Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals

Chemistry and Human Health, 2 Volumes
 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 25. August 2017
  • |
  • 1488 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-15797-7 (ISBN)
 
Now in two volumes and containing more than seventy chapters, the second edition of Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Stability has been greatly revised and expanded. Written by hundreds of experts from across the world, the chapters cover diverse aspects of chemistry and biological functions, the influence of postharvest technologies, analysis methods and important phytochemicals in more than thirty fruits and vegetables.
Providing readers with a comprehensive and cutting-edge description of the metabolism and molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of phytochemicals for human health, this is the perfect resource not only for students and teachers but also researchers, physicians and the public in general.
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons
  • 14,14 MB
978-1-119-15797-7 (9781119157977)
1119157978 (1119157978)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
ELHADI M. YAHIA, Professor/Senior Research Scientist, Postharvest Technology & Human Nutrition Programs, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Autonomous University of Querétaro, Mexico.
  • Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry and Human Health
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • About the Editor
  • Introduction
  • 1 Importance of Fruits and Vegetables
  • 2 Phytochemicals
  • 3 Effect of Postharvest Handling and Processing on Phytochemicals
  • 4 Research and Development
  • 5 The Book
  • References
  • Part I: Chemistry and Biological Functions
  • 1: The Contribution of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption to Human Health
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Effect of Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables on Some Diseases
  • 1.2.1 Cancer
  • 1.2.2 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
  • 1.2.3 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 1.2.4 Obesity
  • 1.2.5 Pulmonary Health
  • 1.2.6 Bone Health
  • 1.2.7 Cataracts and Eye Health
  • 1.2.8 Arthritis
  • 1.2.9 Birth Defects
  • 1.2.10 Diverticulosis
  • 1.2.11 Skin Diseases
  • 1.2.12 Aging and Cognition
  • 1.3 Nutritional and Health Importance of Some Fruits and Vegetables
  • 1.3.1 Apples and Pears
  • 1.3.2 Citrus
  • 1.3.3 Grapes and Berries
  • 1.3.4 Avocados
  • 1.3.5 Stone Fruits
  • 1.3.6 Kiwifruit
  • 1.3.7 Tropical Fruits
  • 1.3.8 Nuts
  • 1.3.9 Tomatoes
  • 1.3.10 Cruciferous Vegetables
  • 1.3.11 Leafy Vegetables
  • 1.3.12 Root and Tuberous Vegetables
  • 1.3.13 Peppers
  • 1.3.14 Alliums
  • 1.3.15 Prickly Pear Fruit and Cladodes
  • 1.3.16 Mushrooms
  • 1.3.17 Pickled Vegetables
  • 1.4 Enhancement of Phytochemicals in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 1.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 2: Anticarcinogenic Phytochemicals
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Possible Anticarcinogenic Mechanisms of Phytochemicals
  • 2.2.1 Terpenes
  • 2.2.2 Phenolic Compounds
  • 2.2.3 Glucosinolates and Derivatives
  • 2.2.4 Glycosides: Saponins
  • 2.2.5 Betalains
  • 2.2.6 Polyacetylenes
  • 2.2.7 Lectins
  • 2.2.8 Alkaloids: Colchicine
  • 2.3 Conclusions
  • References
  • 3: Beneficial Effects of Phytochemicals on the Endocrine System
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Thyroid Physiology and Physiopathology
  • 3.3 Phytochemicals and Thyroid Function
  • 3.4 Phytochemicals and Thyroid Cancer
  • 3.5 Pancreas, Insulin, and Glucose Physiology
  • 3.6 Pathophysiology of Diabetes
  • 3.7 A Diet Rich in Phytochemicals and Diabetes
  • 3.8 Individual Phytochemicals and Their Antidiabetic Effects
  • 3.9 Prevention of Diabetes Chronic Complications and Phytochemicals
  • 3.10 Phytochemicals and Bone Metabolism
  • 3.10.1 Bone Physiology and Physiopathology
  • 3.10.2 Phytochemicals Effects on Bone Formation and Resorption
  • 3.11 Phytochemicals and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
  • 3.11.1 Adrenal Physiology and Physiopathology
  • 3.11.2 Phytochemicals Effects on Metabolism, Synthesis, and Secretion of Corticosteroids
  • 3.12 Conclusion
  • References
  • 4: Phytochemicals Effects on Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 4.1 Anatomical and Functional Organization of the Nervous System
  • 4.2 Cells of the Nervous System
  • 4.2.1 Propagation of the Action Potential
  • 4.2.2 Neuroglia or Glial Cells
  • 4.2.3 Neuro-Immuno-Endocrine Communication
  • 4.3 Epidemiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 4.4 General Physiopathology and Neurodegeneration
  • 4.4.1 Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  • 4.4.2 Inflammation
  • 4.4.3 Genetics and Environment
  • 4.5 Glial Cells as Mediators of Phytochemicals in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 4.6 Phytochemicals and Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.6.1 Resveratrol
  • 4.6.2 Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG)
  • 4.6.3 Fisetin
  • 4.6.4 Curcumin
  • 4.6.5 Other Phenolic Compounds
  • 4.6.6 Ginsenosides
  • 4.6.7 Sulforaphane (SFN)
  • 4.6.8 Alkaloids
  • 4.7 Phytochemicals Evaluation in Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease
  • 4.7.1 Flavonoids
  • 4.7.2 Genistein
  • 4.7.3 Curcumin
  • 4.7.4 Resveratrol
  • 4.8 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
  • 4.8.1 Genistein
  • 4.8.2 Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
  • 4.8.3 Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid (NGDA)
  • 4.8.4 Cannabinoids
  • 4.8.5 Ginseng Root
  • 4.8.6 Apocynin
  • 4.9 Phytochemicals and Schizophrenia
  • 4.9.1 Schizophrenia Overview
  • 4.9.2 Schizophrenia as a Neurodegenerative Disorder
  • 4.9.3 Therapeutic Use of Phytochemicals in Schizophrenia
  • References
  • 5: Synthesis and Metabolism of Phenolic Compounds
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Structure of Some Simple Phenolic Compounds
  • 5.3 Synthesis of Phenylpropanoids
  • 5.4 Coumarins
  • 5.5 Formation of Lignans and Lignin
  • 5.6 Synthesis of Suberin and Cutin
  • 5.7 Flavonoids
  • 5.8 Stilbenes
  • 5.9 Tannins
  • 5.10 Secondary Metabolism and Product Quality
  • Bibliography
  • 6: Biological Actions of Phenolic Compounds
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Phenolic Compounds and Human Health
  • 6.3 Biological Actions of Phenolic Compounds
  • 6.4 Antioxidant Action: Radical Scavenging and Metal-Ion Chelating
  • 6.4.1 Antiproliferative
  • 6.4.2 Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, and Antibiofilm
  • 6.4.3 Anti-inflammatory
  • 6.4.4 Antidiabetic
  • 6.4.5 Antiobesity
  • 6.4.6 Vasodilation
  • 6.4.7 Neuroprotective
  • 6.5 Conclusions and Perspectives
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 7: Flavonoids and Their Relation to Human Health
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Generalities
  • 7.3 Current Aspects of Flavonoid First-Pass Metabolism
  • 7.4 Flavonoid Intake and Mortality
  • 7.5 Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)
  • 7.5.1 Vascular Effects
  • 7.5.2 Antiatherosclerotic and Antithrombotic Effects
  • 7.5.3 In Vivo Studies of Flavonoid Effect on Coronary Disease
  • 7.5.4 Flavonoids from Different Sources Associated with the Risk of CVD
  • 7.6 Flavonoids and MetS
  • 7.7 Flavonoids and Cancer
  • 7.8 Flavonoids and Inflammation
  • 7.9 Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 8: Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds from Tropical Fruits
