Acute Encephalopathy and Encephalitis in Infancy and Its Related Disorders

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 21. Oktober 2017
  • |
  • 350 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-53090-3 (ISBN)
 

Stay current with recent progress in the field of acute encephalopathy and encephalitis in infants with this practical resource by Drs. Hideo Yamanouchi, Solomon L. Moshé, and Akihisa Okumura. This practical resource covers key information relevant to physicians, surgeons, and nurses who often must take prompt action in the everyday clinical care of patients with these disorders.

  • Features a wealth of information for all health care professionals who encounter these complex conditions.

  • Covers diagnostic strategy, subtypes of acute encephalopathy, and management of acute encephalopathy and encephalitis.
  • Consolidates today's available information and guidance on acute encephalopathy and encephalitis in infancy, in addition to related disorders, into one convenient resource.


Dr. Moshé is the is the Charles Frost Chair in Neurosurgery and Neurology and Professor of Neurology, Neuroscience, and Pediatrics at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He is the Director of Child Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology Dr. He has been President of the International League Against Epilepsy, American Epilepsy Society and American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (1996-1997). He is the recipient of several honors and awards, including Teacher-Investigator Development Award; Jacob Javits Neuroscience Investigator Award from NIH; Michael Prize for Achievement in Epilepsy Research; The American Epilepsy Society Research Award; Ambassador for Epilepsy Award from the International League Against Epilepsy; the Gloor Award from the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society; J.E. Purkyne Honorary Medal in Biomedical Research by the Czech Academy of Sciences; the 2008 Mentor of the Year Award from Albert Einstein College of Medicine; The 2010 Global and Awareness Award from Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy; the First Saul R. Korey Award in Translational Science and Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 2012; elected Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Fellow of the American Epilepsy Society 2016.
Since 1979, his research has focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in epilepsy in humans and in animal models.
  • Englisch
  • Philadelphia
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  • USA
  • Höhe: 235 mm
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  • Breite: 191 mm
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978-0-323-53090-3 (9780323530903)
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  • Front Cover
  • Acute Encephalopathy and Encephalitis in Infancy and Its Related Disorders
  • Acute Encephalopathy and Encephalitis in Infancy and Its Related Disorders
  • Copyright
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Contents
  • I INTRODUCTION
  • 1 - Overview and Definitions
  • DEFINITION
  • CATEGORIES
  • INITIAL STEPS LEADING TO THE FINAL DIAGNOSIS
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Classification and Epidemiology of Acute Encephalopathy
  • CLASSIFICATION OF ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • Classic Reye Syndrome
  • Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy
  • Acute Encephalopathy With Biphasic Seizures and Late Reduced Diffusion
  • Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy With a Reversible Splenial Lesion
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • REFERENCES
  • II PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • 3 - Translational Studies of Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SEIZURE CLASSIFICATION
  • DESIGNING ANIMAL MODELS
  • MECHANISMS OF SEIZURES IN INFANCY
  • ANIMAL MODELS
  • KINDLING
  • STATUS EPILEPTICUS
  • LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-ASSOCIATED SEIZURES IN DEVELOPING RATS
  • Febrile Seizures
  • Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation on SE
  • LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND INFANTILE SPASMS
  • TREATMENT OF SEIZURES AND STATUS EPILEPTICUS IN THE DEVELOPING BRAIN
  • EFFECTS OF ANTISEIZURE DRUGS ON THE DEVELOPING BRAIN
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Ictogenic and Epileptogenic Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation: Insights From Animal Models
  • INTRODUCTION
  • INFLAMMATORY PATHWAYS INVOLVED IN ICTOGENESIS AND EPILEPTOGENESIS
  • MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS
  • CONSEQUENCES OF NEUROINFLAMMATION ON IMMATURE BRAIN EXCITABILITY
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - Neuroinflammation in the Pathogenesis of Early Life Epileptic Encephalopathies
  • TYPES AND ETIOLOGIES OF EARLY LIFE EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHIES
  • ROLE OF INFLAMMATION IN EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHIES
  • Infantile Spasms/West Syndrome
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
  • Landau-Kleffner Syndrome/Continuous Spike Waves in Sleep
  • Dravet Syndrome
  • CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
  • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Genetic Background of Encephalopathy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • IMMUNOLOGIC GENETIC BACKGROUND
  • NEURONAL NETWORK GENETIC BACKGROUND
  • METABOLIC GENETIC BACKGROUND
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • III DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGY
