Chinese Herbal Medicines: Comparisons and Characteristics

Comparisons and Characteristics : Comparisons and Characteristics
 
 
Churchill Livingstone Title (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. Dezember 2009
  • |
  • 268 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-4781-7 (ISBN)
 
It is a challenge for Chinese medicine students to learn and retain information about the characteristics of the hundreds of commonly used Chinese herbs, and it is equally a challenge for the junior practitioner to be sure of selecting the best herbs to use in formulae. This book brings to life, through vivid and clear discussion, the characteristics of the commonly used Chinese herbs. Through a full question and answer format, it offers a method for students and junior practitioners of learning and memorizing the functions of herbs through comparing the characteristics and the strengths of the herbs. For the experienced practitioner, the fine analysis of the characteristics of herbs allows an opportunity to make a formula with better quality and result, and the discussion of clinical applications within each question and answer unit can be used in practice to enlarge the treatment range.
  • Retains the same easy to follow format as the first edition

  • Presents detailed comparisons and discussions of commonly used Chinese herbs

  • Provides a series of thought-provoking questions with very detailed answers

  • Structured to help the reader to learn and memorize the content more easily

  • The easy-to-use question-andanswer format is convenient to apply in the consulting room

  • Includes discussion of clinical applications to help with the practical use of the information in clinical setting

  • Revised and updated with particular emphasis on the safe use of Chinese herbal medicines

  • New appendices provide information on safe dosages, commonly used herbal

combinations and the meanings of Chinese words used in herbal names

    • Provides a sound foundation for the study and practice of Chinese herbal medicine.
    • Englisch
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    978-0-7020-4781-7 (9780702047817)
    0702047813 (0702047813)
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    • Front cover
    • Half title page
    • Title page
    • Copyright page
    • Table of contents
    • Foreword
    • Preface to the first edition
    • Notes on the second edition
    • Explanation of the figures
    • Acknowledgements
    • Part 1: Theory and concepts
    • Chapter One: The theory and concepts of Chinese herbal medicine
    • What are the four flavors of Chinese herbs? What are their applications in clinical practice?
    • What are the five tastes of herbs? What are their clinical applications?
    • Which characteristics exist in the combinations of the temperature and taste of herbs?
    • What are the applications of the concept that herbs enter meridians?
    • Do the taste and the color of herbs influence their function? What is the relationship between the taste of herbs and the internal organs, and what is the relationship between their color and the internal organs? What are the clinical applications?
    • What are the tendencies of action of the herbs in the body and what are the applications?
    • What are the specific functions of the specific parts of a plant?
    • What are the proper dosages when prescribing herbs?
    • What is the proper dosage for children?
    • How is a herbal decoction prepared?
    • What is the usual way to take herbal medicine?
    • How should children be given herbal medicine?
    • What are the contraindications and cautions when using Chinese herbal medicine?
    • Which herbs can be used as substitutes for substances that are banned or unavailable?
    • What attention should be paid to some common names of herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine?
    • Part 2: Comparisons and characteristics of thecommonly used Chinese herbal medicines
    • Chapter Two: Herbs that release the Exterior
    • What is Exterior syndrome? How should one treat Exterior syndrome? What are the characteristics of the herbs that release the Exterior?
    • What precautions should be observed in the usage of herbs that release the Exterior?
    • Ma Huang (Ephedrae herba)* and Gui Zhi (Cinnamomi cassiae ramulus) can both expel Wind-Cold to treat Exterior Wind-Cold syndrome. What are the differences between their actions and characteristics? What are the cautions regarding their use?
    • What are the differences between the actions of Ma Huang (Ephedrae herba)*, Zhi Ma Huang (honey-roasted Ephedrae herba) and Ma Huang Gen (Ephedrae radix)?
    • What are the characteristic functions of Gui Zhi (Cinnamomi cassiae ramulus)?
    • Jing Jie (Schizonepetae herba) and Fang Feng (Saposhnikoviae radix) are often used for Exterior Wind-Cold syndrome. What are the differences between using Ma Huang (Ephedrae herba) and Gui Zhi (Cinnamomi cassiae ramulus)?
    • What are the differences between the actions of Jing Jie (Schizonepetae herba), Jing Jie Sui (Schizonepetae flos), Chao Jin Jie (dry-fried Schizonepetae herba) and Jing Jie Tan (the charcoal of Schizonepetae herba)?
    • Why is Xiang Ru (Moslae herba) called Summer Ma Huang (Ephedrae herba)?
    • Xi Xin (Asari herba)* is a commonly used herb for Exterior syndrome and Bi syndrome. What are its characteristics? What caution should be applied in clinical practice?
