taylor and Francis Group (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 17. April 2019
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-4665-8017-6 (ISBN)
 

This book is designed to help landowners and forestry professionals develop, implement, and monitor programs to manage both deer and forests with emphasis on resolving deer impact issues. Chapters cover management strategies through identifying and setting goals; managing deer populations and deer impact on land; economics of forest, deer, and impact management; human dimensions of deer management; and developing and implementing integrated management plans. The book presents an integrated, quantitative approach for managing deer populations and impacts so users can manage forest resources sustainably.

  • Englisch
  • Milton
  • |
  • Großbritannien
Taylor & Francis Inc
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978-1-4665-8017-6 (9781466580176)
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David S. deCalesta received a BA in psychology from Dartmouth College, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in wildlife ecology from Colorado State University. He began a life-long study of deer with a Ph.D. thesis on mule deer nutrition and physiology in 1970. Much of his work as Extension Wildlife Specialist and university teacher and researcher in Zoology (North Carolina State University) and Wildlife Ecology and Forest Science (Oregon State University) focused on deer (mule, black-tailed, and white-tailed) interactions with forest vegetation and wildlife communities. His work as a research wildlife biologist with the USDA Forest Service featured interactions between white-tailed deer and forest plant and animal communities. He spent the last third of his career as a wildlife consultant and forest certification specialist (Forest Stewardship Council and Sustainable Forestry Initiative), primarily working with deer-forest interactions on forest ownerships ranging from dozens to thousands of ha on private and public forestlands, including state parks and forests and National Forests. With Timothy Pierson, he coordinated the activities of the Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative, which demonstrated how public hunting could be managed to reduce deer density and impact to levels enhancing diversity and sustainability of forest products and wildlife and vegetative communities.


Michael C. Eckley received a B.S. in Forest Resources Management with a minor in Communications from West Virginia University and an M.S. in Forestry at the University of Maine-Orono. His career has centered on eastern hardwood forest management and assisting private land ownerships throughout the eastern United States. Much of his time is devoted to outreach and education along with specialization in assessing forest conditions, planning, and promoting responsible forestry practices. Mike is a Society of American Foresters (SAF) Certified Forester and is currently employed by The Nature Conservancy, serving as their Forestry Manager for the Working Woodlands Program (www.nature.org/workingwoodlands).
  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Editors
  • Contributors
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Manager Summary
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Primer on Information/Documentation of Needs for Deer Management
  • 1.3 Caveat
  • 1.3.1 Management Philosophy
  • 1.3.2 Unforeseen Economic and Ecological Impact of Maximized Deer Density
  • 1.3.3 Landscape-Level Management
  • 1.3.4 Ecological and Human Factors Affecting Deer Density and Management
  • 1.4 Tenet, Premises, and Practicalities
  • 1.5 Principal Tenet of Deer Management
  • 1.6 Premises
  • 1.6.1 Practicalities
  • 1.7 Role of Values and Culture in Deer Management
  • 1.7.1 Requirement for Integrated Deer and Forest Management
  • 1.8 Adaptive Management
  • References
  • Section I: Ecological and Human Factors
  • Chapter 2: Autecology: Weather, Forest Type, and Habitat
  • Manager Summary
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Weather and Forest Type
  • 2.3 Habitat
  • 2.3.1 Food
  • 2.3.2 Food Preferences
  • 2.3.3 Weather
  • 2.3.4 Thermal Regulation
  • 2.3.5 Water
  • 2.4 Habitat and Forest Succession
  • 2.4.1 Early Succession Habitat
  • 2.4.2 Forage and Fawn Cover Habitat
  • 2.4.3 Hiding Cover Habitat
  • 2.4.4 Thermal Cover Habitat
  • 2.4.5 Old Growth Habitat
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Autecology: Landscape and Temporal Dimensions
  • Manager Summary
  • 3.1 Landscape (Spatial) Effect
  • 3.2 Habitat Components: Differences between Managed and Adjacent Forestlands
  • 3.3 Temporal Factors
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Autecology: Home Range, Social Structure, and Landscape Use