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Bioaccessibility: First Barrier Prior to Absorption
  • 8.3 Bioavailability of Tropical Fruits Polyphenols
  • 8.3.1 In Vitro Studies
  • 8.3.2 In Vivo Studies
  • 8.4 Polyphenols Pharmacokinetics
  • 8.5 Health-Related Effects of Bioavailable Polyphenols of Tropical Fruits
  • 8.6 Health-Related Effects of Non-Bioaccessible Polyphenols of Tropical Fruits
  • 8.7 Future Trends and Conclusions
  • References
  • 9: Mangosteen Xanthones: Bioavailability and Bioactivities
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Bioavailability and Metabolism of Mangosteen Xanthones
  • 9.3 Bioactivities of Mangosteen Xanthones
  • 9.3.1 Antioxidant Activity
  • 9.3.2 Anti-tumorigenic Activity
  • 9.3.3 Anti-inflammatory Activity
  • 9.3.4 Anti-obesogenic Activity
  • 9.3.5 Neuroprotective Activities
  • 9.4 Xanthone-Mediated Effects on Cellular Signaling Processes
  • 9.5 Anti-microbial Activity of Mangosteen Xanthones
  • 9.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 10: Methylxanthines: Dietary Sources, Bioavailability, and Health Benefits
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Classification of Xanthines
  • 10.3 Presence and Intake of Methylxanthines in the Diet
  • 10.4 Bioavailability and Metabolism of Methylxanthines
  • 10.4.1 Methylxanthines Determination in Plasma
  • 10.4.2 Urinary Excretion of Methylxanthines
  • 10.5 Health Effects
  • 10.5.1 Cardiovascular System
  • 10.5.2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 10.5.3 Obesity
  • 10.5.4 Central Nervous System
  • 10.5.5 Respiratory System
  • 10.5.6 Other Physiological Effects
  • 10.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 11: Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates: Cancer Preventive Effects
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention: In Vivo Studies
  • 11.2.1 Modulation of Phase I and Phase II Biotransformation Enzymes
  • 11.2.2 Inhibition of Chemically Induced Cancer
  • 11.2.3 Modulation of Signaling Pathways
  • 11.2.4 Modulation of Cell Cycle Arrest and Induction of Apoptosis
  • 11.2.5 Effect of Cooking Process
  • 11.2.6 Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate
  • 11.2.7 Epidemiological Studies on Glucosinolates Intake and Cancer Risk
  • 11.2.8 Human Dietary Exposure to Isothiocyanates
  • 11.3 Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention: In Vitro Studies
  • 11.3.1 Induction of Apoptosis and Inhibition of Cell Proliferation
  • 11.3.2 Regulation of Cell Cycle Arrest by Cruciferous Vegetables: In Vitro Studies
  • 11.3.3 Inhibition of Histone Deacetylation
  • 11.3.4 Oxidative Stress
  • References
  • 12: Effect of Soy Isoflavones on DNA Metabolic Enzyme Inhibitory Activity and Anticancer Activity
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Effect of Soy Isoflavones on the Activity of Mammalian Pols
  • 12.2.1 Preparation of Mammalian Pols
  • 12.2.2 Pol Assays
  • 12.2.3 Mammalian Pol Inhibition by Soy Isoflavones
  • 12.3 Effects of Soy Isoflavones on the Activity of Human Topos I and II
  • 12.3.1 Topo Assays
  • 12.3.2 Human Topo Inhibition by Soy Isoflavones
  • 12.4 Effects of Genistein on the Activity of Mammalian Pols, Topos, and Other DNA Metabolic Enzymes In Vitro
  • 12.4.1 DNA Metabolic Enzyme Inhibition by Genistein
  • 12.4.2 Influence of Genistein on the Hyperchromicity of dsDNA
  • 12.5 Effects of Soy Isoflavones on Cytotoxicity
  • 12.5.1 Cell Culture Method and Cell Viability Assay
  • 12.5.2 Cytotoxicity by Soy Isoflavones
  • 12.6 Effects of Genistein on HeLa Cell Cycle
  • 12.7 Discussion
  • 12.8 Conclusions
  • Conflicts of interest
  • References
  • 13: Tannins in Fruits and Vegetables: Chemistry and Biological Functions
  • 13.1 Basic Aspects and Chemical Structures
  • 13.2 Extraction and Purification
  • 13.3 Basic Techniques of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
  • 13.4 Analytical Techniques in the Determination of Tannin Chemical Structures
  • 13.5 Biosynthesis
  • 13.5.1 The Building Blocks
  • 13.5.2 Biosynthesis of Hydrolyzable Tannins
  • 13.5.3 Biosynthesis of Proanthocyanidins (Condensed Tannins)
  • 13.6 Biological Activities
  • 13.6.1 Tannins as Food Components
  • 13.6.2 Tannins: Other Biological Properties and Health Preservation
  • 13.7 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 14: Chlorophylls: Chemistry and Biological Functions
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.1.1 Importance
  • 14.1.2 Types and Distribution of Chlorophylls
  • 14.1.3 Distribution of Chlorophylls among Photosynthetic Organisms
  • 14.2 Chemistry of Chlorophylls
  • 14.2.1 Structures of Different Chlorophylls
  • 14.2.2 Synthesis of Chlorophyll
  • 14.2.3 Degradation or Catabolism of Chlorophyll
  • 14.3 Presence and Distribution in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 14.4 Biological Functions of Chlorophyll
  • 14.5 Changes in Chlorophyll during Processing of Fruits and Vegetables
  • 14.6 Conclusions and Research Needs
  • References
  • 15: Chemistry, Stability, and Biological Actions of Carotenoids
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Chemistry
  • 15.2.1 Structure, Nomenclature, and Classification
  • 15.2.2 Chemical and Physical Properties
  • 15.2.3 Mechanisms of Carotenoid Degradation
  • 15.2.4 Biosynthesis
  • 15.2.5 Analysis
  • 15.3 Sources of Dietary Carotenoids
  • 15.3.1 Sources in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 15.3.2 Factors Influencing Carotenoid Content in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 15.4 Postharvest and Processing Effects
  • 15.4.1 Storage Conditions
  • 15.4.2 Processing
  • 15.5 Absorption, Transport, and Metabolism
  • 15.5.1 Absorption and Transport
  • 15.5.2 Carotenoid Metabolism
  • 15.5.3 Distribution of Carotenoids in Tissues
  • 15.5.4 Limiting Factors for Absorption
  • 15.5.5 Methods to Estimate the Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Carotenoids
  • 15.6 Biological Actions and Disease Prevention
  • 15.6.1 Antioxidant Properties
  • 15.6.2 Cell Signaling
  • 15.6.3 Cancer Prevention
  • 15.6.4 Skin Protection
  • 15.6.5 Provitamin A Activity
  • 15.6.6 Age-Related Macular Degeneration
  • 15.6.7 Anti-obesogenic Properties
  • 15.6.8 Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
  • 15.6.9 Chronic Liver Diseases
  • 15.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • 16: Protective Effects of Carotenoids in Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Cardiovascular Diseases
  • 16.2.1 The Biology of Cardiovascular Disease
  • 16.2.2 Phytochemicals to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease
  • 16.2.3 Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Disease
  • 16.3 Diabetes
  • 16.3.1 Metabolic Dysfunctions in Diabetes and Its Complications
  • 16.3.2 Diabetic Treatment and the Potential Usefulness of Phytochemicals
  • 16.3.3 Carotenoids and Diabetes
  • 16.4 Safety Issues
  • 16.4.1 ß-Carotene
  • 16.4.2 Lycopene
  • 16.4.3 Astaxanthin
  • 16.4.4 Annatto Carotenoids
  • 16.4.5 Lutein and Zeaxanthin
  • 16.4.6 ß-Cryptoxanthin
  • 16.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 17: Betalains: Chemistry and Biological Functions
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.1.1 Definition
  • 17.1.2 Classification
  • 17.1.3 Sources
  • 17.2 Chemistry and Biochemistry
  • 17.2.1 Isolation
  • 17.2.2 Structure
  • 17.2.3 Biosynthesis
  • 17.2.4 Stability
  • 17.3 Physiological Properties in Plants
  • 17.3.1 Interaction with Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • 17.4 Functional Properties and Benefits to Human Health