    • Sheng Jiang (Zingiberis rhizoma recens), Sheng Jiang Zhi (Zingiberis rhizoma recens succus), Wei Jiang (roasted Zingiberis rhizoma recens) and Sheng Jiang Pi (Zingiberis rhizoma recens cortex) are all products of the same herb. What are the differences be
    • Qiang Huo (Notopterygii rhizoma), Bai Zhi (Angelicae dahuricae radix), Chuan Xiong (Chuanxiong rhizoma) and Gao Ben (Ligustici sinensis radix) are often used for treating headache. What are the differences between their actions?
    • Ge Gen (Puerariae radix), Sheng Ma (Cimicifugae rhizoma) and Chai Hu (Bupleuri radix) are all commonly used herbs for dispersing and lifting the Yang-Qi. What are the differences between them?
    • Bai Zhi (Angelicae dahuricae radix), Xin Yi (Magnoliae flos) and Cang Er Zi (Xanthii fructus) are often used together to treat rhinitis and sinusitis. What are the differences between them?
    • Bo He (Menthae herba), Chan Tui (Cicadae periostracum), Niu Bang Zi (Arctii fructus), Jiang Can (Bombyx batrycatus) and Jing Jie (Schizonepetae herba) are able to expel Wind and alleviate itching, and are commonly used for different skin diseases. What ar
    • Bo He (Menthae herba), Ju Hua (Chrysanthemi indici flos), Sang Ye (Mori folium) and Chai Hu (Bupleuri radix) have similar functions of expelling and dispersing Wind-Heat in the Upper Jiao. What are the differences between them?
    • How many kinds of Ju Hua (Chrysanthemi indici flos) are used for medical purposes and how does one choose the correct one in practice?
    • Besides treating cold infections or influenza, are there other uses for the herbs in the category of releasing the Exterior?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that release the Exterior
    • Chapter Three: Herbs that clear Heat
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that clear internal Heat? What precautions should be observed when they are used?
    • What kind of diseases can be treated by the herbs that clear Heat? How should one choose the herbs in clinical practice?
    • What are the characteristics of Shi Gao (Gypsum)? Why is it often used with Zhi Mu (Anemarrhenae rhizoma)? What are the differences between their actions?
    • What are the differences between Sheng Shi Gao (raw Gypsum) and Duan Shi Gao (calcined Gypsum)?
    • Why is Shi Gao (Gypsum) the first-line choice when Excessive-Heat spreads through the entire body?
    • What are the differences in clearing Liver-Heat between the herbs Zhi Zi (Gardeniae fructus), Xia Ku Cao (Prunellae spica), Long Dan Cao (Gentianae radix) and Chuan Lian Zi (Toosendan fructus)?
    • What are the characteristics of the herbs that clear Liver-Heat and benefit the eyes?
    • What are the differences in the function of cooling the Blood between Mu Dan Pi (Moutan cortex) and Chi Shao Yao (Paeoniae radix rubra)?
    • What are the differences between Chi Shao Yao (Paeoniae radix rubra) and Bai Shao Yao (Paeoniae radix lactiflora)?
    • What are the differences between and characteristics of Sheng Di Huang (Rehmanniae radix) and Xuan Shen (Scrophulariae radix) in the function of clearing Heat?
    • What are the differences between the products of Di Huang (Rehmanniae radix)?
    • What are the characteristics of pathological change when Heat enters the Blood and what precautions should be observed when using herbs that cool the Blood and stop bleeding?
    • How many kinds of Zhu Ye (Bambusae folium) are used in Chinese herbal medicine? What are their differences?
    • What are the characteristics of Zhi Zi (Gardeniae fructus)? What are the differences between the shell, the seed and the deep-dry-fried Zhi Zi?
    • Dan Dou Chi (Sojae semen praeparatum) and Zhi Zi (Gardeniae fructus) can both treat Heat accumulation in the chest and release irritability. What are the differences between them?
    • Which parts of the plant Lian (Nelumbinis) can be used for medical purposes and what are their functions?
    • What are the characteristics of Huang Qin (Scutellariae radix), Huang Lian (Coptidis rhizoma) and Huang Bai (Phellodendri cortex)?
    • Why are herbs that clear Heat and dry Dampness often used for skin diseases? What are the characteristics of the commonly used herbs?
    • What is Fire-toxin syndrome and what are the differences between Jin Yin Hua (Lonicerae flos) and Lian Qiao (Forsythiae fructus) in treating it?
    • What are the differences between Da Qing Ye (Isatidis folium), Ban Lan Gen (Isatidis/Baphicacanthis radix) and Qing Dai (Indigo naturalis) for clearing Fire-toxin?
    • What kind of herbs can treat sore throat and benefit the throat?
    • What kind of herbs can be used to treat internal abscesses and what are their characteristics?