  • Manager Summary
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Home Range
  • 4.3 Social Structure and Home Range
  • 4.4 Home Range Fidelity
  • 4.5 Home Range Malleability
  • 4.6 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Autecology: Reproduction and Recruitment
  • Manager Summary
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Reproduction
  • 5.3 Recruitment
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Synecology: Predation
  • Manager Summary
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Trophic Cascades
  • 6.3 Deer Predators
  • 6.4 Effect of Predators on Deer
  • 6.5 Human Dimensions, Predators, and Deer
  • 6.6 Using Predation to Control Deer Impact
  • 6.7 Bottom Line
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Synecology: Parasites and Diseases
  • Manager Summary
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Internal Parasites
  • 7.3 External Parasites: Ticks and Keds
  • 7.4 Bacteria, Viruses, and Prions
  • 7.4.1 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease and Blue Tongue
  • 7.4.2 Bovine Tuberculosis
  • 7.4.3 Chronic Wasting Disease
  • 7.5 Managing for Parasites and Diseases
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Synecology: Deer and Plant and Animal Communities
  • Manager Summary
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Plant Communities
  • 8.3 Wildlife Communities
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Human Factors: Deer-Forest Management Areas vs. Deer Administrative Units
  • Manager Summary
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Deer Administrative Units
  • 9.3 Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • 9.4 The Deer Administrative Unit-Deer-Forest Management Area Disconnect
  • 9.5 Regulations Designed to Reduce Deer Density and Impact On Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • 9.5.1 Deer Assistance Management Program Permits
  • 9.5.2 Deer Damage Permits
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Human Factors: Hunters and Hunting
  • Manager Summary
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Hunter Types
  • 10.3 Change in the Deer Hunting Paradigm
  • 10.4 Needs Common to all Hunter Types
  • 10.4.1 Comprehensive Forested Landscapes
  • 10.4.2 Hunter Access
  • 10.5 Control of Hunter Density
  • 10.5.1 Communication with and Education of Hunters
  • 10.5.2 Meeting Information Needs: Deer Density
  • 10.5.3 Meeting Hunter Needs: Creation of Practical Management Units
  • 10.5.4 Meeting Hunter Needs: Quality Deer
  • 10.5.5 Supporting Different Hunting Styles
  • 10.5.6 Needs of Beta and Locavore Hunters
  • 10.5.7 Is There a Place for Omega Hunters?
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Human Factors: Science, Values, and Stakeholders
  • Manager Summary
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Science vs. Values
  • 11.3 Integrating Values of Stakeholder Groups
  • 11.4 Appealing to Stakeholder Beliefs
  • 11.5 Integrating Time Frames of Stakeholder Values
  • 11.6 Cognitive Dissonance, Motivated Reasoning, and Group Think
  • 11.7 Bridging Value Differences with Communications
  • 11.8 Examples of Value Bridging, Message Development, and Selection Of Messenger
  • 11.8.1 Identifying Recipients of the Message
  • 11.8.2 Addressing and Integrating Messages for Stakeholders
  • 11.8.3 Developing the Message
  • 11.8.4 Selecting the Messenger
  • 11.9 Expanding the Message
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Human Factors: Landscape, Politics, and Regulation
  • Manager Summary
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Regulations Specific to Deer Administrative Units
  • 12.2.1 Permits for Harvesting Antlerless Deer
  • 12.2.2 Concurrent Buck/Doe Seasons
  • 12.2.3 Sunday Deer Hunting
  • 12.2.4 Increasing Season Length
  • 12.3 Promoting Regulations Specific to Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • 12.4 Obtaining Regulations for Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • 12.4.1 Educating Legislators, Agency Administrators, and Deer Hunters
  • 12.4.1.1 Landscape
  • 12.4.1.2 Deer and Habitat-Specific Information on Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • 12.4.1.3 Integrating Landscape and Education
  • 12.5 Deer-Forest Management Area-Specific Regulations
  • 12.5.1 Deer Management Assistance Programs
  • 12.5.2 Deer Depredation Hunts
  • 12.5.3 Special Deer Damage Permits Issued to Landowners
  • 12.5.4 Addressing the Enforcement Objection
  • 12.6 Retaining Regulations for Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Deer and Silviculture
  • Manager Summary
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Stands: Silviculture Management Units
  • 13.3 What Is Silviculture?
