From Design to Applications
Wiley-VCH (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 11. Februar 2020
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  • 416 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-3-527-34514-4 (ISBN)

Containing cutting edge research on the hot topic of nanobiosensor, this book will become highly read

Biosensor research has recently re-emerged as most vibrant area in recent years particularly after the advent of novel nanomaterials of multidimensional features and compositions. Nanomaterials of different types and striking properties have played a positive role in giving the boost and accelerated pace to biosensors development technology.

Nanobiosensors - From Design to Applications covers several aspects of biosensors beginning from the basic concepts to advanced level research. It will help to bridge the gap between various aspects of biosensors development technology and applications. It covers biosensors related material in broad spectrum such as basic concepts, biosensors & their classification, biomarkers & their role in biosensors, nanostructures-based biosensors, applications of biosensors in human diseases, drug detection, toxins, and smart phone based biosensors. Nanobiosensors - From Design to Applications will prove a source of inspiration for research on biosensors, their local level development and consequently using for practical application in different industries such as food, biomedical diagnosis, pharmaceutics, agriculture, drug discovery, forensics, etc.

  • Discusses the latest technology and advances in the field of nanobiosensors and their applications in human diseases, drug detection, toxins
  • Offers a broad and comprehensive view of cutting-edge research on advanced materials such as carbon materials, nitride based nanomaterials, metal and metal oxide based nanomaterials for the fast-developing nanobiosensors research
  • Goes to a wide scientific and industry audience

Nanobiosensors - From Design to Applications is a resource for polymer chemists, spectroscopists, materials scientists, physical chemists, surface chemists, and surface physicists.

Aiguo Wu, Cixi Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)