    • What are the differences between Qing Hao (Artemisiae annuae herba), Yin Chai Hu (Stellariae radix) and Chai Hu (Bupleuri radix) in regulating the Liver-Qi?
    • What kind of herbs can be used for reducing Deficient-Heat in febrile disease? What are their characteristics? What are the differences between these herbs and the herbs that tonify the Yin and reduce Empty-Heat?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that clear Heat
    • Chapter Four: Herbs that drain downwards
    • What are the functions of and indications for downward-draining herbs?
    • What are the characteristics of downward-draining herbs?
    • What are the precautions and contraindications for the use of herbs that drain downwards?
    • What are the characteristics of Da Huang (Rhei rhizoma), Mang Xiao (Natrii sulfas), Fan Xie Ye (Sennae folium) and Lu Hui (Aloe folii extractus) as purgatives?
    • What are the characteristics of Da Huang (Rhei rhizoma)? What are the differences between the products of this herb?
    • What are the differences between the products of Mang Xiao (Natrii sulfas)?
    • What are the differences between Huo Ma Ren (Cannabis semen), Yu Li Ren (Pruni semen), Xing Ren (Armeniacae semen), Tao Ren (Persicae semen) and Hei Zhi Ma (Sesami semen nigricum) in their laxative effects?
    • What are the characteristics of Gan Sui (Euphorbiae kansui radix)*, Da Jı? (Knoxiae radix)* and Yuan Hua (Genkwa flos)*?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that drain downwards
    • Chapter Five: Herbs that expel Wind-Dampness
    • What are the indications for herbs that expel Wind-Dampness?
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that expel Wind-Dampness?
    • What are the commonly used methods and herbs for treating Bi syndrome?
    • What are the differences between Qiang Huo (Notopterygii rhizoma) and Du Huo (Angelicae pubescentis radix)?
    • What are the differences between the two kinds of Wu Jia Pi?
    • What are the characteristics of Mu Gua (Chaenomelis fructus)? What are the differences between Mu Gua and Bai Shao Yao (Paeoniae radix lactiflora) for relaxing the tendons?
    • What are the characteristics of Xi Xin (Asari herba)*, Wei Ling Xian (Clematidis radix), Hai Tong Pi (Erythrinae cortex), Xi Xian Cao (Sigesbeckiae herba) and Lu Lu Tong (Liquidambaris fructus)?
    • What are the characteristics of Fu Zi (Aconiti radix lateralis preparata)*, Chuan Wu (Aconiti carmichaeli radix)*, Cao Wu (Aconiti kusnezoffii radix)*, Xi Xin (Asari herba)* and Gui Zhi (Cinnamomi cassiae ramulus) for treating Bi syndrome? What are the pr
    • What are the differences in the function of tonifying the Liver and Kidney, strengthening the tendons and bones between Xu Duan (Dipsaci radix), Gu Sui Bu (Drynariae rhizoma), Sang Ji Sheng (Taxilli herba) and Gou Ji (Cibotii rhizoma)**?
    • What are the differences between Bai Hua She (Agkistrodon acutus)* and Wu Shao She (Zaocys)?
    • What are the characteristics of Hai Feng Teng (Piperis caulis), Qing Feng Teng (Sinomenii caulis), Luo Shi Teng (Trachelospermi caulis) and Sang Zhi (Mori ramulus)?
    • What are the characteristics of Shen Jin Cao (Lycopodii herba) and Tou Gu Cao (Tuberculate speranskia herba)?
    • What precautions should be observed when herbs that expel Wind, Cold and Dampness and treat Bi syndrome are used?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that expel Wind-Dampness
    • Chapter Six: Herbs that transform Dampness
    • What are the indications for herbs that transform and drain Dampness? What are the characteristics of the syndrome of Dampness accumulation?
    • What are the characteristics of the herbs that transform and drain out Dampness? What precautions should be observed in the use of these herbs?
    • What are the commonly used methods for eliminating Dampness?
    • Fu Ling (Poria) can promote urination, tonify the Spleen and calm the Mind. What are its characteristics compared with other herbs which have the same function?
    • What are the differences between Fu Ling (Poria), Fu Ling Pi (Poriae cocos cortex), Fu Shen (Poriae cocos pararadicis) and Chi Fu Ling (Poriae cocos rubrae)?
    • Fu Ling (Poria), Zhu Ling (Polyporus), Ze Xie (Alismatis rhizoma) and Yi Yi Ren (Coicis semen) are all sweet and bland, and are able to transform and drain out Dampness. What are the differences between the four herbs?
    • Mu Tong (Mutong caulis)* and Tong Cao (Tetrapanacis medulla) can both promote urination, drain Damp-Heat and promote lactation. What are the differences between them?
    • What are the functions of and differences between Han Fang Ji (Stephaniae tetrandrae radix) and Mu Fang Ji (Aristolochiae fangchi radix)*?