  • 7 - Neuroimaging on Pediatric Encephalopathy in Japan
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH BIPHASIC SEIZURES AND LATE REDUCED DIFFUSION
  • Clinical Features of Acute Encephalopathy With Biphasic Seizures and Late Reduced Diffusion (Fig. 7.1)
  • Radiologic Features of Acute Encephalopathy With Biphasic Seizures and Late Reduced Diffusion (Box 7.1)
  • CLINICALLY MILD ENCEPHALITIS/ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH A REVERSIBLE SPLENIAL LESION
  • Clinical Features of Clinically Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy With a Reversible Splenial Lesion
  • Radiologic Features of Clinically Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy With a Reversible Splenial Lesion (Box 7.1)
  • Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Clinically Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy With a Reversible Splenial Lesion
  • RADIOLOGIC FEATURES OF ACUTE NECROTIZING ENCEPHALOPATHY (BOX 7.1)
  • ABBREVIATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Electroencephalography in Children With Acute Encephalitis/Encephalopathy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CONVENTIONAL ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • Generalized Slowing
  • Unilateral or Focal Slowing
  • Low Voltage
  • Abnormalities in Fast Activities
  • Increased fast activities
  • Decreased fast activities
  • Periodic Discharges
  • Paroxysmal Discharges
  • Episodic Transients
  • Ictal Changes
  • CONTINUOUS ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY MONITORING IN CHILDREN
  • QUANTITATIVE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY IN CHILDREN
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Electroencephalographic Approach for Early Diagnosis of Acute Encephalopathy and Encephalitis
  • BACKGROUND
  • ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY FINDINGS OF PEDIATRIC ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS AND ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • General Electroencephalography Findings During Acute Phase of Pediatric Acute Encephalitis
  • General Electroencephalography Findings During Acute Phase of Pediatric Acute Encephalopathy
  • ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY FINDINGS DURING ACUTE PHASE IN FEBRILE COMATOSE CHILDREN
  • CHILDREN Case
  • Discussion of Case Presentation
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Evaluation in Acute Encephalopathy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY DUE TO CYTOKINE STORM
  • ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY DUE TO EXCITOTOXICITY
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Differential Diagnosis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITIONS
  • DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
  • Clinical Features
  • Seizures and Electroencephalogram Features
  • Laboratory Features
  • Radiologic Features
  • DIAGNOSTIC ALGORITHM
  • REFERENCES
  • IV SUBTYPES OF ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • 12 - Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy
  • NOSOLOGY
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FINDINGS
  • RADIOLOGIC AND PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS
  • PATHOGENESIS
  • GENETIC BACKGROUND
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • TREATMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 13 - Acute Encephalopathy With Febrile Convulsive Status Epilepticus (AEFCSE)
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH FEBRILE CONVULSIVE STATUS EPILEPTICUS
  • Theory
  • Examination of Cases Hospitalized at the Osaka City General Hospital, Japan12
  • Pathogenesis of Acute Encephalopathy With Febrile Convulsive Status Epilepticus
  • DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH FEBRILE CONVULSIVE STATUS EPILEPTICUS (ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH BIPHASIC SEIZURES AND LATE REDUCED DIFFUSION)*
  • DISCUSSION
  • Preventing Acute Encephalopathy With Febrile Convulsive Status Epilepticus
  • Treatment of Acute Encephalopathy With Febrile Convulsive Status Epilepticus
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 - Acute Mitochondrial Encephalopathy
  • MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES AND ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • LEIGH SYNDROME/ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • Case Presentation
  • MITOCHONDRIAL MYOPATHY, ENCEPHALOPATHY, LACTIC ACIDOSIS, AND STROKELIKE EPISODES
  • Case Presentation
  • THERAPY FOR MITOCHONDRIAL ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 15 - Genetic-Metabolic Disorders Presenting as Acute, but Reversible, Severe Epilepsies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • VITAMIN-RESPONSIVE EPILEPSIES
  • Vitamin B6-Related Disorders
  • Biotinidase Deficiency
  • Cobalamin Deficiency
  • TRANSPORTOPATHIES
  • Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency
  • Cerebral Folate Deficiency
  • Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease
  • AMINO AND ORGANIC ACIDOPATHIES
  • Serine Biosynthesis Disorder
  • Creatine Synthesis Disorder
  • Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • NEUROTRANSMITTER DEFECTS
  • DISORDERS OF GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 16 - Acute Encephalopathy in Infants With Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency and Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NEUROPATHOGENESIS
  • CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
  • NEUROIMAGING FEATURES
  • LABORATORY FINDINGS
  • TREATMENT
  • CONCLUSION
  • DECLARATION OF CONFLICTING INTERESTS
  • REFERENCES