Waheed S. Khan, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

  • Englisch
  • Newark
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  • Deutschland
  • 15,91 MB
978-3-527-34514-4 (9783527345144)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Chapter 1 Basics of Biosensors and Nanobiosensors
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Biosensor and Its Working Principle
  • 1.3 Characteristics of a Biosensor
  • 1.3.1 Selectivity
  • 1.3.2 Reproducibility
  • 1.3.3 Stability
  • 1.3.4 Sensitivity and Linearity
  • 1.4 Biosensor Evolution: A Brief Outlook
  • 1.5 Types of Biosensors
  • 1.5.1 Electrochemical Biosensors (ECBs)
  • Potentiometric Biosensors
  • Voltammetric/Amperometric
  • Impedance (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, EIS)
  • Conductometric
  • 1.5.2 Optical Biosensors
  • Surface Plasmon Resonance
  • Evanescent Wave Fluorescence Biosensors
  • 1.5.3 Piezoelectric Biosensors
  • 1.5.4 Electronic Biosensors: Based on Field-Effect Transistor
  • 1.6 On the Basis of the Use of Biorecognition Elements: Catalytic Versus Affinity Biosensors
  • 1.6.1 Enzymatic Biosensors
  • 1.6.2 Immunosensors
  • 1.6.3 DNA Aptamer Biosensors
  • 1.6.4 Peptide-Based Biosensors
  • 1.6.5 Whole-Cell Biosensors
  • 1.7 Application of Biosensors
  • 1.7.1 Biosensors in Microbiology
  • 1.7.2 Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring Applications
  • 1.7.3 Biosensors for Cancer Biomarker Identification
  • 1.7.4 Biosensor in the Detection of Infectious Diseases
  • 1.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Transduction Process-Based Classification of Biosensors
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Electrochemical Biosensors
  • 2.2.1 Potentiometric Biosensors
  • 2.2.2 Impedimetric Biosensors
  • 2.2.3 Conductometric Biosensors
  • 2.3 Optical Biosensors
  • 2.3.1 Biosensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
  • 2.3.2 Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR)
  • 2.3.3 Biosensors Based on Fluorescence Effect
  • 2.4 Mass-Based Biosensors
  • 2.4.1 Piezoelectric Biosensors
  • 2.4.2 Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM)
  • 2.4.3 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)
  • 2.5 Thermal Biosensors
  • 2.5.1 Thermometric Sensors
  • 2.5.2 Terahertz Effect
  • 2.5.3 Thermal Radiation
  • 2.6 Energy Biosensors
  • 2.6.1 Adenosine Triphosphate
  • 2.6.2 Fluorescence Resonance Energy
  • 2.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Novel Nanomaterials for Biosensor Development
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Graphene and Its Composites
  • 3.2.1 Graphene and Their Composite-Based Biosensors
  • Graphene and Their Composite-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
  • Graphene and Their Composite-Based Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors
  • 3.3 Carbon Nanotubes and Their Hybrids
  • 3.3.1 Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Their Hybrids
  • 3.4 Nitride-Based Biosensors
  • 3.4.1 Biosensing Application of Nitride-Based Nanomaterials
  • 3.5 Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Biosensors
  • 3.5.1 Fundamental Characteristics of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanostructure for the Development of a Biosensor
  • 3.5.2 Performance of Nanostructured Metal and Metal Oxide-Based Biosensors
  • 3.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Biomarkers and Their Role in Detection of Biomolecules
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Types of Biomarkers
  • 4.2.1 Predictive Biomarker
  • 4.2.2 Prognosis Biomarker
  • 4.2.3 Pharmacodynamic Biomarker
  • 4.3 Cancer Biomarker
  • 4.3.1 Role of Biomarkers in Cancer Medicine
  • 4.3.2 Use of Biomarkers in Cancer Research
  • Risk Assessment
  • Screening
  • Diagnostic Test
  • Staging
  • Monitoring Tests
  • 4.3.3 Types of Cancer Biomarkers
  • 4.4 Cardiac Biomarkers
  • 4.4.1 Measurement
  • 4.4.2 Types of Cardiac Biomarkers
  • Troponin
  • Creatine Kinase (CK)
  • Myoglobin
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
  • C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
  • 4.5 Biomarker of Aging
  • 4.6 Alzheimer's Biomarker
  • 4.7 HIV Biomarker
  • 4.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Detection of Cancer Cells by Using Biosensors
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Early Stage Detection of Cancer and Its Importance
  • 5.3 Biosensor - A Good Option for Detecting Cancers
  • 5.4 Cancers Commonly Observed in Females
  • 5.4.1 Breast Cancer Detection
  • Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on Immobilized ZnO Nanowires
  • Optical Biosensor of Breast Cancer Cells
  • Microfluidic Plasmonic Biosensor
  • QCM Biosensor for Sensitive and Selective Detection
  • 5.4.2 Ovarian Cancer Detection
  • ZnO-Au-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Ovarian Cancer
  • Magnetic Nanoparticle-Antibody Conjugates (MNP-ABS)-Based Assay
  • 5.4.3 Cervical Cancer Detection
  • Impedimetric Biosensor for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer
  • Automated Cervical Cancer Detection Using Photonic Crystal-Based Biosensor
  • 5.5 Cancers Commonly Observed in Males
  • 5.5.1 Lung Cancer Detection