    • Yin Chen Hao (Artemisiae scopariae herba) and Qing Hao (Artemisiae annuae herba) are both able to transform Damp-Heat, reduce low-grade fever and relieve jaundice. What are the differences between them?
    • Bian Xu (Polygoni avicularis herba), Qu Mai (Dianthi herba) and Bi Xie (Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma) can be used in treating Painful Urinary Dysfunction syndrome. What are the differences between them?
    • Qu Mai (Dianthi herba), Shi Wei (Pyrrosiae folium), Hai Jin Sha (Lygodii spora) and Jin Qian Cao (Lysimachiae herba) can be used for Blood-Painful Urinary Dysfunction syndrome. What are the differences between them?
    • Which herbs can regulate the function of the Bladder and promote urination? What are the applications? How should one use them in clinical practice?
    • Which herbs can clear Heat from the Heart and Small Intestine and promote urination? What are the indications for them?
    • Which herbs can clear Heat from the Lung and promote urination? What are the indications for them?
    • Which herbs can regulate the Spleen, promote urination and drain out Dampness? What are the indications for them?
    • Which herbs can transform Damp-Heat in the Middle Jiao and Lower Jiao and are used for treating skin diseases and infections? Huang Qin (Scutellariae radix), Huang Lian (Coptidis rhizoma), Huang Bai (Phellodendri cortex) and Long Dan Cao (Gentianae radix)
    • Which herbs can transform Damp-Heat from the Middle Jiao and reduce jaundice? What are the indications for them?
    • Which herbs can be used for increasing lactation and what are the indications for them?
    • Which herbs can cool the Blood and treat Blood-Painful Urinary Dysfunction syndrome? What are the indications for them?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that transform Dampness
    • Chapter Seven: Aromatic substances for transforming Dampness, for external application, and for opening the orifices
    • What are the characteristics of the aromatic herbs and their usage?
    • What are the indications for and characteristics of the aromatic herbs that transform Dampness in the Middle Jiao?
    • What are the differences between Huo Xiang (Agastachis herba) and Pei Lan (Eupatorii herba) in transforming Dampness and reviving the Spleen?
    • Huo Xiang (Agastachis herba), Pei Lan (Eupatorii herba), Zi Su Ye (Perillae folium) and Xiang Ru (Moslae herba) are all able to disperse and transform Dampness and ease the Exterior. What are the differences between them?
    • What are the differences between the functions of Sha Ren (Amomi xanthioidis fructus), Bai Dou Kou (Amomi fructus rotundus), Cao Dou Kou (Alpiniae katsumadai semen) and Cao Guo (Tsaoko fructus)?
    • Which herbs can aromatically transform Dampness from the Liver and Gall Bladder and what are the symptoms in this syndrome?
    • Which herbs can aromatically eliminate Damp-Phlegm from the Heart and what are the symptoms in this syndrome?
    • Which aromatic herbs are used externally and what are the indications for use?
    • What is Locked-up syndrome?
    • Locked-up syndrome and Collapsing syndrome can both occur in coma. What are the differences in the symptoms and the pathological changes between the two syndromes?
    • What are the characteristics of the herbs that open the orifices and what precautions should be observed when they are used?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in aromatic substances that transform Dampness, that are for external application and that open the orifices
    • Chapter Eight : Herbs that transform Phlegm
    • What are the indications for herbs that transform Phlegm? What are visible Phlegm and invisible Phlegm?
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that transform Phlegm? What precautions should be observed when they are used?
    • What are the functions and characteristics of Xing Ren (Armeniacae semen) and Jie Geng (Platycodi radix)?
    • What are the characteristics of Jie Geng (Platycodi radix)?
    • What are the differences between Bai Qian (Cynanchi stauntonii radix) and Qian Hu (Peucedani radix)?
    • What are the differences between Zi Wan (Asteris radix), Kuan Dong Hua (Tussilaginis farfarae) and Bai Bu (Stemonae radix) in relieving cough and transforming Phlegm?
    • What are the differences between Chuan Bei Mu (Fritillariae cirrhosae bulbus) and Zhe Bei Mu (Fritillariae thunbergii bulbus)?
    • What are the differences between Gua Lou (Trichosanthis fructus), Gua Lou Ren (Trichosanthis semen), Gua Lou Pi (Trichosanthis pericarpium) and Gua Lou Gen (Trichosanthis radix)
    • What are the differences between Tian Zhu Huang (Bambusae concretio silicea), Zhu Li (Bambusae succus) and Zhu Ru (Bambusae caulis in taeniam)?
    • Ting Li Zi (Lepidii/Descurainiae semen), Sang Bai Pi (Mori cortex) and Xuan Fu Hua (Inulae flos) are able to direct the Lung-Qi to descend, transform Phlegm and arrest wheezing. What are the differences between their actions?
