Grid-Integrated and Standalone Photovoltaic Distributed Generation Systems

Analysis, Design, and Control
 
 
John Wiley & Sons Inc (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. Oktober 2017
  • |
  • 344 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-18736-3 (ISBN)
 
A practical and systematic elaboration on the analysis, design and control of grid integrated and standalone distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation systems, with Matlab and Simulink models
* Analyses control of distribution networks with high penetration of PV systems and standalone microgrids with PV systems
* Covers in detail PV accommodation techniques including energy storage, demand side management and PV output power regulation
* Features examples of real projects/systems given in OPENDSS codes and/or Matlab and Simulink models
* Provides a concise summary of up-to-date research around the word in distributed PV systems
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Singapur
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 14,11 MB
978-1-119-18736-3 (9781119187363)
1119187362 (1119187362)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
DR. BO ZHAO is a Senior Research Engineer at State Grid Zhejiang Electric Power Research Institute, and the director of Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Distribution Generation and Microgrid Technologies in China.
DR. CAISHENG WANG is an Associate Professor with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, USA.
DR. XUESONG ZHANG is a Senior Research Engineer at State Grid Zhejiang Electric Power Research Institute, Hangzhou, China.
1 - Cover [Seite 1]
2 - Title Page [Seite 5]
3 - Copyright [Seite 6]
4 - Contents [Seite 7]
5 - Preface [Seite 15]
6 - Chapter 1 Overview [Seite 19]
6.1 - 1.1 Current Status and Future Development Trends of Photovoltaic Generation around the World [Seite 19]
6.1.1 - 1.1.1 USA [Seite 21]
6.1.2 - 1.1.2 Japan [Seite 23]
6.1.3 - 1.1.3 Germany [Seite 23]
6.1.4 - 1.1.4 China [Seite 24]
6.2 - 1.2 Current Research Status of Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 26]
6.2.1 - 1.2.1 Characteristics of Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 26]
6.2.2 - 1.2.2 Impact of High?Penetration Photovoltaic Generations on Distribution Networks [Seite 27]
6.2.3 - 1.2.3 The Necessary of Research on Distribution Network with High Photovoltaic Penetration [Seite 29]
6.3 - 1.3 Summary [Seite 31]
6.4 - References [Seite 32]
7 - Chapter 2 Techniques of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 35]
7.1 - 2.1 Introduction to Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 35]
7.1.1 - 2.1.1 Distributed Generation: Definition and Advantages [Seite 35]
7.1.2 - 2.1.2 Principle and Structure of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 36]
7.2 - 2.2 Photovoltaic Cells [Seite 38]
7.2.1 - 2.2.1 Classification of the Photovoltaic Cells [Seite 38]
7.2.1.1 - 2.2.1.1 Classification Based on Cell Structure [Seite 38]
7.2.1.2 - 2.2.1.2 Material?based PV Cell Classification [Seite 39]
7.2.2 - 2.2.2 Development History of Solar Cells [Seite 39]