  • 13.4 Silvicultural Treatments
  • 13.4.1 Silvicultural Treatments: Improvement
  • 13.4.2 Silvicultural Treatments: Intermediate Harvests
  • 13.4.3 Silvicultural Treatments: Final Removals/Regeneration Initiation
  • 13.5 The Need for Science-Driven Forest Management: An Example
  • 13.6 Silvicultural Treatments Affected by Deer
  • 13.6.1 Tree Regeneration
  • 13.6.2 Tree Regeneration: Converting Stands to Uneven-Aged Silviculture
  • 13.7 Silvicultural Treatments for Reducing Deer Impact
  • 13.7.1 Overwhelm Deer with Overabundance of Forage
  • 13.7.2 Increasing Forage Production within Landscapes in Smaller-Sized Harvest Units
  • 13.7.3 Treatments to Alter Composition of Understory Vegetation: Herbicides
  • 13.7.4 Treatments to Alter Composition of Understory Vegetation: Mechanical Removals
  • References
  • Chapter 14: National and Regional Perspectives on Deer Management
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 National Historical Perspective on Fluctuations in Deer Abundance
  • 14.3 A Regional Example of Fluctuations in Deer Abundance And Impact
  • 14.4 The Deer Management Conflict
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Deer Density, Carrying Capacity, and Impact on Forest Resources
  • Manager Summary
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Multiple Carrying Capacities
  • 15.2.1 K Carrying Capacity
  • 15.2.2 Diversity Carrying Capacity
  • 15.2.3 Regeneration Carrying Capacity
  • 15.2.4 Maximum Sustained Yield Carrying Capacity
  • 15.2.5 Population Crash
  • 15.2.6 Changes in Carrying Capacity Related to Deer Density
  • 15.2.7 Can Carrying Capacity Be Changed by Altering Forage Quantity/Quality?
  • 15.2.8 Increasing Regeneration Carrying Capacity
  • 15.2.9 Increasing "Trophy" Deer Characteristics by Increasing Forage
  • 15.2.10 Increasing Diversity Carrying Capacity
  • 15.2.11 Can Food Plots or Winter Deer Feeding Increase Carrying Capacity?
  • 15.3 Interpretation and Application
  • References
  • Section II: Planning and Assessment
  • Chapter 16: Goals, Objectives, and Management Plans
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Goals, Objectives, and Deer Density
  • 16.2.1 Simple Management Areas
  • 16.2.2 Complex Management Areas
  • 16.3 Developing a Management Plan
  • Reference
  • Chapter 17: Monitoring
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Requisite Deer Parameters for Monitoring
  • 17.3 When and Where to Monitor
  • 17.3.1 Where to Monitor
  • 17.3.2 When to Monitor
  • 17.4 What and How to Monitor
  • 17.4.1 Deer Density
  • 17.4.1.1 Deer Drives
  • 17.4.1.2 Pellet Group Counts
  • 17.4.1.3 Trail Cameras
  • 17.4.1.4 Aerial Surveys
  • 17.4.1.5 Distance Sampling
  • 17.4.1.6 Roadside Counts
  • 17.4.1.7 Sex-Age-Kill Estimates
  • 17.4.2 Deer Impact
  • 17.4.2.1 Tree Seedling Regeneration
  • 17.4.2.2 Herbaceous Vegetation
  • 17.4.2.3 Forest Birds
  • 17.4.2.4 Forest Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles
  • 17.4.3 Monitoring Deer Impact on Forest Resources with Proxies
  • 17.4.4 Sampling Framework for Proxies
  • 17.4.5 Selection of Parameters Based on Property Size
  • 17.4.6 Deer Herd Condition
  • 17.4.6.1 Deer Health/Quality
  • 17.4.6.2 Deer Herd Sex and Age Ratios
  • 17.4.7 Deer Habitat Changes
  • 17.4.8 Monitoring Stakeholders
  • 17.4.9 Monitoring Based on Property Size
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Deer Checking Stations
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Who Should Conduct Deer Checking Stations?