    • What are the functions of Ban Xia (Pinelliae rhizoma)? What are the characteristics of processed Ban Xia?
    • What are the differences between Tian Nan Xing (Arisaematis rhizoma) and processed Nan Xing?
    • What are the differences between Hai Zao (Sargassum) and Kun Bu (Eckloniae thallus)?
    • Which herbs are particularly effective for relieving cough?
    • Which herbs are able to clear Heat and transform Phlegm from the Lung?
    • Which herbs are able to moisten the Lung and loosen sputum?
    • Which herbs are able to transform Damp-Phlegm?
    • Which herbs are able to disperse the Lung-Qi and direct it to descend, and arrest wheezing?
    • Which herbs are able to soothe the Stomach-Qi, and transform Phlegm and Dampness in the Stomach?
    • What are the symptoms and pathogenic changes in the syndrome when Phlegm covers the Mind? What are the commonly used substances to treat this disorder?
    • Which herbs are able to transform Wind-Phlegm from the meridians and collaterals?
    • Which herbs are able to soften hardness and dissipate nodules?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that transform Phlegm
    • Chapter Nine: Herbs that relieve food stagnation
    • herbs that expel parasites
    • herbs that induce vomiting
    • What are the causes of and indications for food stagnation? What precautions should be observed when using herbs that relieve food stagnation?
    • What are the characteristics of Mai Ya (Hordei fructus germinatus), Shen Qu (Massa medicata fermentata) and Shan Zha (Crataegi fructus)?
    • Lai Fu Zi (Raphani semen), Mai Ya (Hordei fructus germinatus) and Gu Ya (Oryzae fructus germinatus) are all able to aid the digestion of wheat, rice and fruits. What are the differences between their actions?
    • Shen Qu (Massa medicata fermentata) and Gu Ya (Oryzae fructus germinatus) both can aid the digestion of grains. What are the differences between their actions?
    • What are the characteristics of Ji Nei Jin (Gigeriae galli endothelium corneum) and Shan Zha (Crataegi fructus)?
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that expel parasites? What precautions should be observed in their use?
    • Which herbs can expel Ascaris (roundworm)?
    • Which herbs can expel Oxyuroidea (pinworm or threadworm), Taenia (tapeworm) and Ancylostoma (hookworm)?
    • What are the characteristics of Shi Jun Zi (Quisqualis fructus) and Ku Lian Pi (Meliae cortex)?
    • What are the differences between Shi Jun Zi (Quisqualis fructus) and Fei Zi (Torreyae semen) in expelling parasites?
    • What are the differences in characteristics between Nan Gua Zi (Curcubitae semen) and Bing Lang (Arecae semen)?
    • What are the indications for and characteristics of the herbs that induce vomiting? What precautions should be observed in their use?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that relieve food stagnation, that expel parasites and that induce vomiting
    • Chapter Ten: Herbs that regulate the Qi
    • What are the indications for herbs that regulate the Qi?
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that regulate the Qi? What precautions should be observed in their use?
    • What are the differences in actions between Ju Hong (Citri erythrocarpae pars rubra epicarpii), Chen Pi (Citri reticulatae pericarpium), Ju Luo (Citri reticulatae fructus retinervus), Ju Ye (Citri reticulatae folium) and Ju He (Aurantii semen)?
    • What are the differences between the functions of Zhi Shi (Aurantii fructus immaturus) and Zhi Ke (Aurantii fructus)?
    • What are the differences between Qing Pi (Citri reticulatae viride pericarpium), Chen Pi (Citri reticulatae pericarpium) and Zhi Ke (Aurantii fructus)?
    • What are the characteristics of Xiang Fu (Cyperi rhizoma)?
    • Which herbs are often used to promote Liver-Qi movement and what are their characteristics?
    • Which herbs are used for regulating the Qi in the abdomen and what are their characteristics?
    • Which herbs can influence Qi movement in the body?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that regulate the Qi
    • Chapter Eleven: Herbs that regulate the Blood
    • What are the causes of Blood stagnation? What are the indications for herbs that promote the Blood circulation?
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that promote the Blood circulation?
    • What precautions should be observed when using herbs that promote the Blood circulation?
    • What are the characteristics of Chuan Xiong (Chuanxiong rhizoma)?
    • What are the characteristics of Dan Shen (Salviae miltiorrhizae radix)?
    • What are the differences between Chuan Xiong (Chuanxiong rhizoma) and Dan Shen (Salviae miltiorrhizae radix) in promoting the Blood circulation?
    • Dan Shen (Salviae miltiorrhizae radix) and Yu Jin (Curcumae radix) can both cool the Blood and promote its circulation. What are the differences between their functions?