  • 5.5.2 Gold Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Biosensor
  • 5.6 Prostate Cancer Detection
  • 5.6.1 Novel Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Prostate-Specific Antigen Based on the Enhanced Catalytic Currents of Oxygen Reduction Catalyzed by Core-Shell Au@Pt Nanocrystals
  • 5.6.2 Electrochemical Biosensor to Simultaneously Detect VEGF and PSA for Early Prostate Cancer Diagnosis Based on Graphene Oxide/ssDNA/PLLA Nanoparticles
  • 5.6.3 Detection of Early Stage Prostate Cancer by Using a Simple Carbon Nanotube@Paper Biosensor
  • 5.7 Oral Cancer
  • 5.7.1 Graphene Biosensor Based on Antigen Concentration in Saliva
  • 5.8 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Biosensor Applications for Viral and Bacterial Disease Diagnosis
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Dengue Fever Virus Detection
  • 6.2.1 Nanostructured Electrochemical Biosensor
  • 6.2.2 Plasmonic Biosensor for Early Detection of Dengue Virus
  • 6.2.3 Impedimetric Biosensor to Test Neat Serum for Dengue Virus
  • 6.3 Zika Virus Detection
  • 6.3.1 Electrochemical Biosensors for Early Stage Zika Diagnostics
  • 6.3.2 Novel Graphene-Based Biosensor for Early Detection of Zika Virus
  • 6.3.3 Smartphone-Based Diagnostic Platform for Rapid Detection of Zika Virus
  • 6.4 Yellow Fever
  • 6.4.1 Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Ebola Antigen
  • 6.5 Hepatitis B
  • 6.5.1 Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensor for Detection of Hepatitis B
  • 6.5.2 Gold Nanorod-Based Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor for Sensitive Detection of Hepatitis B Virus
  • 6.5.3 Amplified Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Using an Electrochemical DNA Biosensor on a Nanoporous Gold Platform
  • 6.6 Hepatitis C
  • 6.6.1 Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles: A Novel Nanoparticle Biosensor Approach for the Direct Quantification of Hepatitis C
  • 6.6.2 Impedimetric Genosensor for Detection of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV1) DNA Using the Viral Probe on Methylene Blue-Doped Silica Nanoparticles
  • 6.6.3 Ultrasensitive Aptasensor Based on a GQD Nanocomposite for Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen
  • 6.7 Typhoid Fever
  • 6.7.1 Graphene Oxide-Chitosan Nanocomposite-Based Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for Detection of Typhoid
  • 6.8 Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • 6.8.1 Gold Nanotube Array Electrode Platform-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA
  • 6.8.2 Label-Free Biosensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
  • 6.9 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Detection of HIV Virus Using Biosensor
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.1.1 Structure and Genomic Specifications of HIV
  • 7.1.2 Morphology
  • 7.2 Electrochemical Based Biosensors for HIV Detection
  • 7.2.1 DNA Electrochemical Biosensors for Detection of HIV
  • Detection of HIV DNA Sequence
  • 7.2.2 Label-Free Electrochemical Biosensor for Detection of HIV
  • 7.2.3 Ultrasensitive Biosensors for HIV Gene
  • 7.2.4 Optical Biosensors for HIV Detection
  • 7.2.5 Nanostructured Optical Photonic Crystal Biosensor for HIV
  • Virus Capture
  • 7.2.6 Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensors
  • 7.2.7 Sensitive Impedimetric DNA Biosensor for the Determination of the HIV-1 Gene
  • 7.2.8 Improved Piezoelectric Biosensor for HIV Rapid Detection of HIV
  • Measurement Procedure
  • 7.3 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Use of Biosensors for Mycotoxins Analysis in Food Stuff
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Types of Mycotoxins
  • 8.2.1 Aflatoxins
  • 8.2.2 Ochratoxins
  • 8.2.3 Citrinin
  • 8.2.4 Patulin
  • 8.2.5 Fusarium
  • 8.3 Biosensors for Aflatoxin Detection
  • 8.3.1 DNA-Based Biosensor for Aflatoxins
  • 8.3.2 Electrochemical Detection Systems
  • 8.3.3 Carbon Nanotube (CNT)-Based Aflatoxin Biosensor
  • 8.3.4 QCM Biosensor for Aflatoxin
  • 8.4 Biosensors for Ochratoxins
  • 8.4.1 Horseradish Peroxidase-Screen-Printed Biosensor for the Determination of Ochratoxin
  • 8.4.2 Aptamer-DNAzyme Hairpin Biosensor for Ochratoxin
  • 8.4.3 Development of QCM-D Biosensor for Ochratoxin A
  • 8.5 Biosensors for Citrinin Determination
  • 8.5.1 Molecular Imprinted Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor
  • 8.6 Biosensors for Patulin Determination
  • 8.6.1 Cerium Oxide ISFET-Based Immune Biosensor
  • 8.6.2 Conductometric Enzyme Biosensor for Patulin Determination
  • 8.7 Biosensors for Fusarium Determination
  • 8.7.1 Rapid Biosensor for the Detection of Mycotoxin in Wheat (MYCOHUNT)
  • 8.8 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Development of Biosensors for Drug Detection Applications
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 What Is the Need of Biosensors for Drug Detection?
  • 9.3 Biosensors for the Detection of Antibiotics
  • 9.3.1 Electrochemical Biosensor for Antibiotics
  • 9.3.2 Voltammetric Biosensor for Antibiotics
  • 9.3.3 Photoelectrochemical Biosensors for Antibiotics
  • 9.3.4 Amperometric Biosensor for Antibiotics
  • 9.4 Biosensors for the Detection of Therapeutic Drugs
  • 9.5 Biosensors for Neurotransmitter