7.2.3 - 2.2.3 Model of a Silicon Solar Cell [Seite 40]
7.3 - 2.3 Inverter [Seite 44]
7.3.1 - 2.3.1 Topology of Connection between Inverter and Photovoltaic Module [Seite 44]
7.3.2 - 2.3.2 The Classification and Characteristics of the Inverter [Seite 46]
7.3.3 - 2.3.3 Requirements of a Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Inverter [Seite 47]
7.4 - 2.4 Maximum Power Point Tracking Control [Seite 50]
7.4.1 - 2.4.1 Hill Climbing/Perturb and Observe [Seite 51]
7.4.2 - 2.4.2 Incremental Conductance [Seite 52]
7.4.3 - 2.4.3 Open?Circuit Voltage Method [Seite 54]
7.4.4 - 2.4.4 Short?Circuit Current Method [Seite 54]
7.4.5 - 2.4.5 Ripple Correlation Control [Seite 54]
7.4.6 - 2.4.6 Load Current or Load Voltage Maximization Method [Seite 55]
7.4.7 - 2.4.7 dP/dV or dP/dI Close?Loop Control [Seite 56]
7.4.8 - 2.4.8 Maximum Power Point Tracking Efficiency [Seite 56]
7.5 - 2.5 Summary [Seite 57]
7.6 - References [Seite 58]
8 - Chapter 3 Load Characteristics in Distribution Networks with Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 61]
8.1 - 3.1 Introduction [Seite 61]
8.2 - 3.2 Load Characteristics of a Distribution Network [Seite 61]
8.2.1 - 3.2.1 Load Types and Indices [Seite 61]
8.2.2 - 3.2.2 Time?Sequence Characteristics of Typical Loads [Seite 63]
8.2.3 - 3.2.3 Case Study [Seite 64]
8.3 - 3.3 The Output Characteristics of Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 66]
8.3.1 - 3.3.1 Regulations on Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 66]
8.3.2 - 3.3.2 Time?Sequence Characteristics of Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 67]
8.3.3 - 3.3.3 Case Study [Seite 69]
8.4 - 3.4 Characteristics of the Net Load in a Distribution Network with Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 71]
8.4.1 - 3.4.1 Influence of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation on System Load Level [Seite 72]
8.4.2 - 3.4.2 Influence of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation on Load Fluctuation [Seite 74]
8.5 - 3.5 Power and Energy Analysis of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 75]
8.5.1 - 3.5.1 Effective Power and Equivalent Energy of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 75]
8.5.2 - 3.5.2 Calculation Methods of the Correction Coefficients [Seite 76]
8.6 - 3.6 Summary [Seite 79]
8.7 - References [Seite 80]
9 - Chapter 4 Penetration Analysis of Large?Scale Distributed Grid?Connected Photovoltaics [Seite 83]
9.1 - 4.1 Introduction [Seite 83]
9.2 - 4.2 Economic Analysis of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems [Seite 84]
9.2.1 - 4.2.1 Cost/Benefit Analysis of Distributed Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Systems [Seite 84]
9.2.1.1 - 4.2.1.1 Cost Composition [Seite 84]
9.2.1.2 - 4.2.1.2 Income Composition [Seite 85]
9.2.2 - 4.2.2 Grid Parity [Seite 86]
9.3 - 4.3 Large?Scale Photovoltaic Penetration Analysis [Seite 88]
9.3.1 - 4.3.1 Further Explanation of Some Concepts [Seite 88]
9.3.2 - 4.3.2 Concepts and Assumptions [Seite 89]
9.3.2.1 - 4.3.2.1 Basic Concepts [Seite 89]
9.3.2.2 - 4.3.2.2 Basic Assumptions [Seite 91]