  • 18.3 Permanent, Mobile, and Roving Checking Stations
  • 18.3.1 Permanent Checking Stations
  • 18.3.2 Mobile Checking Stations
  • 18.3.3 Roving Checking Stations
  • 18.4 Equipping Checking Stations
  • 18.5 When to Operate Checking Stations
  • 18.6 Data Collection and Procedures
  • 18.6.1 Handling of Deer/Recording Data
  • 18.6.2 Staffing Checking Stations
  • 18.6.3 Safety Concerns at Checking Stations
  • 18.7 Communicating with Participating Hunters
  • 18.8 Attracting Hunters
  • 18.9 Using Checking Station Partners
  • Reference
  • Chapter 19: Financial and Human Resources
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Start-up Expenditures of Deer Management
  • 19.3 Recurring Costs of Deer Management
  • 19.4 Financial/Human Resource Assistance
  • 19.5 Cost-Benefit Analysis of Deer Management Costs Incurred by Managers
  • 19.6 Financing Deer Management with Outside Funding Sources
  • 19.6.1 Outside Funding Sources: Grants from Charitable Organizations
  • 19.6.2 Financial Assistance from Federal Programs
  • 19.6.2.1 Forest Land Enhancement Program
  • 19.6.2.2 Environmental Quality Incentives Program
  • 19.6.2.3 Forest Stewardship Programs
  • 19.6.3 State-Relief Programs for Private Forest Landowners
  • 19.7 Pooling Equipment, Materials, and Personnel
  • 19.8 Using/Sharing Volunteers
  • 19.9 Education
  • References
  • Section III: Managing Ecological and Human Factors
  • Chapter 20: Reducing Deer Impact
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Influence of Landscape Size
  • 20.3 Reducing Deer Density: Hunting
  • 20.3.1 Public Hunting
  • 20.3.2 Private Hunting/Leasing
  • 20.3.3 Contracted Removals by Sharpshooters
  • 20.3.4 Localized Reduction in Deer Density on Small Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • 20.3.5 Special "Deer Damage" Hunts
  • 20.4 Reducing Deer Density: Enhancing Natural Predation
  • 20.5 Reducing Deer Density: Chemosterilization
  • 20.6 Reducing Deer Impact by Increasing Food Supply
  • 20.6.1 Timber Harvest
  • 20.6.2 Food Plots
  • 20.6.3 Constant Tending
  • 20.7 Reducing Deer Impact by Exclusion
  • 20.7.1 Fencing
  • 20.7.2 Individual Seedling Protectors
  • 20.7.3 Protecting Understory Vegetation with Slash
  • 20.8 Repellents
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Managing Vegetation to Benefit Deer Management
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Forage Creation/Habitat Improvement
  • 21.3 Increasing Landscape Level Creation and Juxtaposition of Successional Stages
  • 21.4 Influence on Deer Use of Habitat
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Communicating with and Educating Stakeholders
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Goal of Education/Communication Programs
  • 22.3 Messages
  • 22.4 Messengers
  • 22.5 Preparing Stakeholders to Believe the Message
  • 22.6 Message Delivery Systems
  • 22.6.1 Active Message Delivery Systems
  • 22.6.1.1 Public Presentations
  • 22.6.1.2 Field Trips
  • 22.6.1.3 Workshops
  • 22.6.2 Passive Message Delivery Systems
  • 22.6.2.1 Public Testimony
  • 22.6.2.2 News Releases (Newspaper, Television, Radio)
  • 22.6.2.3 Social Media
  • 22.6.2.4 Social Media: Websites
  • 22.6.2.5 Social Media: Blogs
  • 22.6.3 Requirements for Websites and Blogs
  • 22.6.4 Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram
  • 22.6.4.1 Social Media: Facebook
  • 22.6.4.2 Social Media: Twitter
  • 22.6.4.3 Social Media: Snapchat and Instagram
  • 22.7 Stakeholder-Specific Messages, Messengers, and Delivery Systems
  • 22.7.1 Hunters: Alpha and Beta
  • 22.7.2 Hunters: Locavore
  • 22.7.3 Hunters: Omega
  • 22.7.4 Owners of Forested Landscapes
  • 22.7.5 Natural Resource Administrators/Legislators: Deer Administrative Units/Statewide Regulation of Deer Harvest
  • 22.7.6 Natural Resource Administrators/Legislators: Deer-Forest Management Areas
  • 22.7.7 Other Landowners Affected Negatively by Deer
  • 22.7.8 Deer-Forest Management Area-Specific Messages, Messengers, and Delivery Systems