  • 17.4.1 Bioavailability
  • 17.4.2 Anti-inflammatory Response
  • 17.4.3 Antioxidant Activity and Action against Oxidative Stress
  • 17.4.4 Anticancer Properties
  • 17.4.5 Other Effects of Betalain-Rich Extracts
  • 17.5 Applications in Food Industry
  • 17.6 Future Trends
  • References
  • 18: Dietary Fiber and Associated Macromolecular Antioxidants in Fruit and Vegetables
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Dietary Fiber
  • 18.3 Dietary Fiber in Fruit and Vegetables
  • 18.3.1 Content and Composition
  • 18.3.2 Nutrition and Health Claims
  • 18.4 Macromolecular Antioxidants Associated with Dietary Fiber
  • 18.4.1 Nature and Content
  • 18.4.2 Health-Related Properties
  • 18.5 Contribution of Fruit and Vegetables to the Intake of Dietary Fiber and Associated Macromolecular Antioxidants in the Diet
  • 18.6 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 19: Impact of Fruit Dietary Fibers and Polyphenols on Modulation of the Human Gut Microbiota
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Human Gut Microbiota
  • 19.3 Impact of Diet on the Gut Microbiota and Human Health
  • 19.4 Fruits as Human Gut Microbiota Modulators
  • 19.4.1 In Vitro Studies
  • 19.4.2 In Vivo Studies
  • 19.5 Fruits Components Involved in Gut Microbiota Modulation
  • 19.5.1 Dietary Fiber
  • 19.5.2 Polyphenols
  • 19.5.3 Antioxidant Dietary Fiber
  • 19.6 Related Health Benefits
  • 19.6.1 Immune System
  • 19.6.2 Obesity
  • 19.6.3 Diabetes
  • 19.6.4 Colorectal Cancer
  • 19.7 Conclusions and Perspectives
  • References
  • 20: Lipids in Fruits and Vegetables: Chemistry and Biological Activities
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Composition and Structure
  • 20.2.1 Nomenclature and Classification of Lipids
  • 20.2.2 Physical and Chemical Properties
  • 20.2.3 Fatty Acids (FA)
  • 20.2.4 Glycerides
  • 20.2.5 Phospholipids
  • 20.2.6 Sphingolipids
  • 20.2.7 Sterol Lipids
  • 20.2.8 Prenol Lipids
  • 20.3 Bioactive Compounds Found in Plant Lipids
  • 20.3.1 Short- and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids
  • 20.3.2 Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
  • 20.3.3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)
  • 20.3.4 Antioxidants
  • 20.3.5 Waxes and Sterols
  • 20.3.6 Eicosanoids and Related Lipids
  • 20.4 Main Plant Oils
  • 20.4.1 Saturated Oils
  • 20.4.2 Monounsaturated Oils
  • 20.4.3 Polyunsaturated Oils
  • 20.5 Other Oils from Plant Sources
  • 20.5.1 Peach (Prunus persica) and Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Seeds
  • 20.5.2 Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis)
  • 20.5.3 Camelina (Camelina sativa)
  • 20.5.4 Pomegranate Seed (Punica granatum)
  • 20.6 Role of Fats in Health and Disease
  • 20.6.1 Biochemical and Biological Functions of Stearidonic Acid (SDA)
  • 20.6.2 Biochemical and Biological Functions of Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA)
  • 20.6.3 Biochemical and Biological Functions of ARA
  • 20.6.4 Biochemical and Biological Functions of CLA
  • 20.6.5 Human Health Benefits of SCFA
  • 20.7 Food Applications of Plant Lipids
  • 20.7.1 Infant Formulas
  • 20.7.2 Reduced Calorie Fats
  • 20.7.3 Plastic Fats for Food Applications
  • 20.7.4 Cocoa Butter Alternatives
  • 20.8 Plant Lipidomics
  • 20.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • 21: Vitamin E (Tocopherols and Tocotrienols) in Fruits and Vegetables with Focus on Chemistry and Biological Activities
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 The Different Vitamin E Forms: Chemistry and Antioxidative and Biological Activities
  • 21.3 Vitamin E in Fruits and Vegetables: Determinants of Content and Pattern
  • 21.4 Absorption, Transport, and Metabolism in the Human Body
  • 21.5 Classical Vitamin E Functions: The Most Important Diet-Derived Lipophilic Antioxidant in the Body
  • 21.6 Non-Classical Functions of Vitamin E and Its Isomers: Much to Discover Yet
  • 21.7 Intake and Status of Vitamin E at Population Level: Contribution of Fruits and Vegetables as Sources of Different Vitamers
  • References
  • 22: Plant Vitamin C: One Single Molecule with a Plethora of Roles
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Chemistry of Ascorbic Acid
  • 22.3 The Multiple Roles of Ascorbic Acid in Plants
  • 22.3.1 Ascorbic Acid Roles in Plant Metabolism
  • 22.3.2 Ascorbic Acid Functions in Heterotrophic Tissues
  • 22.4 AsA in Humans
  • 22.5 Ascorbic Acid Regulatory Pathways
  • 22.5.1 Multiple Ascorbic Acid Biosynthetic Pathways
  • 22.5.2 Ascorbic Acid Recycling Pathway
  • 22.5.3 Ascorbic Acid and Oxidation: The Role of Ascorbate Oxidase
  • 22.5.4 Ascorbic Acid Degradation Pathway
  • 22.5.5 Metabolic Pathways That Are Not Closely Related to Ascorbic Acid
  • 22.5.6 Compartmentation and Transport of AsA in Plants
  • 22.6 Ascorbic Acid Diversity in Plants
  • 22.6.1 Ascorbic Acid Variations in Plant Tissues and Cellular Compartments
  • 22.6.2 Fruit Ascorbic Acid Variations in Plant Species and Genotypes
  • 22.6.3 Developmental Changes of AsA
  • 22.6.4 The Involvement of Climacterium in Ascorbic Acid Levels
  • 22.7 The Impact of Postharvest Handling on AsA Content of Fruits and Vegetables
  • 22.8 Genetic Regulation of AsA Accumulation
  • 22.8.1 Promoting AsA Biosynthesis
  • 22.8.2 Enhancing AsA Recycling
  • 22.8.3 Inhibiting AsA Breakdown
  • 22.8.4 AsA Regulation at the Transcriptional or Posttranslational Level
  • 22.9 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 23: Capsaicinoids: Occurrence, Chemistry, Biosynthesis, and Biological Effects
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Occurrence of Capsaicinoids
  • 23.3 Chemistry and Biosynthesis
  • 23.4 Biosynthesis
  • 23.5 Biological Effects of Capsaicinoids
  • 23.5.1 Cytotoxicity
  • 23.5.2 Pungency
  • 23.5.3 Effect on Tight Junctions and Drug Permeability of Epithelial Cells
  • 23.5.4 Cell Motility
  • 23.5.5 Pain Management
  • 23.5.6 Cancer
  • 23.5.7 Weight Control
  • 23.5.8 Cardiovascular Disease
  • 23.5.9 Other Applications
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 24: Flavors and Aromas: Chemistry and Biological Functions
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Chemistry and Organoleptic Properties
  • 24.2.1 Volatile Compounds
  • 24.2.2 Non-volatile Compounds
  • 24.3 Biosynthesis
  • 24.3.1 Lipid and Fatty Acids
  • 24.3.2 Amino Acids
  • 24.3.3 Terpenoid Synthesis
  • 24.3.4 Carotenoids
  • 24.3.5 Sugars and Acids
  • 24.3.6 Fermentation
  • 24.4 Factors Affecting Flavor and Aroma
  • 24.4.1 Genetics
  • 24.4.2 Preharvest Factors
  • 24.4.3 Maturity and Ripening
  • 24.4.4 Postharvest Treatments
  • 24.4.5 Storage
  • 24.4.6 Fresh-Cut Processing
  • 24.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 25: Recent Advances in Bioactivities of Common Food Biocompounactives
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Definition of Phytochemicals Bioactivity
  • 25.2.1 Principles and Concepts
  • 25.2.2 Aims and Contexts
  • 25.3 Food Biocompounactives: Occurrence, Chemical Forms, and Mechanisms of Action
  • 25.3.1 Chemical Forms and Occurrence of Biocompounactives
  • 25.3.2 Bioactivity in Mechanisms of Action
  • 25.4 Bioactivities of Common Food Phytochemicals: Opportunities and Challenges
  • 25.4.1 Biocompounactives Opportunities
  • 25.4.2 Biocompounactives Challenges
  • 25.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 26: Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Intake of Phytochemicals and Their Bioactive Effect
  • 26.1 Impact of Biomarkers in Nutritional Research