9.3.3 - 4.3.3 Power Penetration Analysis [Seite 91]
9.3.4 - 4.3.4 Photovoltaic Penetration with Different Types of Load [Seite 97]
9.4 - 4.4 Maximum Allowable Capacity of Distributed Photovoltaics in Distribution Network [Seite 100]
9.4.1 - 4.4.1 Static Characteristic Constraint Method [Seite 100]
9.4.1.1 - 4.4.1.1 Voltage Constraint [Seite 101]
9.4.1.2 - 4.4.1.2 Protection [Seite 101]
9.4.1.3 - 4.4.1.3 Harmonic Limit [Seite 103]
9.4.2 - 4.4.2 Constrained Optimization Method [Seite 104]
9.4.3 - 4.4.3 Digital Simulation Method [Seite 105]
9.4.3.1 - 4.4.3.1 Maximum Allowable Photovoltaic Capacity in Static Simulation [Seite 105]
9.4.3.2 - 4.4.3.2 Maximum Allowable Photovoltaic Capacity in Dynamic Simulations [Seite 105]
9.5 - 4.5 Maximum Allowable Capacity of Distributed Photovoltaics Based on Random Scenario Method [Seite 106]
9.5.1 - 4.5.1 Algorithm Introduction [Seite 106]
9.5.2 - 4.5.2 Case Study [Seite 107]
9.6 - 4.6 Photovoltaic Penetration Improvement [Seite 111]
9.6.1 - 4.6.1 Full Utilization of the Reactive Power Regulation Capability of a Distributed Photovoltaic System [Seite 111]
9.6.2 - 4.6.2 Distribution Network Upgrade [Seite 111]
9.6.3 - 4.6.3 Demand Response (DR) [Seite 111]
9.6.4 - 4.6.4 Energy Storage Technologies [Seite 112]
9.7 - 4.7 Summary [Seite 112]
9.8 - References [Seite 112]
10 - Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis for Distribution Networks with High Photovoltaic Penetration [Seite 115]
10.1 - 5.1 Introduction [Seite 115]
10.2 - 5.2 Power Flow Calculation for Distribution Networks with Distributed Photovoltaics [Seite 115]
10.2.1 - 5.2.1 Comparison of Power Flow Calculation Methods for Distribution Networks [Seite 115]
10.2.2 - 5.2.2 Power Flow Calculation Model for a Distributed Photovoltaics [Seite 117]
10.2.3 - 5.2.3 Power Flow Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Distributed Photovoltaics [Seite 118]
10.3 - 5.3 Voltage Impact Analysis of Distributed Photovoltaics on Distribution Networks [Seite 119]
10.3.1 - 5.3.1 Mathematical Model [Seite 119]
10.3.2 - 5.3.2 Simulation Studies [Seite 121]
10.4 - 5.4 Loss Analysis in Distribution Network with Distributed Photovoltaics [Seite 126]
10.4.1 - 5.4.1 Mathematical Model [Seite 126]
10.4.2 - 5.4.2 Simulation Results [Seite 128]
10.5 - 5.5 Case Study [Seite 130]
10.5.1 - 5.5.1 Patterns for Distributed Photovoltaics Integration [Seite 130]
10.5.2 - 5.5.2 Analysis on a Feeder [Seite 132]
10.5.3 - 5.5.3 Analysis on SA Substation [Seite 136]
10.6 - 5.6 Summary [Seite 141]
10.7 - References [Seite 141]
11 - Chapter 6 Voltage Control for Distribution Network with High Penetration of Photovoltaics [Seite 143]
11.1 - 6.1 Introduction [Seite 143]
11.2 - 6.2 Voltage Impact Analysis in the Distribution Network with Distributed Photovoltaics [Seite 144]
11.3 - 6.3 Voltage Control Measures [Seite 148]
11.3.1 - 6.3.1 Automatic Voltage Control System [Seite 148]
11.3.2 - 6.3.2 Feeder?Level Voltage Regulation [Seite 148]
11.3.3 - 6.3.3 Photovoltaic Inverter [Seite 149]
11.4 - 6.4 Photovoltaic Inverter Control Strategies [Seite 150]
11.4.1 - 6.4.1 General Control Principle [Seite 150]