  • 22.7.8.1 Small Woodlot Owners
  • 22.7.8.2 Small Commercial Forestry Operations
  • 22.7.8.3 Large Commercial Forestry Operations
  • 22.7.8.4 Public Lands
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Managing Hunters: The Four Rs
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 The Four Rs of Hunter Management
  • 23.2.1 Recruiting Hunters
  • 23.2.1.1 Recruiting Hunters by Communications
  • 23.2.1.2 Mentoring as a Recruitment/Retention Tool
  • 23.2.2 Retraining Hunters
  • 23.2.3 Rewarding and Retaining Hunters
  • 23.2.3.1 Rewarding Hunters with Incentives
  • 23.2.3.2 Earn-a-Buck Programs
  • 23.2.3.3 Hunting Assistance Incentives
  • 23.2.3.4 Material Incentives
  • 23.2.3.5 Recognition Incentives
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Managing Access and Antlerless Permits
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Facilitating Access
  • 24.2.1 Facilitating Applications for Antlerless Permits
  • Reference
  • Chapter 25: Integrating Ecological and Human Factors in Deer Management
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Identify and Integrate Management Goals
  • 25.3 Conduct Baseline Monitoring
  • 25.4 Assess Funding and Human Resource Needs/Obtain Outside Funding
  • 25.5 Develop a Communication System
  • 25.6 Optimize Hunter Access and Antlerless Permit Distribution
  • 25.7 Address the Four Rs of Hunter Management
  • 25.8 Monitor Results and Use Adaptive Management as Needed
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Adaptive Management
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Expanding the Scope of Adaptive Management
  • 26.3 Adaptive Management Adjustments: Hunting
  • 26.3.1 Factors Related to Public Hunting
  • 26.3.2 Weather
  • 26.3.3 Road System/Hunter Access and Use
  • 26.3.4 Failure of Hunters to Use Antlerless Permits
  • 26.3.5 Hunter Type
  • 26.3.6 Hunter Perceptions
  • 26.3.7 Hunter Incentives
  • 26.3.8 Temporal Framework for Hunting
  • 26.3.9 Spatial Framework for Hunting
  • 26.3.10 Communication System
  • 26.3.10.1 Social Media
  • 26.3.10.2 Education
  • 26.3.10.3 Method of Communication
  • 26.3.11 Change Incentives
  • 26.4 Adaptive Management Adjustments: Goals
  • References
  • Section IV: Special Cases
  • Chapter 27: Special Case: Quality Deer Management
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 Quality Deer Management Components
  • 27.2.1 Quality Habitat: Composition and Size
  • 27.2.2 Quality Habitat: Forage Creation
  • 27.2.3 Quality Deer
  • 27.2.4 Quality Hunters
  • 27.2.5 Monitoring
  • 27.2.6 Inherent Quality Deer Management Characteristics
  • 27.2.6.1 Quality Deer Management Preconditions
  • 27.2.6.2 Goals and Strategies
  • 27.2.6.3 Carrying Capacity
  • 27.2.6.4 Recruiting and Mentoring New Hunters
  • 27.2.6.5 Stakeholders
  • 27.2.6.6 Communicating with and Educating Hunters and Other Stakeholders
  • 27.2.6.7 Resources
  • 27.2.6.8 Politics
  • 27.2.6.9 Quality Deer Management Lands Certification
  • 27.2.6.10 Adaptive Management
  • 27.2.6.11 Quality Deer Management Cooperatives
  • 27.2.6.12 Benefits of Quality Deer Management Cooperatives
  • 27.3 Relating Deer-Forest Management Area to Quality Deer Management
  • 27.4 Impacts of Quality Deer Management
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Special Case: Small Woodlots
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 Factors Determining Need for, and Use of, Deer Management
  • 28.2.1 Culture, Values, Science, and Goals
  • 28.2.2 Landscape
  • 28.3 Monitoring
  • 28.4 Reducing Deer Impact
  • 28.5 Role of Hunting Relative to Owner Values
  • 28.6 Funding Deer-Forest Management
  • 28.7 Communications
  • 28.8 Addressing the Four Rs of Hunting
  • 28.9 Access and Permits
  • 28.10 Adaptive Management
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Special Case: Lease Hunting
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 Background
  • 29.3 What Is Lease Hunting?