    • What are the differences between Yi Mu Cao (Leonuri herba) and Ze Lan (Lycopi herba)?
    • What are the characteristics of Hong Hua (Carthami flos), Ling Xiao Hua (Campsitis flos), Yue Ji Hua (Rosae chinensis flos) and Mei Gui Hua (Rosae flos)?
    • Yan Hu Suo (Corydalidis rhizoma) and Wu Ling Zhi (Trogopterori faeces) are commonly used herbs for alleviating pain. What are the differences between them?
    • What are the differences between Chuan Niu Xi (Cyathulae radix) and Huai Niu Xi (Achyranthis bidentatae radix)?
    • What are the characteristics of Dang Gui (Angelicae sinensis radix) and Ji Xue Teng (Spatholobi caulis et radix) in the function of promoting Blood circulation?
    • What are the indications for herbs that cool the Blood and regulate its circulation?
    • What are the differences between Ru Xiang (Olibanum) and Mo Yao (Myrrhae)?
    • What are the differences between San Leng (Sparganii rhizoma) and E Zhu (Curcumae rhizoma)?
    • What are the functions of Zhe Chong (Eupolyphaga seu opisthoplatia)*, Shui Zhi (Hirudo) and Mang Chong (Tabanus)*?
    • What are the characteristics of Wang Bu Liu Xing (Vaccariae semen) and Di Long (Pheretima)?
    • Which herbs can be applied topically?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that regulate the Blood
    • Chapter Twelve: Herbs that stop bleeding
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that stop bleeding?
    • What precautions should be observed when using herbs that stop bleeding?
    • What are the differences between Da Jì (Cirsii japonici herba seu radix) and Xiao Ji (Cirsii herba)?
    • Xiao Ji (Cirsii herba) and Bai Mao Gen (Imperatae rhizoma) can both treat blood in the urine. What are the differences between them when they are used in clinical practice?
    • Huai Hua (Sophorae flos), Huai Jiao (Sophorae fructus) and Di Yu (Sanguisorbae radix) are often used for treating intestinal hemorrhage. What are the differences between these three herbs?
    • What are the differences between raw Pu Huang (Typhae pollen) and charred Pu Huang?
    • What are the characteristics of San Qi (Notoginseng radix)?
    • Ai Ye (Artemisiae argyi folium), Pao Jiang (quick- fried Zingiberis rhizoma preparatum) and Zao Xin Tu (Terra flava usta) are substances for warming the Interior and stopping bleeding. What are the differences between them?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that stop bleeding
    • Chapter Thirteen: Herbs that warm the Interior
    • What are the functions of and indications for the herbs that warm the Interior?
    • What are the characteristics of herbs that warm the Interior and expel Cold? What precautions should be observed in their usage?
    • What are the differences between herbs that stimulate the Yang and those that tonify the Yang?
    • What are the commonly used strategies for warming the Interior and expelling Cold?
    • What are the differences between the functions of Fu Zi (Aconiti radix lateralis preparata)* and Rou Gui (Cinnamomi cassiae cortex)?
    • What are the differences between Fu Zi (Aconiti radix lateralis preparata)* and Gan Jiang (Zingiberis rhizoma)?
    • What are the differences between Sheng Jiang (Zingiberis rhizoma recens), Gan Jiang (Zingiberis rhizoma) and Pao Jiang (quick-fried Zingiberis rhizoma preparatum)?
    • What are the differences between Fu Zi (Aconiti radix lateralis preparata)* and Wu Tou (Aconiti radix)*?
    • What are the differences between Rou Gui (Cinnamomi cassiae cortex) and Gui Zhi (Cinnamomi cassiae ramulus)?
    • What are the differences between Wu Zhu Yu (Evodiae fructus), Gan Jiang (Zingiberis rhizoma) and Fu Zi (Aconiti radix lateralis preparata)* in the function of expelling interior Cold?
    • What are the differences between Rou Gui (Cinnamomi cassiae cortex) and Ai Ye (Artemisiae argyi folium) in the function of warming the Qi and Blood in the Lower Jiao?
    • What are the differences between Ai Ye (Artemisiae argyi folium) and Pao Jiang (quick-fried Zingiberis rhizoma preparatum) in the function of warming the meridians and stopping bleeding?
    • What are the differences between Sheng Jiang (Zingiberis rhizoma recens) and Gao Liang Jiang (Alpiniae officinari rhizoma) in the function of warming the Stomach?
    • Xiao Hui Xiang (Foeniculi fructus), Cao Dou Kou (Alpiniae katsumadai semen), Hua Jiao (Zanthoxyli fructus) and Ding Xiang (Caryophylli flos) all can warm the Middle Jiao and expel Damp-Cold. What are the differences between their functions?