  • V SUBTYPES OF ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS
  • 17 - Autoimmune Encephalitis: Overview of Clinical Recognition, Autoantibody Diagnostic Markers, and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis
  • BACKGROUND: BRAIN INFLAMMATION AND ENCEPHALITIS
  • CLINICAL SYNDROMES
  • CELL SURFACE AUTOANTIBODIES
  • ANTI-N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE RECEPTOR ENCEPHALITIS
  • ANTI-MYELIN OLIGODENDROCYTE GLYCOPROTEIN ANTIBODY-ASSOCIATED DEMYELINATION
  • ANTIGLYCINE RECEPTOR ANTIBODY-ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALITIS
  • ANTI-G-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-A RECEPTOR ANTIBODY-ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALITIS
  • BASAL GANGLIA ENCEPHALITIS
  • ANTI-GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE ANTIBODY-ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALITIS
  • OTHER RARE SYNDROMES
  • RELAPSING COURSE
  • CLINICAL CRITERIA
  • SERONEGATIVE SUSPECTED AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITIS
  • THERAPEUTICS
  • FUTURE PRIORITIES
  • 18 - Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITIONS
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • NEUROIMAGING
  • CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ABNORMALITIES
  • ANTI-MYELIN OLIGODENDROCYTE PROTEIN ANTIBODIES
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
  • TREATMENT
  • OUTCOME
  • RELAPSES
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 19 - Epidemiology of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITION OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
  • International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group Definition
  • Brighton Collaboration Case Definition
  • Subtypes of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis by Antecedent Events
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
  • Incidence of Pediatric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • Incidence of Adult Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • Ethnicity
  • Sex
  • Age
  • Infection
  • Vaccination
  • Geography
  • Genetics
  • Other Factors
  • VACCINATION AND ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
  • LIMITATIONS IN ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES
  • Epidemiologic Survey of Pediatric Diseases in Japan
  • REFERENCES
  • 20 - Autoimmune-Mediated Encephalitis With Antibodies to NMDA-Type GluRs: Early Clinical Diagnosis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS
  • Definition of Clinical Stages
  • Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria of Nonherpetic Acute Limbic Encephalitis Patients
  • Healthy Controls and Disease Controls of Infection for Evaluation of Blood Data in the Preceding Stage
  • Disease Controls and Disease Controls of Aseptic Meningitis for Evaluation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Data in the Preceding Stage
  • Study for the Prodromal Stage
  • Study for the Preceding Stage
  • Statistics
  • RESULTS
  • History of Nonherpetic Acute Limbic Encephalitis Patients
  • Preceding Symptoms of Nonherpetic Acute Limbic Encephalitis Patients
  • Blood Data in the Preceding Stage of Nonherpetic Acute Limbic Encephalitis Patients
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Data in the Preceding Stage of Nonherpetic Acute Limbic Encephalitis Patients
  • DISCUSSION
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 21 - Clinical Features of HHV-6B Encephalitis: Difference Between Primary Infection and Reactivation
  • VIROLOGIC INFORMATION OF HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6B
  • NEUROVIRULENCE OF HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6B
  • HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6B ENCEPHALITIS AT THE TIME OF PRIMARY INFECTION
  • POSTTRANSPLANT HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 6B ENCEPHALITIS
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 22 - Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Encephalitis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
  • Scrub Typhus
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Future directions
  • Shigella
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Future research
  • Salmonella
  • Clinical features
  • Treatment
  • FUNGAL CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Outcome and Future Research
  • PARASITIC CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS
  • Cerebral Malaria
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Cysticercal Encephalitis
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Amoebic Meningoencephalitis
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • REFERENCES
  • VI ENCEPHALOPATHY / ENCEPHALITIS WITH REFRACTORY EPILEPTIC STATUS: RIMA NABBOUT
  • 23 - Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PATHOGENESIS OF FEBRILE INFECTION-RELATED EPILEPSY SYNDROME
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
  • INSTRUMENTAL AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATION
  • DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES
  • TREATMENT (SEE TABLE 23.1)
  • PROGNOSIS
  • REFERENCES
  • 24 - Acute Encephalitis With Refractory, Repetitive Partial Seizures
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY
  • CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • EXAMINATION FINDINGS
  • Examination of Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Electroencephalographic Examination
  • Neuroimaging Diagnosis
  • ARE ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS WITH REFRACTORY, REPETITIVE PARTIAL SEIZURES AND FEBRILE INFECTION-RELATED REFRACTORY EPILEPSY SYNDROME THE SAME DISEASE?