11.4.2 - 6.4.2 Constant Power Factor Control Strategy [Seite 150]
11.4.3 - 6.4.3 Variable Power Factor Control Strategy [Seite 151]
11.4.4 - 6.4.4 Voltage Adaptive Control Strategy [Seite 152]
11.4.4.1 - 6.4.4.1 Q/V Droop Control [Seite 152]
11.4.4.2 - 6.4.4.2 P/V Droop Control [Seite 154]
11.4.4.3 - 6.4.4.3 Inverter Parameter Optimization [Seite 154]
11.5 - 6.5 Modeling and Simulation [Seite 155]
11.5.1 - 6.5.1 Approaches [Seite 155]
11.5.2 - 6.5.2 Introduction to OpenDSS [Seite 156]
11.5.3 - 6.5.3 Simulation Models [Seite 156]
11.5.3.1 - 6.5.3.1 Automatic Voltage Control System [Seite 157]
11.5.3.2 - 6.5.3.2 Photovoltaic System Model [Seite 160]
11.6 - 6.6 Case Study [Seite 162]
11.6.1 - 6.6.1 Basic Data for Simulation [Seite 162]
11.6.2 - 6.6.2 Analysis of Power Flow and Voltage in Extreme Scenarios with Automatic Voltage Control [Seite 165]
11.6.2.1 - 6.6.2.1 Working Day (July 16, 2014) Scenario [Seite 165]
11.6.2.2 - 6.6.2.2 Holiday (May 1, 2014) Scenario [Seite 167]
11.6.3 - 6.6.3 Participation of Photovoltaic Inverter in Voltage Regulation [Seite 169]
11.6.3.1 - 6.6.3.1 Working Day (July 16, 2014) Scenario [Seite 169]
11.6.3.2 - 6.6.3.2 Holiday (May 1, 2014) Scenario [Seite 174]
11.7 - 6.7 Summary [Seite 181]
11.8 - References [Seite 181]
12 - Chapter 7 Short?Circuit Current Analysis of Grid?Connected Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 183]
12.1 - 7.1 Introduction [Seite 183]
12.2 - 7.2 Short?Circuit Characteristic Analysis of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 183]
12.2.1 - 7.2.1 Short?Circuit Characteristic Analysis of Symmetric Voltage Sag of Power Grid [Seite 184]
12.2.2 - 7.2.2 Short?Circuit Characteristic Analysis of Asymmetrical Voltage Sag of Power Grid [Seite 185]
12.3 - 7.3 Low?Voltage Ride?Through Techniques of Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 187]
12.3.1 - 7.3.1 Review of Low?Voltage Ride?Through Standards [Seite 188]
12.3.2 - 7.3.2 Low?Voltage Ride?Through Control Strategy for Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 189]
12.4 - 7.4 Simulation Studies [Seite 192]
12.4.1 - 7.4.1 Fault Simulations of Photovoltaic Generation without the Low?Voltage Ride?Through Function [Seite 192]
12.4.2 - 7.4.2 Fault Simulation of Photovoltaic Generation with the Low?Voltage Ride?Through Function [Seite 194]
12.4.2.1 - 7.4.2.1 Case 1: 80 Three-phase Voltage Drop [Seite 194]
12.4.2.2 - 7.4.2.2 Case 2: 80 Two-phase Voltage Drop [Seite 194]
12.4.2.3 - 7.4.2.3 Case 3: 80 Single-phase Voltage Drop [Seite 195]
12.5 - 7.5 Calculation Method for Short?Circuit Currents in Distribution Network with Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 197]
12.5.1 - 7.5.1 Distribution Network Model [Seite 198]
12.5.2 - 7.5.2 Calculation Method for Short?Circuit Currents in a Traditional Distribution Network [Seite 198]
12.5.2.1 - 7.5.2.1 Operational Curve Law [Seite 199]
12.5.2.2 - 7.5.2.2 IEC Standard [Seite 199]
12.5.2.3 - 7.5.2.3 ANSI Standard [Seite 199]
12.5.3 - 7.5.3 Calculation Method for Short?Circuit Currents in a Distribution Network with Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 200]