  • 26.1.1 Assessment of Nutritional Status
  • 26.1.2 Assessment of Nutrient Exposure
  • 26.2 New Technologies Applied in the Identification of Food Intake Biomarkers and Their Validation
  • 26.2.1 Food Derived Metabolites Analysis
  • 26.2.2 Food Derived MicroRNA Analysis
  • 26.3 Current Established Biomarkers for Phytochemical Intake Evaluation
  • 26.3.1 Alkylresorcinols (ARs) as Exposure Biomarkers for Whole Grain
  • 26.3.2 Carotenoids as Exposure Biomarkers for Fruits and Vegetables
  • 26.3.3 Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol as Exposure Biomarkers of Olive Oil
  • 26.4 Nutridynamics: A Systematic Approach to Study Bioactive Effects
  • References
  • Part II: Influence of Postharvest Handling and Processing Technologies, and Analysis of Phytochemicals
  • 27: Influence of Postharvest Technologies and Handling Practices on Phytochemicals in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 The Cold Chain
  • 27.3 Effects of Exposure to Light
  • 27.4 Modified (MA) and Controlled Atmospheres (CA)
  • 27.4.1 Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
  • 27.4.2 Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage
  • 27.5 Ethylene Effects
  • 27.5.1 Fruit Ripening
  • 27.5.2 Inhibition of Ethylene Production and Action
  • 27.5.3 Ethylene Elimination from the Atmosphere Surrounding the Fruit
  • 27.6 Heat Treatments
  • 27.6.1 Hot Water Treatments
  • 27.6.2 Hot Air Treatments
  • 27.7 Treatment with Natural Products
  • 27.8 Irradiation
  • 27.9 Future Needs and Trends
  • References
  • 28: Phytochemical Changes during Minimal Processing of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 Changes in Phytochemical Content and Bioactivity in Fresh-Cut Produce
  • 28.2.1 Cutting and Shape Effect
  • 28.2.2 Sanitation Effect
  • 28.2.3 Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh-Cut Produce
  • 28.2.4 UV-C Irradiation
  • 28.2.5 Natural Antimicrobial Volatiles
  • 28.2.6 Natural Antioxidant Treatments
  • 28.2.7 Edible Coatings
  • 28.2.8 Other Preservation Technologies: Non-thermal Approaches
  • 28.3 Effect of Processing Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables on Bioavailability of Phytochemicals
  • 28.4 Future Directions
  • References
  • 29: Conventional and Novel Thermal Processing Used for the Improvement of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 An Overview of Different Processing Methods for Fruits and Vegetables
  • 29.3 Effect of Conventional Thermal Processing on Phytochemicals
  • 29.3.1 Blanching
  • 29.3.2 Frying
  • 29.3.3 Pasteurization
  • 29.3.4 Sterilization
  • 29.3.5 Thermal Drying
  • 29.4 Effect of Novel Thermal Processing on Phytochemicals
  • 29.4.1 Ohmic Heating
  • 29.4.2 Microwave Heating
  • 29.4.3 Radio Frequency Heating
  • 29.4.4 Infrared Heating
  • 29.5 Mechanism of Phytochemical Degradation as Affected by Thermal Processing
  • 29.6 Conclusion
  • 29.7 Future Trends and Challenges
  • References
  • 30: Non-thermal Processing Effects on Fruits and Vegetables Phytonutrients
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.1.1 Fruit Phytonutrients Degradation as Affected by Thermal Processing
  • 30.1.2 Non-thermal Processing as a Preservation Method for Phytonutrients
  • 30.2 Non-thermal Processing of Fruits: Effect on Phytonutrients
  • 30.2.1 High Pressure Processing
  • 30.2.2 Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide
  • 30.2.3 Ultrasound Processing
  • 30.2.4 Pulsed Electric Field
  • 30.2.5 Ultraviolet Radiation
  • 30.3 Influence of Storage on Non-thermal Processed Fruits and Vegetables Phytonutrients
  • 30.4 Future Trends and Conclusion
  • References
  • 31: Chlorophylls and Colour Changes in Cooked Vegetables
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.1.1 Chlorophyll Biosynthesis
  • 31.2 Chlorophylls and Their Role in the Colour of Vegetables
  • 31.2.1 Molecular Basis of Colour
  • 31.2.2 Changes of Chlorophyll and Green Colour in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 31.3 The Effect of Cooking on Chlorophyll Content
  • 31.4 The Effect of Cooking on Colour of Vegetables in Relation to Chlorophyll Content
  • References
  • 32: Pressurized Fluid Extraction of Phytochemicals from Fruits, Vegetables, Cereals, and Herbs
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Phytochemicals
  • 32.2.1 Phenolics
  • 32.2.2 Carotenoids
  • 32.2.3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
  • 32.2.4 Sterols
  • 32.2.5 Tocols
  • 32.2.6 Essential Oils
  • 32.3 Extraction of Phytochemicals from Different Plant Sources
  • 32.3.1 Fruits and Vegetables
  • 32.3.2 Cereals
  • 32.3.3 Medicinal Herbs
  • 32.4 Future Trends
  • 32.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 33: Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.2 Merits of Supercritical Fluid as Solvent
  • 33.3 Optimization of Extraction Parameters and SFE Procedures
  • 33.4 Comparison of SFE with Other Extraction Techniques
  • 33.5 Limitations of Supercritical Fluid as Solvent and Use of Modifiers
  • 33.6 Extraction of Bioactive Phytochemicals from Fruits and Vegetables using Supercritical Fluid
  • 33.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • 34: The Use of Non-destructive Techniques to Assess the Nutritional Content of Fruits and Vegetables
  • 34.1 Introduction
  • 34.2 Non-Destructive Techniques for Quality Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables
  • 34.2.1 VIS-NIR Spectroscopy
  • 34.2.2 Hyperspectral Imaging
  • 34.2.3 Chemometric Tools
  • 34.3 Prediction of Nutritional Content of Fruits and Vegetables
  • 34.3.1 Prediction of Water Content
  • 34.3.2 Soluble Solids, Acidity, and Assessment of the Maturity Stage
  • 34.3.3 Macro- and Micronutrients: Vitamins, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Activity
  • 34.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • 35: Rapid Estimation of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Vegetables and Fruits Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
  • 35.1 Introduction
  • 35.2 Development of NIRS and FT-NIRS
  • 35.3 Instrumentation
  • 35.4 Calibration Development
  • 35.5 Spectral Pre-processing Methods
  • 35.5.1 Validation Parameters
  • 35.6 Applications
  • 35.6.1 Assessment of Traditional Quality Indices
  • 35.6.2 Assessment of Nutritional Indices: Total Phenol Content, Antioxidant Activity
  • 35.6.3 Breeding Improvement Program
  • 35.6.4 International Trade
  • 35.7 Limitations
  • 35.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • 36: Methods for Determining the Antioxidant Capacity of Food Constituents
  • 36.1 Introduction
  • 36.2 Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) Assays
  • 36.2.1 Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) Assay
  • 36.2.2 Total Oxyradical Scavenging Capacity Assay (TOSCA)
  • 36.2.3 Total Radical-Trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP) Assay
  • 36.3 Single Electron Transfer (SET) Assays
  • 36.3.1 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Assay
  • 36.3.2 2,2-Azinobis-(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid) (ABTS+) Radical Scavenging Assay
  • 36.3.3 N,N-Dimethyl-p-Phenylenediamine (DMPD+) Radical Scavenging Assay
  • 36.3.4 Cupric Ions (Cu) Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) Assay
  • 36.3.5 Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) Assay
  • 36.3.6 Folin-Ciocalteu Assay for Measuring Total Phenolic Compounds
  • 36.4 Other Antioxidant Assays
  • 36.4.1 Fast Blue for Measuring Total Phenolic Compounds
  • 36.4.2 Nanoparticle-Based Assays
  • 36.5 Final Remarks
  • References