  • 29.4 Setting Up a Lease
  • 29.4.1 Assessment
  • 29.4.2 Initial Steps
  • 29.5 Lease Operations
  • Editor's Note
  • Reference
  • Chapter 30: Special Case: Landscapes Closed to Deer Hunting-Forested Public Parks and Residential Developments
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.1.1 Program Development
  • 30.1.1.1 Assess the Situation
  • 30.1.2 Initial Inventory and Monitoring
  • 30.1.3 Identify Management Strategy
  • 30.1.3.1 Discard Ineffective Management Actions
  • 30.1.3.2 Identify and Promote Realistic Solutions
  • 30.1.3.3 Realistic Solution: Reduction in Deer Density
  • 30.1.3.4 Realistic Solution: Protection of Vegetation/Habitat with Fencing
  • 30.1.4 Developing, Selling, and Funding the Deer Management Program
  • 30.1.4.1 Identifying Common Ground
  • 30.1.4.2 Communicating with and Educating Stakeholders
  • 30.1.4.3 Funding the Program
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Special Case: Deer Management Cooperatives
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.2 Cooperatives Defined/Designed by Quality Deer Management
  • 31.2.1 Quality Deer Management Association Steps for Establishing Cooperatives
  • 31.2.2 Differences between Quality Deer Management Association Cooperatives and Deer-Forest Management Area Cooperatives
  • 31.3 Prerequisites for Establishing Deer-Forest Management Area Cooperatives
  • 31.4 Problems Facing Cooperatives
  • 31.4.1 Buy-in of Managers of Properties within Cooperative Boundary
  • 31.4.2 Road Access
  • 31.4.3 Human Safety Factors
  • 31.4.4 Coordination of Monitoring
  • 31.4.5 Maintaining Commitment of Cooperating Managers over Time
  • 31.4.6 Resistance to Cooperatives
  • 31.4.7 Obtaining Recognition from State Natural Resource Agencies
  • References
  • Section V: Case Histories
  • Chapter 32: Timberline Farms/Hyma Devore Lumber: The Power of Education
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Program Development/Monitoring
  • 32.3 Program for Increasing Deer Harvest
  • 32.4 Program Costs
  • 32.5 Results
  • 32.5.1 Reduction in Deer Density and Impact
  • 32.5.2 Additional Benefits
  • 32.6 Final Thoughts
  • Manager Summary
  • Editor Comments
  • References
  • Chapter 33: The West Branch Forest Preserve: Whittling Away the Smorgasbord
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.1.1 Initial Deer Management
  • 33.1.2 Comprehensive Deer and Habitat Management
  • 33.1.3 Deer Management Program
  • 33.1.4 Landscape Management: Habitat, Hunters, and Deer
  • 33.1.5 Allocation of Personnel and Financial Resources
  • 33.1.6 Reduction in Scope of Management Program
  • 33.2 Management Actions
  • 33.2.1 Use State/Federal/University Assistance Programs
  • 33.2.2 Manage Hunters and the Deer Herd
  • 33.2.2.1 Educate Hunters
  • 33.2.2.2 Communicate with Hunters
  • 33.2.2.3 Use Pennsylvania Game Commission Programs to Increase Antlerless Deer Harvest with Special Permits
  • 33.2.2.4 Harvest Report Cards
  • 33.2.2.5 Recruit Alpha and Beta Hunters