    • Which herbs can soothe the Stomach-Qi and treat vomiting? What are their characteristics?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that warm the Interior
    • Chapter Fourteen: Herbs that tonify
    • What are the functions of tonifying herbs and their indications? What precautions should be observed in their usage?
    • What are the methods of 'direct tonifying' and 'indirect tonifying'?
    • What is the opinion of the 'school of tonifying the Spleen' in the herbal literature?
    • What is the opinion of the 'school of tonifying the Kidney' in the herbal literature?
    • What are the differences between strong tonification and gentle tonification?
    • What are the indications for herbs that tonify the Qi?
    • What are the characteristics of the herbs that tonify the Qi?
    • Ren Shen (Ginseng radix) and Huang Qi (Astragali radix) are the most important herbs for tonifying the Qi. What are their characteristics?
    • What are the differences between the different products of Ren Shen (Ginseng radix)?
    • Xi Yang Shen (Panacis quinquefolii radix), Sheng Shai Shen (raw dried Ginseng radix), Tai Zi Shen (Pseudostellariae radix) and Bei Sha Shen (Glehniae radix) are all able to tonify the Qi and Yin. What are the differences between their actions?
    • What are the differences between Ren Shen (Ginseng radix) and Dang Shen (Codonopsis radix)?
    • What are the differences in actions and applications between Huang Qi (Astragali radix) and Bai Zhu (Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma)?
    • What are the differences between raw Bai Zhu (Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma), Chao Bai Zhu (dry-fried Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma) and Jiao Bai Zhu (deep-dry-fried Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma)?
    • What are the differences in the functions of tonifying the Spleen-Qi and eliminating Dampness between Bai Zhu (Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma) and Fu Ling (Poria)?
    • Bai Zhu (Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma), Shan Yao (Dioscoreae rhizoma) and Bai Bian Dou (Dolichoris lablab semen) are able to tonify the Spleen-Qi and stop diarrhea. What are the differences between their actions?
    • What are the characteristics of Gan Cao (Glycyrrhizae radix)?
    • What are the indications for the herbs that tonify the Blood?
    • What are the characteristics of the herbs that tonify the Blood?
    • What precautions should be observed when the herbs that tonify the Blood are used?
    • What are the differences between Shu Di Huang (Rehmanniae radix praeparata) and He Shou Wu (Polygoni multiflori radix) in nourishing the Blood?
    • Why are Dang Gui (Angelicae sinensis radix) and Bai Shao Yao (Paeoniae radix lactiflora) often used together to tonify the Liver-Blood?
    • How can Bai Shao Yao (Paeoniae radix lactiflora) soften the Liver?
    • Which herbs can be used in the diet to tonify the Blood?
    • What are the causes of Yin deficiency? What are the indications for herbs that nourish the Yin?
    • What are the characteristics of the herbs that tonify the Yin?
    • What are the differences in the function of tonifying the Yin between Tian Men Dong (Asparagi radix) and Mai Men Dong (Ophiopogonis radix)?
    • Tian Men Dong (Asparagi radix), Mai Men Dong (Ophiopogonis radix), Bei Sha Shen (Glehniae radix), Bai He (Lilii bulbus) and Yu Zhu (Polygonati odorati rhizoma) are able to nourish the Lung-Yin and reduce Heat in the Upper Jiao. What are the differences be
    • Shi Hu (Dendrobii caulis)**, Mai Men Dong (Ophiopogonis radix), Bei Sha Shen (Glehniae radix) and Yu Zhu (Polygonati odorati rhizoma) are able to nourish the Stomach-Yin and reduce Heat. What are the differences between their actions?
    • Tian Men Dong (Asparagi radix), Shi Hu (Dendrobii caulis)**, Nu Zhen Zi (Ligustri lucidi fructus), Han Lian Cao (Ecliptae herba), Sheng Di Huang (Rehmanniae radix) and Xuan Shen (Scrophulariae radix) are able to nourish the Kidney-Yin. What are the differ
    • Shu Di Huang (Rehmanniae radix praeparata), He Shou Wu (Polygoni multiflori radix) and Gou Qi Zi (Lycii fructus) are called in some books 'the herbs that tonify the Kidney-Yin'. What are the differences of these herbs from the herbs that nourish the Yin d
    • What are the indications for the herbs that tonify the Yang?
    • What are the characteristics of the herbs that tonify the Yang?
    • What are the differences between warming the Yang and tonifying the Yang?
    • What are the differences in warming and tonifying the Kidney-Yang between Xian Mao (Curculinginis rhizoma), Ba Ji Tian (Morindae radix) and Xian Ling Pi (Epimedii herba)?
    • What are the differences in the function of tonifying the Kidney and strengthening the bones between Du Zhong (Eucomniae cortex), Xu Duan (Dipsaci radix), Gou Ji (Cibotii rhizoma)** and Sang Ji Sheng (Taxilli herba)?