  • 37: Enhancement of Phytochemicals Using Next-Generation Technologies for the Production of High Quality Fruits and Vegetables
  • 37.1 Introduction
  • 37.2 Phytonutrients from Fruits and Vegetables
  • 37.3 Preventative Phytomedication: Marrying Sequencing Capabilities with Phytochemical Power
  • 37.4 Genetic Engineering to Develop Phytonutrient Enriched Fruits and Vegetables
  • 37.5 Amalgamation of Technologies to Bring Next-Generation Fresh Produce to Consumers
  • 37.6 Public Awareness and Biotech Methodology of Agriculture
  • 37.7 Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Websites of Interest
  • 38: Modeling Shelf Life of Packaged, Ready-to-Eat Fruits and Vegetables with Reference to the Fate of Nutritional Compounds
  • 38.1 Introduction
  • 38.2 Quality of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables
  • 38.2.1 Quality Changes of Ready-to-Eat Fruits and Vegetables Over Time
  • 38.2.2 Variables Affecting Quality Changes during Storage
  • 38.3 Mathematical Modeling for Shelf Life Estimation
  • 38.3.1 General Considerations
  • 38.3.2 Models Classification
  • 38.3.3 Kinetic Characterization of Quality Loss and Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT)
  • 38.3.4 Temperature Dependence of Quality Degradation
  • 38.3.5 The Weibullian Log-Logistic Model: A More Flexible Equation for Shelf Life Estimation
  • 38.3.6 Shelf Life Estimation under Non-isothermal Conditions
  • 38.3.7 Multivariate Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (MASLT)
  • 38.3.8 The Use of Mechanistic Models for Describing Fruits and Vegetables Degradation
  • References
  • Part III: Phytochemicals in Some Fruits and Vegetables
  • 39. Ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig)
  • 39.1 Introduction
  • 39.2 History, Origin, and Distribution
  • 39.3 Botanical Description
  • 39.4 Toxicity of Ackee Fruit
  • 39.5 Nutritional Composition
  • 39.5.1 Phytochemical Constituents
  • 39.5.2 Fatty Acids
  • 39.5.3 Sugars
  • 39.6 Storage and Processing
  • 39.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • 40: Andean Berry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz)
  • 40.1 Introduction
  • 40.2 Phytochemical Composition: Contents and Changes
  • 40.3 Biological Effects of Andean Berry Phytochemicals (Especially Health Effects, and Only on This Fruit)
  • 40.3.1 Antioxidant Activity
  • 40.3.2 Antiproliferative Activity
  • 40.3.3 Cardioprotective Effect
  • 40.3.4 Skin Health and Aging
  • 40.4 Future Directions
  • 40.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 41: Berries
  • 41.1 Introduction
  • 41.2 Berryfruit Phytochemicals: Content and Changes
  • 41.2.1 Flavonoids
  • 41.2.2 Phenolic Acids
  • 41.2.3 Tannins
  • 41.2.4 Factors Affecting Phytochemicals Concentrations in Berries
  • 41.3 Health Effects of Berryfruit Phytochemicals
  • 41.3.1 Berry Phytochemicals and Oxidative Stress
  • 41.3.2 Berry Phytochemicals and Inflammation
  • 41.3.3 Anticarcinogenic Activity of Berry Phytochemicals
  • 41.3.4 Berry Phytochemicals and Cardiovascular Diseases
  • 41.3.5 Berry Phytochemicals and Communicable Diseases
  • 41.3.6 Berry Phytochemicals and Immunological Diseases
  • 41.3.7 Berry Phytochemicals and Metabolic Diseases
  • 41.3.8 Berries and Neurological Diseases
  • 41.4 Information Lacking and Research Needs for Berries
  • 41.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 42: Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)
  • 42.1 Introduction
  • 42.2 Traditional Nomenclature and Use throughout the World
  • 42.3 Cultural Use
  • 42.4 Phytochemical Properties
  • 42.4.1 Fruits
  • 42.4.2 Seeds
  • 42.4.3 Leaves
  • 42.4.4 Roots
  • 42.5 Pharmacological Properties
  • 42.5.1 Antioxidant Activity
  • 42.5.2 Antihyperglycemic Activity
  • 42.5.3 Anti-Asthmatic and Anti-Allergic Activity
  • 42.5.4 Antihyperlipidemic Activity
  • 42.5.5 Cardioprotective Activity
  • 42.5.6 Immunomodulatory Activity
  • 42.5.7 Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activity
  • 42.5.8 Effect on the Central Nervous System (CNS) as Depressant and Analgesic Principle
  • 42.6 Occasional Toxicity
  • 42.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 43: Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)
  • 43.1 Introduction
  • 43.1.1 Brief History
  • 43.1.2 Current Situation in Cocoa Production
  • 43.1.3 Chocolate Production and Processing Statistics
  • 43.1.4 Consumer Trends and Interest in Health Care
  • 43.2 Major Phytochemical Components
  • 43.2.1 Cocoa Phytochemicals
  • 43.2.2 Biologically Active Components of Cocoa
  • 43.2.3 Bioavailability of Cocoa Phytochemicals
  • 43.2.4 Antioxidative Properties of Cocoa Phytochemicals
  • 43.3 Genotype Influence and Phytochemical Components: Cocoa Classification, Environmental Effects on Bean Quality, and Breeding to Improve Genotypes
  • 43.3.1 Classification of Cacao Varieties
  • 43.3.2 Effect of Variety and Growing Region on Phytochemical Content
  • 43.3.3 Progress in Breeding to Improve Cocoa Cultivars for Bean Quality Traits that Contribute to Nutritional Composition, Flavor, and Yield
  • 43.4 Changes during Cocoa Processing
  • 43.5 Effects in Nutrition and Health
  • 43.5.1 Antioxidant Effects
  • 43.5.2 Inflammation
  • 43.5.3 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
  • 43.5.4 Cancer
  • 43.5.5 Neurodegenerative Diseases: Cerebral Blood Flow, Memory, and Alzheimer's Disease
  • 43.5.6 Skin Aging
  • 43.6 Research Opportunities and Current Trends in Industry
  • 43.6.1 Breeding for Cacao Elite Varieties
  • 43.6.2 New Cocoa Products
  • 43.6.3 Optimization of the Cacao Manufacturing Process
  • 43.6.4 Health Benefits of Cocoa Products
  • References
  • 44: Cactus Pear Fruit and Cladodes
  • 44.1 Introduction
  • 44.2 Phytochemicals Contents and Changes
  • 44.2.1 Pigments
  • 44.2.2 Phenolic Compounds
  • 44.2.3 Ascorbic Acid
  • 44.2.4 Tocopherols
  • 44.2.5 Lipids
  • 44.3 Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Mucilage
  • 44.3.1 Carbohydrates
  • 44.3.2 Dietary Fiber
  • 44.3.3 Mucilage
  • 44.4 Potential Health Benefits
  • 44.4.1 Anticancer Activity
  • 44.4.2 Antidiabetic Effects
  • 44.4.3 Antihyperlipidemic and Hypercholesterolemic Effects
  • 44.4.4 Antiviral Properties
  • 44.4.5 Improved Platelet Functions
  • 44.4.6 Antioxidant Properties
  • 44.4.7 Neuroprotective Effects
  • 44.4.8 Diuretic Effects
  • 44.4.9 Gastric Protective Effects
  • 44.5 Healthy Compounds from By-products
  • 44.6 Conclusions and Research Needs
  • References
  • 45: Capsicums
  • 45.1 Introduction
  • 45.2 Botany and Ecology
  • 45.3 Phytochemistry
  • 45.4 Bioactive Compounds
  • 45.5 Medicinal
  • 45.5.1 Mode of Action
  • 45.6 Health Benefits of Capsicum
  • 45.6.1 Anti-inflammatory Properties
  • 45.6.2 Mucilage
  • 45.6.3 Chemopreventive Properties
  • 45.6.4 Cardiovascular Properties
  • 45.6.5 Antioxidant Properties
  • 45.6.6 Hypoglycemic Properties
  • 45.6.7 Immunology
  • 45.6.8 Diabetic Neuropathy
  • 45.6.9 Fibromyalgia
  • 45.7 Capsicums
  • 45.7.1 Insecticidal
  • 45.7.2 Larvicidal: Culex quinquefasciatus
  • 45.7.3 Natural Bactericidal Agents
  • 45.7.4 Anticorrosion and Antimicrobial Activity
  • 45.8 Research Needs
  • 45.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • 46: Carrots (Daucus carota L.)
  • 46.1 Introduction
  • 46.2 Phytochemicals Present in Carrots
  • 46.2.1 Carotenoids
  • 46.2.2 Phenolic Compounds
  • 46.2.3 Vitamin C
  • 46.2.4 Polyacetylenes
  • 46.3 Healthy Biological Effects of the Phytochemicals Present in Carrots
  • 46.3.1 Provitamin A Activity
  • 46.3.2 Antioxidant Activity
  • 46.4 Changes in Carrot Phytochemicals during Processing