  • 9.6 Conclusion and Perspective
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Detecting the Presence of Illicit Drugs Using Biosensors
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.1.1 Classification of Illicit Drugs
  • 10.1.2 Drug's Effect on Brain and Body
  • 10.1.3 Signs of Illicit Drug Addiction
  • 10.1.4 Biosensors for Illicit Drugs
  • 10.1.5 Nanomaterials for Biosensors
  • 10.1.6 Molecular Receptors for the Nanobiosensors
  • 10.2 Cocaine Detection
  • 10.2.1 Quantum Dot-Based Optical Biosensors for Cocaine Detection
  • 10.2.2 Nanopore Biosensor for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Cocaine Detection
  • 10.2.3 Colorimetric Cocaine Aptasensors
  • 10.2.4 Electrochemical Based Cocaine Aptasensors
  • 10.3 Methamphetamine Detection
  • 10.3.1 Nonaggregated Au@Ag Core-Shell Nanoparticle Based Colorimetric Biosensor for Methamphetamine Detection
  • 10.4 Chlorpromazine Detection
  • 10.4.1 DNA Intercalation-Based Amperometric Biosensor for Chlorpromazine Detection
  • 10.5 Codeine Detection
  • 10.6 Morphine Detection
  • 10.7 Alcohol Detection
  • 10.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Biosensors for Determination of Pesticides and Their Residues
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Types of Pesticides and Their Benefits
  • 11.2.1 Insecticides
  • 11.2.2 Herbicides
  • 11.2.3 Fungicides
  • 11.2.4 Benefits of Pesticides
  • 11.2.5 Beneficiaries of Pesticides
  • 11.2.6 Controlling Agricultural Pests and Vectors of Plant Disease
  • 11.2.7 Benefits of Pesticides to Prevent Organisms that Harm Other Activities or Damage Structures
  • 11.3 Detrimental Effects: Health and Environmental Effects
  • 11.3.1 Impact of Pesticides on Human Health: Topical or Systemic
  • 11.3.2 Short-Term Effects of Pesticides
  • 11.3.3 Long-Term Effects of Pesticides
  • 11.3.4 Effects of Pesticides on Pregnant Women
  • 11.3.5 Pesticides and Children
  • 11.3.6 Effects of Pesticides on the Environment
  • 11.3.7 Safe Use of Pesticides
  • 11.4 AuNP/MPS/Au Electrode Sensing Layer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Pesticide Monitoring
  • 11.5 Citrate-Stabilized AuNP-Based Optical Biosensor for Rapid Pesticide Residue Detection of Terbuthylazine and Dimethoate
  • 11.6 Piezoelectric Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Pesticide Residue
  • 11.7 Amperometric Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor Based on Gold Nanorods for Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides
  • 11.8 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Detection of Avian Influenza Virus
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-Based Nanosensor
  • 12.2.1 Design of Magnetic Immunoassay Based on SERS Strategy
  • 12.3 Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Biosensors for Label-Free Detection of DNA Sequences
  • 12.4 Influenza Virus Detection Using Electrochemical Biosensors
  • 12.5 Aptamer-Based Biosensors
  • 12.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Biosensors for Swine Influenza Viruses
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Diagnostic Methods for Swine Influenza Virus and Their Limitations
  • 13.3 Nanomaterial-Based Sensors
  • 13.3.1 Applications of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials
  • 13.3.2 Gold Nanoparticle-Based Biosensing
  • 13.3.3 Gold Nanoparticle-Based Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
  • 13.3.4 Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Biosensing
  • 13.3.5 Others
  • 13.4 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Biosensors for Detection of Marine Toxins
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Algal Blooms and Marine Toxins
  • 14.3 Classification of Marine Toxins, also Known as Biotoxins
  • 14.4 Harmful Effect of Marine Toxins on Human Health
  • 14.5 Biosensing of Marine Toxins
  • 14.5.1 SPR-Based Biosensors for Marine Toxins with Special Reference to Saxitoxin Sensing
  • 14.5.2 Detection of Marine Biotoxin in Shellfish
  • 14.5.3 Smartphone-Based Portable Detection System for Marine Toxins
  • 14.5.4 Superparamagnetic Nanobead-Based Immunochromatographic Assay for Detection of Toxic Marine Algae
  • 14.5.5 Gold Nanorod Aggregation-Based Optical Biosensor for Rapid Endotoxin Detection
  • 14.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Smartphone-Based Biosensors
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Smartphone-Based Devices and Their Applications
  • 15.3 Rapid GMR Biosensor Platform with Smartphone Interface
  • 15.4 Smartphone-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Portable Detection of Clenbuterol
  • 15.5 Biosensing of Metal Ions by a Novel 3D-Printable Smartphone
  • 15.6 Ambient Light-Based Optical Biosensing Platform with Smartphone-Embedded Illumination Sensor
  • 15.7 Smartphone Optical Biosensor Point-of-Care Diagnostics
  • 15.8 Monitoring of Cardiovascular Diseases at the Point of Care by Smartphone
  • 15.9 Smartphone-Based Sensing System Using ZnO- and Graphene-Modified Electrodes for VOCs Detection
  • 15.10 Use of Smartphone Technology in Cardiology
  • 15.11 Smartphone-Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Oral Fluid l-Lactate Detection
  • 15.12 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