12.5.3.1 - 7.5.3.1 Calculation Method for Symmetric Fault Short?Circuit Currents [Seite 201]
12.5.3.2 - 7.5.3.2 Calculation Method for Asymmetric Fault Short?Circuit Currents [Seite 202]
12.5.4 - 7.5.4 Fault Simulation Studies of Distribution Network with Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 204]
12.6 - 7.6 Summary [Seite 209]
12.7 - References [Seite 210]
13 - Chapter 8 Power Quality in Distribution Networks with Distributed Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 213]
13.1 - 8.1 Introduction [Seite 213]
13.2 - 8.2 Power Quality Standards and Applications [Seite 213]
13.2.1 - 8.2.1 Power Quality Standards for Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 214]
13.2.2 - 8.2.2 Power Quality Requirements Stipulated in Standards for Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 214]
13.2.2.1 - 8.2.2.1 Voltage Deviation [Seite 215]
13.2.2.2 - 8.2.2.2 Voltage Fluctuation and Flicker [Seite 216]
13.2.2.3 - 8.2.2.3 Voltage Unbalance Factor [Seite 217]
13.2.2.4 - 8.2.2.4 DC Injection [Seite 217]
13.2.2.5 - 8.2.2.5 Current Harmonics [Seite 217]
13.2.2.6 - 8.2.2.6 Voltage Harmonics [Seite 222]
13.3 - 8.3 Evaluation and Analysis of Voltage Fluctuation and Flicker for Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 224]
13.3.1 - 8.3.1 Evaluation Process [Seite 225]
13.3.1.1 - 8.3.1.1 First?Level Provisions [Seite 225]
13.3.1.2 - 8.3.1.2 Second?Level Provisions [Seite 225]
13.3.1.3 - 8.3.1.3 Third?Level Provisions [Seite 226]
13.3.2 - 8.3.2 Calculation [Seite 226]
13.3.2.1 - 8.3.2.1 The First?Level Evaluation for Photovoltaic Integration [Seite 226]
13.3.2.2 - 8.3.2.2 The Second?Level Evaluation [Seite 226]
13.4 - 8.4 Harmonic Analysis for Grid?Connected Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 229]
13.4.1 - 8.4.1 Fundamentals of Harmonic Analysis [Seite 229]
13.4.1.1 - 8.4.1.1 Harmonic Simulation Platform [Seite 229]
13.4.1.2 - 8.4.1.2 Photovoltaic Harmonic Model [Seite 231]
13.4.2 - 8.4.2 Harmonic Analysis of Photovoltaic Generation Connected to a Typical Feeder [Seite 236]
13.4.2.1 - 8.4.2.1 Harmonics Analysis of Centralized Photovoltaic Connection [Seite 237]
13.4.2.2 - 8.4.2.2 Harmonics Analysis of Photovoltaic Connection in a Distributed Way [Seite 241]
13.4.3 - 8.4.3 Analysis of Practical Cases [Seite 242]
13.5 - 8.5 Summary [Seite 243]
13.6 - References [Seite 243]
14 - Chapter 9 Techniques for Mitigating Impacts of High?Penetration Photovoltaics [Seite 245]
14.1 - 9.1 Introduction [Seite 245]
14.2 - 9.2 Energy Storage Technology [Seite 245]
14.2.1 - 9.2.1 Classification of Energy Storage Technologies [Seite 246]
14.2.1.1 - 9.2.1.1 Mechanical Energy Storage [Seite 246]
14.2.1.2 - 9.2.1.2 Electromagnetic Energy Storage [Seite 247]
14.2.1.3 - 9.2.1.3 Phase?Change Energy Storage [Seite 247]
14.2.1.4 - 9.2.1.4 Chemical Energy Storage [Seite 247]
14.2.2 - 9.2.2 Electrochemical Energy Storage [Seite 247]
14.2.2.1 - 9.2.2.1 Lead-Acid Battery [Seite 248]
14.2.2.2 - 9.2.2.2 Lithium?Ion Battery [Seite 249]
14.2.2.3 - 9.2.2.3 Flow Cell [Seite 250]
14.2.3 - 9.2.3 Electrochemical Energy Storage Model [Seite 251]