  • 46.4.1 Effect of Fresh-Cut Processing
  • 46.4.2 Effect of Thermal Processing
  • 46.5 Information Lacking and Future Needs
  • 46.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • 47: Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz)
  • 47.1 Introduction
  • 47.2 Culinary Uses
  • 47.3 Health Effects
  • 47.4 Proximate Analysis of Chayote
  • 47.5 Moisture, Carbohydrate, and Caloric Content
  • 47.6 Dietary Fiber
  • 47.7 Amino Acids and Protein Content
  • 47.8 Total Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Profile
  • 47.9 Minerals
  • 47.10 Vitamins
  • 47.11 Phenolic Compounds
  • 47.12 Sterols
  • 47.13 Triterpenes and Cucurbitacins
  • 47.14 Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity
  • 47.15 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 48: Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.)
  • 48.1 Introduction
  • 48.1.1 Economic Importance
  • 48.1.2 Postharvest Physiology and Physicochemical Parameters
  • 48.1.3 Nutritional Content
  • 48.1.4 Traditional Uses and Health Importance
  • 48.2 Phytochemicals Present in the Fruit: Contents and Changes
  • 48.3 Biological Activities
  • 48.3.1 In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity
  • 48.3.2 Antimicrobial Activity
  • 48.3.3 Anticancer Activity
  • 48.3.4 Cardiovascular Protection
  • 48.3.5 Other Studies
  • 48.4 Information Lacking and Research Needs
  • 48.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 49: Citrus
  • 49.1 Introduction
  • 49.2 Citrus Carotenoids
  • 49.3 Citrus Anthocyanins
  • 49.4 Citrus Limonoids
  • 49.5 Citrus Flavonoids
  • 49.5.1 Extraction and Analysis Methods for Flavonoids
  • 49.5.2 Metabolism and Bioavailability of Flavonoids
  • 49.5.3 Antioxidant Activity and Radical Scavenging Effects
  • 49.5.4 Flavonoids and Chronic Diseases
  • 49.5.5 Anti-inflammatory Effects
  • 49.5.6 Flavonoids and Anticancer Effects
  • 49.5.7 Cardiovascular Effects
  • 49.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 50: Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
  • 50.1 Introduction
  • 50.2 Nutritional and Functional Features of Dates
  • 50.3 Phytochemicals in Dates
  • 50.3.1 Carotenoids
  • 50.3.2 Phenolic Compounds
  • 50.3.3 Phytosterols (Plant Steroids) and Triterpenoids
  • 50.3.4 Vitamins
  • 50.3.5 Dates as a Source of Antioxidants
  • 50.3.6 Aroma Volatiles
  • 50.4 Applications of Dates in Traditional Medicine
  • 50.5 Health and Dates
  • 50.6 Supportive Studies
  • 50.6.1 In Vitro Studies
  • 50.6.2 In Vivo Studies
  • 50.6.3 Clinical Studies
  • References
  • 51: Grapes
  • 51.1 Introduction
  • 51.2 Phytochemicals Present in Grape Berries
  • 51.2.1 Non-flavonoids
  • 51.2.2 Flavonoid Compounds
  • 51.2.3 Stilbenes
  • 51.3 Biological Effects of the Phytochemicals Present in Grapes
  • 51.3.1 Antioxidant Activities
  • 51.3.2 Cardioprotection Action and Atherosclerosis
  • 51.3.3 Anticancer Activities
  • 51.3.4 Anti-inflammation Activities
  • 51.3.5 Antimicrobial Effects
  • 51.4 Information Lacking and Research Needs for Grape Berries
  • 51.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 52: Grape Bagasse: A Potential Source of Phenolic Compounds
  • 52.1 Introduction
  • 52.2 Phenolic Compounds from Vitis vinifera: Synthesis and Classification
  • 52.2.1 Non-flavonoids
  • 52.2.2 Flavonoids
  • 52.3 Biological Functions of Grape Phenolic Compounds
  • 52.4 Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Bagasse
  • 52.5 Potential Uses of Grape Bagasse
  • 52.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • 53: Guava (Psidium guajava)
  • 53.1 Introduction
  • 53.2 Guava Fruit Generalities
  • 53.2.1 Guava Composition
  • 53.3 Bioactive Compounds Present in Guava Fruit
  • 53.3.1 Carotenoids
  • 53.3.2 Polyphenols
  • 53.3.3 Triterpenes
  • 53.3.4 Volatile Compounds
  • 53.3.5 Guava Fruit Matrix Interactions
  • 53.4 Health Effects of Guava Fruit
  • 53.4.1 Other Health Effects of Guava
  • 53.5 Perspectives
  • References
  • 54: Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)
  • 54.1 Introduction
  • 54.2 Botanical Description
  • 54.3 Traditional Uses
  • 54.4 Physicochemical Composition
  • 54.5 Phytochemicals
  • 54.6 Antioxidant Potential
  • 54.7 Biological Actions of EO Antioxidants
  • 54.8 Applications of EO Phytochemicals in Cancer
  • 54.8.1 Possible Mechanism of Anticarcinogenic Action
  • 54.9 Applications of EO Phytochemicals in Diabetes
  • 54.10 Other Health Effects of EO Phytochemicals
  • 54.11 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • References
  • 55: Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.)
  • 55.1 Introduction
  • 55.1.1 Origin and Distribution
  • 55.1.2 Taxonomy and Classification
  • 55.1.3 Botanical Description
  • 55.1.4 Nutritional Value
  • 55.1.5 Economic Value
  • 55.1.6 Horticulture
  • 55.1.7 Harvesting
  • 55.1.8 Postharvest Physiology and Keeping Quality
  • 55.2 Phytochemicals in Loquat
  • 55.2.1 Carotenoids
  • 55.2.2 Flavonoids
  • 55.2.3 Phenolics
  • 55.2.4 Terpenoids
  • 55.2.5 Ascorbic Acid (AsA)
  • 55.2.6 Volatiles
  • 55.3 Biological and Health Effects of the Phytochemicals Present in Loquat
  • 55.3.1 Antioxidant Activity of Loquat
  • 55.3.2 Liver Function
  • 55.3.3 Diabetic Disease
  • 55.3.4 Anti-inflammatory and Antitumor Properties
  • 55.3.5 Cancer
  • 55.3.6 High Cholesterol and Low Lipids Metabolism
  • 55.3.7 Analgesia
  • 55.3.8 Lung
  • 55.4 Information Lacking and Research Needs for Loquat
  • 55.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • 56: Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz)
  • 56.1 Introduction
  • 56.2 Phytochemicals in Maqui
  • 56.2.1 Alkaloids as the Main Bioactive Compounds in Maqui Leaves
  • 56.2.2 Other Plant Natural Products in Maqui Leaves
  • 56.2.3 Anthocyanins as the Main Bioactive Compounds in Maqui Fruits
  • 56.2.4 Other Polyphenols in Maqui Fruits
  • 56.3 Phytochemical Changes in Maqui
  • 56.3.1 Genotype
  • 56.3.2 Environment
  • 56.3.3 Storage and Processing
  • 56.3.4 Stage of Harvest
  • 56.4 Validation of Traditional Uses of Maqui
  • 56.4.1 Maqui Leaves
  • 56.4.2 Maqui Fruits
  • 56.5 New Biological and Health Effects of the Phytochemicals Present in Maqui
  • 56.6 Conclusions and Future Trends
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 57: Pecans (Carya illinoinensis)
  • 57.1 Introduction
  • 57.2 Pecans
  • 57.3 Chemical Profile of Bioactives Present in Pecans
  • 57.4 Antioxidant Capacity in Pecans
  • 57.5 Human and Animal Studies
  • 57.6 Other Chemical Molecules Present in Pecans
  • 57.7 Toxicology
  • 57.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • 58: Onion (Allium cepa L.)
  • 58.1 Introduction
  • 58.1.1 Historical Aspects
  • 58.1.2 Production Statistics
  • 58.1.3 Botany
  • 58.1.4 Cultivars in Major Countries of Production
  • 58.2 Nutritional Composition and Major Phytochemicals
  • 58.2.1 Chemical Structure of Prominent Phytochemicals
  • 58.3 Properties and Biological Role of Onion Phytochemicals
  • 58.3.1 Properties
  • 58.3.2 Biological Roles
  • 58.3.3 Antiviral Activity
  • 58.3.4 Anticancer Activity
  • 58.3.5 Anti-inflammatory Activity
  • 58.3.6 Hepatoprotective Activity
  • 58.3.7 Antidiabetic Activity
  • 58.3.8 Antihypertensive Effect
  • 58.3.9 Antiplatelet or Antithrombotic Effect
  • 58.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • References
  • 59: Papaya (Carica papaya)
  • 59.1 Introduction
  • 59.2 Carotenoids
  • 59.3 Phenolic Compounds
  • 59.4 Vitamins
  • 59.5 Medical Therapeutics
  • 59.6 Antimicrobial Activity
  • 59.7 Other Uses