  • ETIOLOGY
  • Epilepsy Hypothesis
  • Inflammation Hypothesis
  • TREATMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 25 - Children With Encephalitis/Encephalopathy-Related Status Epilepticus and Epilepsy-A Global View of Postencephalitic Epilepsy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ACUTE SYMPTOMATIC SEIZURES IN THE ACUTE STAGE OF ENCEPHALITIS
  • HOW TO APPROACH A PATIENT WITH FEBRILE STATUS EPILEPTICUS-ROLE OF INFECTIOUS PATHOGENS AND ANTINEURONAL ANTIBODIES IN CHILDREN W...
  • Detection of the Underlying Etiology
  • Coexistence of Infectious Pathogens and Antineuronal Antibodies in a Patient With Encephalitis and Status Epilepticus
  • RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING POSTENCEPHALITIC EPILEPSY
  • MULTIMODAL MANAGEMENT OF POSTENCEPHALITIC EPILEPSY
  • Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute Seizures and Chronic Seizures of Postencephalitic Epilepsy
  • Immunotherapy for Seizures With Encephalitis
  • OUTCOMES OF POSTENCEPHALITIC EPILEPSY
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • VII MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHYAND ENCEPHALITIS
  • 26 - Intensive Care Management of Acute Encephalopathy and Encephalitis
  • EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSIS
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis
  • Neuroimaging
  • Electroencephalography
  • IMMEDIATE STABILIZATION
  • Airway and Breathing
  • Hemodynamic Stabilization
  • Addressing Correctable Factors
  • SPECIFIC THERAPY
  • Antimicrobial Therapy
  • Other Treatable Conditions
  • ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY AND SUPPORTIVE CARE
  • Corticosteroids
  • Nursing Care
  • Positioning of comatose patients
  • Eye care
  • Sedation, Analgesia, and Paralysis
  • Fluid, Electrolytes, and Nutrition
  • Seizures and Status Epilepticus
  • Raised Intracranial Pressure
  • Intracranial pressure monitoring
  • General measures
  • Hyperosmolar therapy
  • Hyperventilation
  • Barbiturate coma
  • Cerebrospinal fluid drainage
  • Decompressive craniectomy
  • Mechanical Ventilation
  • Isolation Precautions
  • Family Support
  • OUTCOME
  • REFERENCES
  • 27 - Strategy for the Treatment of Intractable Epilepsy Secondary to Acute Encephalopathy and Encephalitis
  • HAVE WE USED THE CORRECT DRUG?
  • WHAT DO WE MEAN BY DRUG RESISTANCE?
  • SHOULD ALTERNATIVE THERAPY BE CONSIDERED?
  • TREATING THE UNDERLYING CAUSE
  • TREATMENTS ON THE HORIZON
  • ARE SEIZURES THE ONLY CONCERN?
  • REFERENCES
  • 28 - The Pros and Cons of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Acute Encephalitis and Refractory Status Epilepticus
  • INTRODUCTION OF ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS AND REFRACTORY STATUS EPILEPTICUS
  • MULTIPLE MECHANISMS OF TARGETED TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT
  • CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF TARGETED TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT FOR ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS AND REFRACTORY STATUS EPILEPTICUS
  • Targeted Temperature Management for Acute Encephalitis
  • Targeted Temperature Management for Refractory Status Epilepticus
  • PROS AND CONS
  • Pros
  • Cons
  • CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 29 - Therapeutic Hypothermia as Potential Intervention on Acute Encephalopathy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY AND EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE
  • GENERAL PRACTICE FOR BRAIN HYPOTHERMIC THERAPY
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 30 - Neurosurgical Interventions for Encephalitis-Related Seizures and Epilepsy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NEUROSURGICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS AND STATUS EPILEPTICUS
  • NEUROSURGICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR POSTENCEPHALITIC EPILEPSY
  • RASMUSSEN ENCEPHALITIS
  • Pathological and Clinical Background Targeted by Current Medical Treatments
  • Neurosurgical Interventions for Rasmussen Encephalitis
  • CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 31 - Rehabilitation After Acute Encephalopathy in Childhood
  • OVERVIEW
  • ACUTE ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH BIPHASIC SEIZURES AND LATE REDUCED DIFFUSION
  • HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK AND ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • HYPOXIC ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Z

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