Unique in its integration of individual topics to achieve a full-system approach, this book addresses all the aspects essential for industrial inkjet printing.
After an introduction listing the industrial printing techniques available, the text goes on to discuss individual topics, such as ink, printheads and substrates, followed by metrology techniques that are required for reliable systems. Three iteration cycles are then described, including the adaptation of the ink to the printhead, the optimization of the ink to the substrate and the integration of machine manufacturing, monitoring, and data handling, among others. Finally, the book summarizes a number of case studies and success stories from selected areas, including graphics, printed electronics, and 3D printing as well a list of ink suppliers, printhead manufacturers and integrators. Practical hints are included throughout for a direct hands-on experience.
Invaluable for industrial users and academics, whether ink developers or mechanical engineers, and working in areas ranging from metrology to intellectual property.
Dieses Fachbuch ist einzigartig, indem es Einzelthemen zu einem Gesamtansatz integriert. Alles Wissenswerte zum industriellen Tintenstrahldruck wird behandelt. Fallstudien, Erfolgsgeschichten und praktische Hinweise ergeben ein Handbuch für die Praxis.
Werner Zapka is manager of the Advanced Application Technology team of XaarJet AB (Järfälla, Sweden) where inkjet processes are developed specifically with functional fluids for digital fabrication. In 1980 Werner Zapka earned his Ph.D. in physics at the Max-Planck-Institute in Göttingen, Germany, on design and applications of excimer lasers. He then moved to IBM Research Labs, USA, and IBM Germany, engaging himself for 14 years in research and development in semiconductor, electronic packaging and laser technology. In 1995 he joined MIT-inkjet, which was renamed in 1999 to XaarJet AB, to develop inkjet printheads and their manufacturing processes.
Since 2009 he is also appointed as Adjunct Professor at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden, where is developing smart packaging solutions by way of inkjet printing of functional fluids.
He has authored more than 60 scientific publications and holds 22 patents. Furthermore, he obtained six IBM Invention Achievement Awards and serves on the committee of the annual Digital Fabrication conferences.
XaarJet Limited, Advanced Application Technology, Drottning Kristinas väg 61, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
This handbook is meant to tackle those "lab-to-fab" transition problems that often prevent efficient and fast implementation of inkjet applications in industry, for example, on the manufacturing floor. Implementation can be accelerated with proper knowledge, planning, and execution.
This Handbook of Industrial Inkjet Printing therefore provides a detailed analysis of inkjet technology, covering all key areas of the total technology chain of industrial inkjet printing. It thus gives support and guidance to technical personnel to approach the integration of inkjet technology following a "fully engineered system approach."
Before describing the setup of this handbook, we provide a few introductory comments:
- This handbook is written from industry for industry. Authors from more than 30 industry companies that specialize in various technology areas of industrial inkjet printing contribute their and their companies' accumulated technical knowledge to individual book chapters.
- The handbook concentrates on technical details, avoiding simple marketing terms and messages.
- Under the term "industrial inkjet printing," we comprise all inkjet printing applications used in industry such as product print, décor and textile printing, graphics, packaging, coding and marking, direct-to-shape, ceramic printing, 3D printing, advanced manufacturing, bioprinting, and so on - in other words, covering everything but home and office printing. (In parts of the inkjet community, the name "industrial" printing is reserved for applications like product print, décor and textile printing, and advanced manufacturing.)
- Authors of each part were encouraged to compare notes and share best practices across chapters, enhancing the integrity and value of the book.
- The reader is invited to approach the authors for further information. Connect with the author and or the respective company at the contact details given in each chapter.
Successful implementing of industrial inkjet printing applications requires knowledge and expertise in various areas of technology, especially in mastering the important interfaces. The simplified sketch in Figure 1 is just one approach to describe those key technology areas and interfaces. Basic requirements are the adaptations of both ink-to-printhead and ink-to-substrate. The latter typically benefits from preprocessing of the substrate, while postprocesses are needed for drying, curing, or sintering. Having access to appropriate metrology technology is necessary to precisely measure those parameters that control proper performance of fluids, print quality, and reliability under heavy duty printing. Data flow has to be considered especially with high-duty, high-volume applications. With machine integration?-?a key function in any industrial inkjet implementation?-?several tasks have to be included in a system solution complying with the end user's requests on throughput, productivity, performance, and economics. To enlarge the application area and/or improve performance, it is often helpful to consider "hybrid solutions," that is, combinations of inkjet with other technologies.
Figure 1 Various technology areas have to be interfaced to assess industrial inkjet printing under a full system approach.