    • What are the differences in the function of tonifying the Kidney-Yang between Bu Gu Zhi (Psoraleae fructus), Tu Si Zi (Cuscutae semen), Sha Yuan Zi (Astragali complanati semen) and Rou Cong Rong (Cistanchis herba)**?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that tonify
    • References
    • Chapter Fifteen: Astringent herbs
    • What are the indications for and characteristics of the astringent herbs?
    • What precautions should be observed in the use of astringent herbs?
    • Which herbs can stabilize the Lung-Qi and Lung-Yin and how should one prescribe them in clinical practice?
    • Which herbs can stabilize the Heart-Qi and how should one prescribe them in clinical practice?
    • Which herbs can bind up the intestines and stop diarrhea and how should one prescribe them in clinical practice?
    • Which herbs can stabilize the Bladder and treat frequent urination and incontinence?
    • Which herbs can stabilize the Kidney-Essence and how should one prescribe them in clinical practice?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in astringent herbs
    • Chapter Sixteen: Substances that sedate the Spirit and calm the Mind
    • What are the indications for the substances that sedate the Spirit and calm the Mind?
    • What are the characteristics of the substances that sedate the Spirit and calm the Mind? What precautions should be observed when using them?
    • Ci Shi (Magnetitum), Zhen Zhu (Margarita usta), Zhen Zhu Mu (Concha margaritifera usta) and Hu Po (Succinum) are all used for disturbance of the Heart-Spirit. What are the differences between them?
    • What are the differences in function between Long Gu (Mastodi fossilium ossis) and Long Chi (Mastodi fossilia dentis)?
    • What are the differences between Long Gu (Mastodi fossilium ossis) and Mu Li (Ostrea concha) in the function of calming the Mind?
    • What are the differences in treating insomnia between Suan Zao Ren (Ziziphi spinosae semen), Bai Zi Ren (Platycladi semen), Ye Jiao Teng (Polygoni multiflori caulis), He Huan Pi (Albiziae cortex) and Yuan Zhi (Polygalae radix)?
    • Dang Gui (Angelicae sinensis radix), Bai Shao Yao (Paeoniae radix lactiflora), Bai He (Lilii bulbus), Fu Ling (Poria), Sheng Di Huang (Rehmanniae radix) and Mai Men Dong (Ophiopogonis radix) can all calm the Mind. What are the differences between them?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in substances that sedate the Spirit and calm the Mind
    • Chapter Seventeen: Herbs that subdue the Liver-Yang and extinguish Liver-Wind
    • What are the pathological changes and manifestations in the syndromes of Liver-Yang rising and Liver-Wind?
    • What are the treatment principles for the syndromes of Liver-Yang rising and Liver-Wind? What precautions should be observed in their treatment?
    • What are the characteristics of the substances that anchor the Liver-Yang and extinguish Liver-Wind? What precautions should be observed when these substances are prescribed?
    • Shi Jue Ming (Haliotidis concha), Zhen Zhu Mu (Concha margaritifera usta), Ci Shi (Magnetitum), Long Gu (Mastodi fossilium ossis) and Dai Zhe Shi (Haematitum) can all be used for the syndromes of Liver-Yang rising and Liver-Wind. What are the differences
    • What are the differences between Tian Ma (Gastrodiae rhizoma)** and Gou Teng (Uncariae ramulus cum uncis) in the function of extinguishing Liver-Wind?
    • Quan Xie (Scorpio)*, Wu Gong (Scolopendra)* and Di Long (Pheretima) are all able to extinguish Liver-Wind, relieve spasms and control tremor. What are the differences between them?
    • Di Long (Pheretima) and Jiang Can (Bombyx batrycatus) can both extinguish Wind and are used for facial paralysis and facial spasm. What are the differences between them?
    • Jiang Can (Bombyx batrycatus), Bai Ji Li (Tribuli fructus), Chan Tui (Cicadae periostracum) and Jing Jie (Schizonepetae herba) are all able to relieve itching and treat itchy skin lesions or rashes. What are the differences between them?
    • Comparisons of strength and temperature in herbs that sedate the Liver-Yang and extinguish Liver-Wind
    • Appendix 1: Daily dosages for individual crude herbs above 6-9 grams
    • Appendix 2: Commonly used herbal combinations and their applications
    • Mutual accentuation (Xiang Xu)
    • Mutual enhancement (Xiang Shi)
    • Mutual enhancement (Xiang Shi)/Mutual counteraction (Xiang Wei)
    • Combinations to treat complicated syndromes or disorders
    • Appendix 3: Commonly used Chinese words in herbal names
    • Appendix 4: Pinyin names of herbs with Latin (pharmaceutical) equivalents
    • Bibliography
    • Index

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