  • 33.2.2.6 Provide Monetary Incentives for Hunting and Harvesting Deer
  • 33.2.2.7 Operate a Checking Station/Collect Deer Harvest Data
  • 33.2.2.8 Deer Recovery Assistance Program
  • 33.2.2.9 Emphasize Early/Late Season Deer Hunts
  • 33.2.2.10 Enhance Hunter Access
  • 33.2.2.11 Deer Drives
  • 33.2.2.12 Quantify Deer Density with Pellet Group Counts, Aerial Counts, and Trail Cam Counts
  • 33.2.3 Habitat Management: Silvicultural Treatments
  • 33.2.3.1 Initial Inventory
  • 33.2.3.2 Silvicultural Treatments
  • 33.2.4 Habitat Management: Food Plots
  • 33.3 Lessons Learned
  • 33.3.1 Acquiring and Sustaining Commitment of Resources
  • 33.3.2 Hunter Resistance to Education
  • Editor Comments
  • References
  • Chapter 34: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative: Integrating Ownerships and Goals
  • 34.1 Introduction
  • 34.2 The Management Situation
  • 34.3 The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative Program
  • 34.3.1 Integrating Cultures, Traditions, Values, and Science
  • 34.3.2 Adaptive Management
  • 34.3.3 Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative Goals
  • 34.3.4 Monitoring
  • 34.3.5 Hunters: Involvement/Communication/Motivation
  • 34.3.6 Hunter Access
  • 34.3.7 Pennsylvania Game Commission Deer Management Initiatives
  • 34.3.8 Cost-Benefit
  • 34.4 Results
  • 34.4.1 Deer Density
  • 34.4.2 Deer Impact
  • 34.4.2.1 Red Maple
  • 34.4.2.2 Black Cherry
  • 34.4.2.3 American Beech
  • 34.4.2.4 Wildflowers
  • 34.4.3 Deer Health
  • 34.4.3.1 Body Weight
  • 34.4.3.2 Antler Characteristics
  • 34.4.4 Recruitment and Sex and Age Ratios
  • 34.4.5 Locations of Harvested Deer
  • 34.4.6 Hunter Education, Participation, and Satisfaction
  • 34.4.7 Self-Selection of Alpha and Beta Hunters
  • 34.4.8 Economics
  • Editor Comments
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Ward Pound Ridge Reservation Park: Convincing the Decision Makers
  • 35.1 Introduction and History
  • 35.2 Pilot Adaptive Deer Management Program
  • 35.3 Monitoring
  • 35.4 Stakeholder Education/Involvement
  • 35.5 Partnerships
  • 35.6 Recruiting and Retaining Quality Hunters
  • 35.7 Program Costs
  • 35.8 Adjusting the Adaptive Deer Management Program
  • 35.9 Results
  • 35.10 Staff/Hunter Interaction
  • 35.11 Alignment of Goals and Values, and Retention Of Hunters
  • 35.12 Retaining the ADMP via Stakeholder Influence
  • 35.13 A Final Word
  • Editors' Note
  • References
  • Chapter 36: The Mianus River Gorge Preserve: Incremental Adaptive Management
  • 36.1 Introduction
  • 36.2 The Program
  • 36.2.1 People Management
  • 36.2.2 Monitoring
  • 36.2.3 Program Costs
  • 36.3 Results
  • 36.3.1 Herd Reduction and Vegetation Response
  • 36.3.2 The Tunney Rule and Hunter Retention
  • 36.3.3 Importance of Adjacent Landscape
  • 36.3.4 Management Paradox
  • 36.4 Lessons Learned
  • 36.4.1 Public Outreach
  • 36.4.2 Monitoring
  • 36.4.3 Start-Up Considerations
  • 36.4.4 The Mianus River Gorge Preserve Deer Management Program: Success or Failure?