In the following, we assess all these topics. Far away from giving a complete overview, we instead let experts from companies active in those areas above describe their and their companies' technical expertise and experience. Those who plan an industrial inkjet application will benefit from this handbook in identifying important tasks of the authors' specific applications, and will get an idea how to approach and structure a plan for a specific project of their own. The reader is invited to approach the authors and companies for further information or support in their planning phase (see the contact details in each individual chapter).
In this handbook, we provide Parts One to Eleven, starting with general considerations about the pros and cons of inkjet technology. Thereafter, we address all the topics in Figure 1, including inks, inkjet printheads, substrates, metrology, and data flow. Then, we focus on machine integration and pre- and postprocesses. Thereafter, we move to application and integration by way of addressing print strategies, application developments, and successful implementations and case studies.
Part One: Pros and Cons of Inkjet Technology
For the engineers to select the appropriate printing technique for their specific application, it is essential to understand the technical capabilities, advantages, as well as disadvantages of those various printing methods.
The two printing techniques that appear to be most suitable for applications in industry, and which are expected to grow fast are inkjet printing and screen printing.
In our introductory Part One, we therefore focus on comparing the advantages and disadvantages of inkjet printing and screen printing. Chapter 1 comprises the pros and cons of inkjet technology as seen by the authors of this handbook. In Chapter 2 Gunter Hübner, an expert in screen printing, gives his view on the comparison of screen printing and inkjet technology with a focus on the recent advances of screen printing.
Once the decision toward inkjet is made, it is time for the engineer or the reader to understand the technical complexity of inkjet printing, and to learn from the experts about the various topics, issues, problems, and solutions, as they are presented in the following Parts Two to Eleven.
Part Two: Inks
This part comprises 10 chapters provided by authors from different ink manufacturers. SunChemical gives an overview of industrial inkjet inks, before focusing on UV inks. BASF cover photoinitiators for UV inks and radiation sources for UV curing and UV radiation measurement. AGFA addresses low-migration UV inks, with applications in food packaging (e.g., see KHS Chapter 47). Ceramic inks are described by Colorobbia. Fujifilm covers aqueous ink, and Sawgrass describes sublimation inks. Silver nanoparticle inks are covered by two companies, by Clariant and by Harima. OLED inks are described by Fraunhofer IAP.
Several other chapters deal with silver-nano inks, namely, metrology in Chapter 25 (TNO-Holst), photonic sintering in Chapter 32 (NovaCentrix), and applications in Chapters 35 (TNO-Holst), Chapter 36 (HSG-IMAT), and Chapter 37 (M-SOLV).
Part Three: Inkjet Printhead Technology
Although there are more inkjet printhead technology companies out there, we here focus on the most common state-of-the art printhead types for industrial inkjet printing. A variety of piezo-based printheads are used in industrial applications, both as binary and gray scale, with or without recirculation, with bulk PZT or thin film PZT MEMS printheads. Authors from Fujifilm Dimatix, Konica Minolta, Xaar, and Memjet all describe their respective printhead technologies in detail. Bubble Jet inkjet printheads are described by Hewlett Packard, and KODAK covers its specific continuous jet STREAM technique. To help understand how the various inkjet printhead types perform in industrial applications, the authors refer to specific chapters in Part Eleven of this handbook.
Part Four: Substrates
A few different substrates as required in applications of industrial inkjet printing are addressed here, namely, coated paper, polymeric substrates, and glass substrates, for example, touch screen and displays.
Part Five: Metrology
Industrial inkjet applications, often in-line processes, require high and long-term reliability in order to provide productivity and high manufacturing yield. Precise and statistical measurements of critical fluid, print, and product parameters are therefore necessary to control and monitor performance. Part Five presents state-of-the-art methods to measure complex fluid rheology, monitor "printhead health" during operation, detect missing drops during heavy-duty printing, and monitor electrical conductivity of printed tracks during sintering. Summing up, the total control of the behavior of drops on substrates is of paramount importance to successful printing.
Part Six: Data Flow
A short chapter describes the importance of data handling with the example of an HP Inkjet Web Press, where high-quality single-pass web printing is enabled by various features at press start and during operation.
Part Seven: Machine Integration
Machine integration is central to any implementation of industrial inkjet printing, as is obvious from Figure 1. All interfaces are handled by the integrator. We therefore strongly suggest studying the chapters in Part Seven before planning a new implementation project. The authors give advice on which project tasks to conduct, in which sequence, which should be done in parallel, and so on. There are several different kinds of integrators. VdW Consulting typically supports the user onsite, Notion Systems is an example of integrators who build equipment for/with customers. Besides, there are larger industry companies that are capable of acting as their own integrator. Several examples of their machine integration and successful implementations are...