14.2.3.1 - 9.2.3.1 Mathematical Model [Seite 251]
14.2.3.2 - 9.2.3.2 Life Model [Seite 253]
14.3 - 9.3 Application of Energy Storage Technology in Distribution Networks with High Photovoltaic Penetration [Seite 254]
14.3.1 - 9.3.1 Siting and Sizing Methods for Energy Storage System [Seite 254]
14.3.1.1 - 9.3.1.1 Siting of Energy Storage System [Seite 254]
14.3.1.2 - 9.3.1.2 Sizing of the Energy Storage System [Seite 255]
14.3.2 - 9.3.2 Case Simulation [Seite 256]
14.4 - 9.4 Demand Response [Seite 260]
14.4.1 - 9.4.1 Introduction [Seite 260]
14.4.1.1 - 9.4.1.1 Price?Based Demand Response [Seite 260]
14.4.1.2 - 9.4.1.2 Incentive?Based Demand Response [Seite 261]
14.4.2 - 9.4.2 Load Characteristics of Demand Response [Seite 263]
14.5 - 9.5 Application of Demand Response in Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaics [Seite 265]
14.5.1 - 9.5.1 Incentive?Based Demand Response Optimization Model [Seite 265]
14.5.1.1 - 9.5.1.1 Incentive?Based Demand Response Model [Seite 265]
14.5.1.2 - 9.5.1.2 Constraints [Seite 267]
14.5.2 - 9.5.2 Incentive?Based Demand Response Algorithm [Seite 267]
14.5.3 - 9.5.3 Case Study [Seite 269]
14.6 - 9.6 Cluster Partition Control [Seite 270]
14.7 - 9.7 Application of Cluster Partition Control in Distributed Grid with High?Penetration Distributed Photovoltaics [Seite 274]
14.7.1 - 9.7.1 Community?Detection?Based Optimal Network Partition [Seite 274]
14.7.2 - 9.7.2 Sub?community Reactive/Active Power?Voltage Control Scheme [Seite 277]
14.7.3 - 9.7.3 Case Study [Seite 279]
14.8 - 9.8 Summary [Seite 288]
14.9 - References [Seite 288]
15 - Chapter 10 Design and Implementation of Standalone Multisource Microgrids with High?Penetration Photovoltaic Generation [Seite 291]
15.1 - 10.1 Introduction [Seite 291]
15.2 - 10.2 System Configurations of Microgrids with Multiple Renewable Sources [Seite 292]
15.2.1 - 10.2.1 Integration Schemes [Seite 292]
15.2.2 - 10.2.2 Unit Sizing and Technology Selection [Seite 295]
15.3 - 10.3 Controls and Energy Management [Seite 296]
15.3.1 - 10.3.1 Centralized Control Paradigm [Seite 296]
15.3.2 - 10.3.2 Distributed Control Paradigm [Seite 297]
15.3.3 - 10.3.3 Hybrid Hierarchical Control Paradigm [Seite 298]
15.4 - 10.4 Implementation of Standalone Microgrids [Seite 299]
15.4.1 - 10.4.1 Dongfushan Microgrid: Joint Optimization of Operation and Component Sizing [Seite 300]
15.4.1.1 - 10.4.1.1 System Configuration [Seite 300]
15.4.1.2 - 10.4.1.2 Operating Strategy [Seite 301]
15.4.1.3 - 10.4.1.3 Optimization Model [Seite 305]
15.4.1.4 - 10.4.1.4 System Sizing Optimization [Seite 309]
15.4.1.5 - 10.4.1.5 Optimal Configuration and Operation Practice [Seite 315]
15.4.2 - 10.4.2 Plateau Microgrid: A Multiagent?System?Based Energy Management System [Seite 317]
15.4.2.1 - 10.4.2.1 System Configuration [Seite 317]
15.4.2.2 - 10.4.2.2 Multiagent?System?Based Energy Management Method [Seite 319]
15.4.2.3 - 10.4.2.3 Validation of the Microgrid Energy Management System [Seite 325]
15.5 - 10.5 Summary [Seite 327]
15.6 - References [Seite 328]
16 - Index [Seite 333]
17 - EULA [Seite 341]

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