  • 59.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • 60: Pineapples (Ananas comosus)
  • 60.1 Introduction
  • 60.2 Phytochemicals
  • 60.2.1 Phytochemicals in Pineapples
  • 60.2.2 Changes in Phytochemical Components in Pineapple during Ripening
  • 60.3 Effect of Phytochemicals on Human Health: Pineapple and Mechanisms of Action
  • 60.3.1 Other Uses of Ananas
  • 60.3.2 Antibacterial Activity
  • References
  • 61: Pomegranates (Punica granatum L.)
  • 61.1 Introduction
  • 61.2 Origin and Distribution
  • 61.3 Pomegranate Phytochemicals
  • 61.4 Health Benefits
  • 61.5 Conclusions
  • 61.6 Future Research Needs
  • References
  • 62: Potato and Other Root Crops
  • 62.1 Introduction
  • 62.2 Identity and Role of Bioactivities
  • 62.2.1 Potato
  • 62.2.2 Other Root Crops
  • 62.3 Potential Health Benefits
  • 62.3.1 Bioavailability
  • 62.3.2 Health Benefits
  • 62.4 Preharvest and Postharvest Factors
  • 62.4.1 Agronomic Factors
  • 62.4.2 Storage
  • 62.4.3 Processing
  • 62.5 Future Research Needed
  • 62.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • 63: Prunus
  • 63.1 Genus Prunus: Uses and Economic Importance
  • 63.2 Prunus Species: Nutritional Importance
  • 63.3 Phytochemicals in Prunus Species
  • 63.3.1 Polyphenols
  • 63.3.2 Volatile Compounds
  • 63.3.3 Triterpenes
  • 63.4 Factors Affecting Phytochemical Content in Prunus Species
  • 63.5 Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in the World and in Mexico
  • 63.6 Role of Phytochemicals with Vasodilator Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases
  • 63.7 Vasodilator Phenolic Compounds from Prunus and Their Mechanism of Action
  • 63.7.1 Quercetin
  • 63.7.2 Anthocyanins
  • 63.7.3 Flavanols
  • 63.7.4 Chlorogenic Acid
  • 63.8 Vasodilator Volatile Compounds from Prunus and Their Mechanism of Action
  • 63.8.1 Benzaldehyde
  • 63.8.2 Monoterpenes
  • 63.9 Vasodilator Triterpenes from Prunus and Their Mechanism of Action
  • 63.9.1 Uvaol, Ursolic Acid, and Oleanolic Acid
  • 63.10 Conclusions
  • References
  • 64: Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)
  • 64.1 Introduction
  • 64.2 Medicinal Properties of Rambutan
  • 64.3 Phytochemical Constituents
  • 64.4 Future Aspects
  • References
  • 65: Rose Apple (Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston)
  • 65.1 Introduction
  • 65.2 Botany of the Plant
  • 65.3 Phytochemistry and Proximate Composition
  • 65.4 Traditional Uses
  • 65.5 Antimicrobial Activity
  • 65.6 Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Effects
  • 65.7 Anti-inflammatory Activity
  • 65.8 Analgesic Activity
  • 65.9 Hepatoprotective Activity
  • 65.10 Anticancer Activity
  • 65.11 Conclusions
  • References
  • 66: Soursop (Annona muricata)
  • 66.1 Introduction
  • 66.1.1 Fruit Description
  • 66.1.2 Economic Importance
  • 66.1.3 Physicochemical Parameters and Nutritional Content
  • 66.1.4 Volatile Compounds
  • 66.1.5 Glycemic Index
  • 66.1.6 Ethnobotanical Uses of Soursop
  • 66.2 Phytochemical Substances Present in the Fruit
  • 66.2.1 Alkaloids
  • 66.2.2 Acetogenins
  • 66.2.3 Phenols, Carotenoids, and Flavonoids
  • 66.3 Biological Activities
  • 66.3.1 Anti-inflammatory Activity
  • 66.3.2 Cytotoxic and Tumor Growth Inhibition
  • 66.3.3 Antioxidant Activity
  • 66.3.4 Other Activities
  • 66.4 Toxicity
  • 66.5 Lack of Information and Research Needs on A. muricata
  • 66.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • 67: Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)
  • 67.1 Introduction
  • 67.1.1 Economic Importance
  • 67.1.2 Physicochemical Parameters and Nutritional Content
  • 67.1.3 Health Importance
  • 67.2 Phytochemicals Present in the Fruit
  • 67.3 Biological Activities
  • 67.3.1 Medicinal Uses
  • 67.3.2 Antidiabetic Activity
  • 67.3.3 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity
  • 67.3.4 Antimicrobial Activity
  • 67.4 Information Lacking and Research Needs for Sugar Apple
  • 67.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • 68: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
  • 68.1 Introduction
  • 68.2 Bioactive Compounds in Tomato
  • 68.2.1 Carotenoids
  • 68.2.2 Polyphenols: Flavonoids and Flavanols
  • 68.2.3 Vitamin C
  • 68.3 Bioactive Compounds in Peel and Seeds in Tomato
  • 68.4 Content of Bioactive Compounds in Plant Breeding and Transgenic Tomatoes
  • 68.5 Influence of Agronomic Variables on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity
  • 68.5.1 Genotype
  • 68.5.2 Light and Temperature
  • 68.5.3 UV-B Radiation
  • 68.5.4 Photoselective Nettings
  • 68.5.5 Greenhouse
  • 68.5.6 Organic Tomatoes
  • 68.5.7 Water and Fertilizers
  • 68.5.8 Mycorrhizas
  • 68.6 Changes in Bioactive Compounds during Tomato Ripening
  • 68.7 Effect of Postharvest Treatments on Bioactive Compounds
  • 68.7.1 Chemical Changes in Bioactive Compounds Degradation
  • 68.8 Thermal Processing
  • 68.9 Non-thermal Processing
  • 68.9.1 High-Intensity Pulsed Electric Fields (HIPEF)
  • 68.9.2 High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP)
  • 68.9.3 UV and Red Light
  • 68.10 Tomatoes in Human Health
  • 68.10.1 Dietary Intake of Lycopene and Its Absorption
  • 68.10.2 Protective Effect of Lycopene on Blood Pressure
  • 68.10.3 Carotenes in Cardiovascular Disease
  • 68.10.4 Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Tomato
  • 68.10.5 Tomato Reduces Prostate Cancer Risk
  • 68.10.6 Lung Cancer Prevention
  • References
  • 69: Wild and Cultivated Mushrooms
  • 69.1 Introduction
  • 69.2 What Are Mushrooms?
  • 69.3 Nutritive Value of Wild and Cultivated Mushrooms
  • 69.3.1 Macronutrients
  • 69.3.2 Micronutrients
  • 69.4 Bioactive Compounds in Wild and Cultivated Mushrooms
  • 69.4.1 Characteristics of Mushroom Proteins and Peptides
  • 69.4.2 Characteristics of Mushroom Polysaccharides
  • 69.4.3 Low-Molecular-Weight Compounds in Mushrooms
  • 69.5 Health Benefits of Fungi
  • 69.5.1 Mushroom Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements
  • 69.5.2 Immune Response Modulation
  • 69.5.3 Cholesterol, Fatty Acids, and Oxidative Stress
  • 69.5.4 Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
  • 69.6 Research Needs
  • 69.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 70: Phytochemicals in Organic and Conventional Fruits and Vegetables
  • 70.1 Introduction
  • 70.2 Polyphenols
  • 70.3 Alkaloids
  • 70.4 Glucosinolates
  • 70.5 Volatile Constituents
  • 70.6 Carotenoids
  • 70.6.1 Carotenoids and Human Health
  • 70.6.2 Effect of Genotype in Carotenoid Content
  • 70.6.3 Most Studied Fruits and Vegetables
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 71: Recent Advances in Phytochemicals in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 71.1 Introduction
  • 71.2 Phenolics in Fruits
  • 71.2.1 Berries
  • 71.2.2 Pomes
  • 71.2.3 Tropical Fruits
  • 71.3 Phenolics in Vegetables
  • 71.3.1 Brassica Vegetables
  • 71.3.2 Leafy Vegetables
  • 71.3.3 Fruit Vegetables
  • 71.3.4 Stem Vegetables
  • 71.3.5 Bulb Vegetables
  • 71.3.6 Root Vegetables
  • 71.3.7 Tuber Vegetables
  • 71.4 Carotenoids in Vegetables
  • 71.5 Organosulfur Compounds in Vegetables
  • 71.6 Alkaloids in Vegetables
  • References
  • Index
  • End user License Agreement
  • Part III. Phytochemicals in Some Fruits and Vegetables
  • 39. Ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig)
  • 39.1 Introduction
  • 39.2 History, Origin, and Distribution
  • 39.3 Botanical Description
  • 39.4 Toxicity of Ackee Fruit
  • 39.5 Nutritional Composition
  • 39.5.1 Phytochemical Constituents
  • 39.5.2 Fatty Acids
  • 39.5.3 Sugars
  • 39.6 Storage and Processing
  • 39.7 Conclusion
  • References