  • Editor Comments
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Forests of Hemlock Farms: Educate, Educate, Educate
  • 37.1 Introduction
  • 37.2 Recognizing Impacts of Overabundant Deer
  • 37.3 Initial Steps to Mitigate Impacts of Overabundant Deer
  • 37.3.1 Estimating the Number of Deer
  • 37.3.2 Communicating the Impacts
  • 37.3.3 Developing a Deer Management Plan
  • 37.3.3.1 A Framework
  • 37.3.3.2 Options not Viable
  • 37.3.3.3 Viable Options
  • 37.3.3.4 Optimal Options
  • 37.3.3.5 Setting a Sustainable Deer Density Goal
  • 37.3.4 Enrolling Stakeholders in the Deer Management Plan
  • 37.3.4.1 Education, Education, Education
  • 37.3.4.2 The Ballot
  • 37.4 Implementing the Deer Management Plan
  • 37.4.1 Deer Density Survey
  • 37.4.2 Culling Deer
  • 37.5 Results
  • 37.5.1 Deer Surveys and Removals by Contractors
  • 37.5.2 Deer Removals by Deer Management Assistance Program Hunters
  • 37.5.3 Reductions in Vehicle-Deer Collisions and Carcass Removals
  • 37.5.4 Donations to Food Banks
  • 37.5.5 Recovery of Forest Regeneration
  • 37.6 Lessons Learned
  • Editor Comments
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Hamilton Small Woodlot Case History: Managing Deer and Forests via Comprehensive Silviculture Aided by Grants
  • 38.1 Introduction
  • 38.2 Assessment
  • 38.3 Management Recommendations
  • 38.4 Reducing Deer Density
  • 38.5 Deer Monitoring
  • 38.6 Managing the Hemlock Forest
  • 38.7 Planting and Protecting Shrubs and Trees from Deer Browsing
  • 38.8 Vegetation Monitoring
  • 38.9 Project Funding and Economics
  • 38.10 Financing Operational Costs
  • 38.11 Summary: Have We Met Our Initial Goals?
  • Editor Comments
  • Chapter 39: The Brubaker Small Woodlot: Innovative Management of Deer Forage and Deer Harvest
  • 39.1 Introduction: Our Landscape
  • 39.2 Our Values
  • 39.3 The Management Situation
  • 39.4 Management Activities
  • 39.4.1 Managing Interfering Vegetation
  • 39.4.2 Creating Alternative Forage
  • 39.4.3 Reducing Deer Density
  • Acknowledgments
  • Editor Comments
  • References
  • Chapter 40: Competing Interests: Forest Regeneration or Increased Deer Abundance?
  • 40.1 Introduction
  • 40.2 Early Deer Management Concerns and Actions
  • 40.3 Research Trials
  • 40.4 Results
  • 40.5 Important Considerations
  • 40.5.1 Tree Seedling Regeneration
  • 40.5.2 Deer Density
  • 40.5.3 Acid Deposition/Soil pH
  • 40.6 Management Consideration: Enhance Regeneration with Fencing
  • 40.7 Management Consideration: Control Deer Density/Increase Forage
  • 40.8 Management Consideration: Increase Forage by Timber Harvest
  • 40.9 Case Summary
  • Editor Comments
  • References
  • Appendix 1: Protocol for Estimating Deer Density by Pellet Group Counts, Deer Impact, and Deciduous and Coniferous Canopy Closure (for Deer Forage and Hiding Cover)
  • A1.1 Introduction
  • A1.2 Requirements
  • A1.3 Arrangement and Layout of Plots, Transect Lines, and Grids
  • A1.4 Collection of Data
  • A1.4.1 Deer Density
  • A1.4.2 Deer Impact on Seedlings
  • A1.4.3 Deer Impact on Indicator Herb Species
  • A1.4.4 Percent Overstory Canopy Closure, Deciduous and Coniferous Species
  • A1.5 Data Sheets
  • A1.6 Protocols for Collecting Deer Density and Impact (Back Side of Data Sheet)
  • A1.6.1 Pellet Groups
  • A1.6.2 Deer Impact
  • A1.7 Analysis
  • A1.7.1 Deer Density: Small Properties
  • A1.7.2 Deer Density: Large Properties
  • A1.7.3 Deer Impact and Canopy Closure
  • A1.7.4 Calculating Significance of Differences in Deer Density/Impact/Cover among Areas/Years
  • References
  • Appendix 2: Protocol for Aging Deer by Tooth Wear and Eruption
  • Index

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