List of Contributors


Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine

Institute of Bioscience

Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity

Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security

Universiti Putra Malaysia

Selangor

Malaysia

Mohammed Adnan

Mangalore Institute of Oncology

Pumpwell

Mangalore

Karnataka

India

Tripti Agarwal

Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM)

Ministry of Food Processing Industries

Kundli

Sonepat

Haryana

India

Carlos Agudelo

Nutrition and Dietetic School

University of Antioquia

Medellín

Colombia

Ahmed Ait-Oubahou

Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II

Agadir

Morocco

Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

Laboratory of Natural Products

Institute of Bioscience

Universiti Putra Malaysia

Selangor

Malaysia

Mohammad Al Abid

Mantrust Services Inc

Brampton

Canada

Emilio Álvarez-Parrilla

Autonomous University of the City of Juarez

Juarez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Estocolmo s/n Chihuahua

Mexico

Priyatharini Ambigaipalan

Department of Biochemistry

Memorial University of Newfoundland

St. John's

Newfoundland

Canada

Maria L. Amodio

Department of the Science of Agriculture, Food, and Environment

University of Foggia

Foggia

Italy

Luis M. Anaya-Esparza

Integral Food Research Laboratory

Technological Institute of Tepic

Tepic

Nayarit

Mexico

Miriam A. Anaya-Loyola

Faculty of Natural Sciences

Autonomous University of Querétaro

Querétaro

Mexico

Sandra Sulay Arango

Faculty of Sciences

Metropolitan Institute of Technology

Medellín

Colombia

Asvinidevi Arumugam

Laboratory of UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research

Institute of Bioscience

Universiti Putra Malaysia

Selangor

Malaysia

Graciela Ávila-Quezada

University Autonomous of Chihuahua

Zootechnics and Ecology Department

Chihuahua

Mexico

Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala

Technology of Food of Vegetable Origin

Research Center for Food and Development

Hermosillo

Sonora

Mexico

Ramiro Baeza-Jiménez

Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD)

Delicias

Chihuahua

Mexico

Moustapha Bah

Laboratory of Chemical and Pharmacological Research of Natural Products

Faculty of Chemistry

Autonomous University of Querétaro

Querétaro

Mexico

Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

Mangalore Institute of Oncology

Pumpwell

Mangalore

Karnataka

India

Pratyusha Banerjee

Department of Zoology

University of Kalyani

Nadia

West Bengal

India

Maurizio Battino

Department of Odontostomatology and Specialized Clinical Sciences

Faculty of Medicine

Polytechnic University of Marche

Ancona

Italy

Mohamed Benichou

Food Sciences Laboratory

Faculty of Sciences

Cadi Ayyad University

Marrakech

Morocco

A. Thalía Bernal-Mercado

Technology of Food of Vegetable Origin

Research Center for Food and Development

Hermosillo

Sonora

Mexico

Francisco J. Blancas-Benítez

Integral Food Research Laboratory

Technological Institute of Tepic

Tepic

Nayarit

Mexico

Cristine Vanz Borges

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Institute of Biosciences

Paulista State University (UNESP)

Botucatu

São Paulo

Brazil

Laura Bravo-Clemente

Department of Metabolism and Nutrition

Institute of Food Science

Technology, and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC)

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Madrid

Spain

Jeffrey K. Brecht

Horticultural Sciences Department

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

University of Florida

Gainesville

Florida

USA

Puran Bridgemohan

University of Trinidad and Tobago

Centre of Biosciences

Agriculture and Food Technology

Waterloo Research Campus

Carapichaima

Trinidad

Ronell S.H. Bridgemohan

Georgia College and State University

Milledgeville

Georgia

USA

Lucio Cardozo-Filho

Department of Chemical Engineering

State University of Maringá

Maringá

Brazil

Armando Carrillo-López

Food Science and Technology Postgraduate Program

Faculty of Chemical-Biological Science

Autonomous University of Sinaloa

Sinaloa

Mexico

Adriana Cavazos-Garduño

University Center for Exact Science and Engineering (CUCEI)

Pharmacobiology Department

University of Guadalajara

Guadalajara

Jalisco

Mexico

Braulio Cervantes-Paz

Faculty of Natural Sciences

Autonomous University of Querétaro

Querétaro

Mexico

Anoma Chandrasekara

Department of Applied Nutrition

Wayamba University of Sri Lanka

Makandura (Gonawila)

Sri Lanka

Cielo D. Char

Biopolymer Research and Engineering Laboratory

School of Nutrition and Dietetics

University of the Andes

Las Condes

Santiago

Chile

Fani Chatzopoulou

Group of Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Plants

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki

Greece

Muhammad M. A. Chaudhry

Department of the Science of Agriculture

Food, and Environment

University of Foggia

Foggia

Italy

Emma Chiavaro

Department of Food and Drug

University of Parma

Parma

Italy

Luis Cisneros-Zevallos

Department of Horticultural Sciences

Texas A&M University

College Station

Texas

USA

Giancarlo Colelli

Department of the Science of Agriculture

Food, and Environment

University of Foggia

Foggia

Italy

Ana V. Coria-Téllez

Laboratory of Analysis of Heritage

The College of Michoacan

La Piedad

Michoacan

Mexico

Frida R. Cornejo-García

Faculty of Natural Sciences

Autonomous University of Querétaro

Querétaro

Mexico

Javier De la Cruz Medina

UNIDA

Technological Institute of Veracruz

Veracruz

Mexico

Oscar Andrés Del Ángel Coronel

Superior Techological Institute of Huatusco

Food Industry Engineering Division

Huatusco

Veracruz

Mexico

Laura A. de la Rosa

Autonomous University of the City of Juarez

Juarez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Estocolmo s/n

Chihuahua

Mexico

Francisco Delgado-Vargas

School of Chemical and Biological Sciences

Autonomous University of Sinaloa

Ciudad Universitaria s/n

Culiacan

Sinaloa

Mexico

Antonio Derossi

Department of the Science of Agriculture, Food, and Environment

University of Foggia

Foggia

Italy

Tushar Dhanani

ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research

Anand

Gujarat

India

Lucia Di Vittori

Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences

Polytechnic University of Marche

Ancona

Italy

J. Abraham Domínguez-Ávila

Technology of Food of Plant Origin

Research Center for Food and Development

Hermosillo

Sonora

Mexico

Jane S. dos Reis Coimbra

Department of Food Technology

Federal University of Viçosa

Viçosa

Brazil

Idaresit Ekaette

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science

University of Alberta

Edmonton

Alberta

Canada

Ibrahim Elmadfa

IUNS Past-President TR Department of Nutritional Sciences

Faculty of Life Sciences

University of Vienna

Vienna

Austria

Machel A. Emanuel

Department of Life Sciences

Faculty of Science and Technology

University of the West Indies

Kingston

Jamaica

Tatiana Emanuelli

Integrated Center for Laboratory Analysis Development (NIDAL)

Department of Food...

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