Basics of Biosensors and Nanobiosensors

Pravin Bhattarai and Sadaf Hameed

Peking University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing, 100871, PR China

1.1 Introduction

The conventional analytical methods, both qualitative and quantitative, based on the measurements of species in complex matrices dominated the era of chemical sensing. These methods were based on the complete separation of sample components followed by the identification and quantitation of the target analytes. However, (i) expensive nature of the measurement techniques both financially and temporally, (ii) difficulty in the analysis of complex samples within a limited sample concentration, and (iii) the employment of separation methods limiting real-time analysis during in vivo applications subtly challenged its future development [1]. At present, an inexpensive and facile way of biosensor fabrication for the real-time detection and/or quantification of biologically relevant analytes provides an analytically powerful tool over conventional techniques [2]. These biosensors can surpass the major limitations of traditional sensors such as sensitivity, speed, and sensibility. Such biosensors typically function by combining a biomolecular recognition unit that is capable to sense the biochemical reaction and a transducer that can convert the concentration of the target analytes into a measurable signal. In 1977, Karl Camman first coined the term biosensor, but the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) disagreement led to the conception of a new standard definition in 1997 [3]. A standard definition of biosensor now is as follows: "A biosensor is a self-contained integrated device, which is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element (biochemical receptor), which is retained in direct spatial contact with a transduction element. Because of their ability to be repeatedly calibrated, we recommend that a biosensor should be clearly distinguished from a bioanalytical system, which requires additional processing steps, such as reagent addition. A device that is both disposable after one measurement, i.e., single use, and unable to monitor the analyte concentration continuously or after rapid and reproducible regeneration should be designated as a single-use biosensor." Since the earliest enzymatic electrode-based biosensors developed by Clark, there has been a rapid development/improvement in the design and application of these biosensors (Figure 1.1). Recently, biosensors (electrochemical, optical, electronic, and piezoelectric) comprising various biorecognition molecules such as enzymes [4], aptamers [5], whole cells [6], antibodies [7], and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) [8] are widely applied in health care, food quality management, forensics, pharmaceutical industries, and several other areas (Figure 1.2). Improvised methods in the fabrication of biosensors have greatly augmented the characteristics of a biosensor measured in terms of selectivity, reproducibility, stability, sensitivity, and linearity. Moreover, rapid advancement in the fabrication technology together with electronic components has ushered miniaturization of such devices resulting a huge surge in the biosensor market. Notably, the use of nano-sized materials (having at least one dimension <100?nm) in the fabrication of biosensors leading to nanobiosensors have gained high momentum lately. The unique properties (mechanical, chemical, structural, and electrical) of these nanomaterials used in nanobiosensors have not only helped to overcome challenges based on the sensitivity and detection limit of the devices but has also improved the interfacial reaction owing to the better immobilization of biorecognition molecules [9,10]. In addition, hybridization of nanomaterial-based strategies with a microscale system has allowed a new type of biomolecular analysis together with a high level of sensitivity that can leverage nanoscale binding events to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or sense rare analytes [11]. In brief, this chapter comprehends all the basic information about biosensors and also provides in-depth knowledge of the design, components, characteristics, and applications of biosensors.

Figure 1.1 Recent publication trend in biosensors.

Figure 1.2 Five-year publication trends of various types of biosensors. (a) 2017-2013 and (b) 2012-2008.

1.2 Biosensor and Its Working Principle

A simple design of any biosensors basically comprises four major components: (i) a bioreceptor, (ii) a transducer, (iii) electronic components, and (iv) a readout/display unit (Figure 1.3). Briefly, a bioreceptor is an external component of a biosensor that comes in direct contact with the target analyte during operation. The major function of a bioreceptor is to capture the target analytes with high specificity and selectivity [12]. Some examples of bioreceptors commonly used in the construction of biosensors are enzymes [4], aptamers [5], whole cells [6], antibodies [7], and DNA [8]. Construction mechanism typically follows the adsorption/immobilization of a biorecognition element on the surface of a biosensor. Therefore, techniques deployed for the adherence of such biorecognition elements remain central to the sensitivity and selectivity of a biosensor.

A most common approach for the immobilization of biorecognition elements includes adsorption, microencapsulation, entrapment, covalent bonding, and cross-linking [13-15]. Immobilization serves one or more of the following purposes: (i) continuous monitoring of analytes in flowing samples such as environmental samples, biological fluids having less amount of target molecules or bioreactor fluids, (ii) the biosensor can be used repeatedly, (iii) enhances the performance of biosensors in terms of reproducibility and sensitivity owing to the advancement of the biorecognition unit, and (iv) simplicity and flexibility of the immobilization technique. Toward a closer look in the fabrication strategies, (nano)biosensors confer multivariate interfacial region ranging between 1 and 10?nm, especially for the recognition of target analytes [11]. The detection of various biological molecules including protein-protein interactions can occur in this region. However, complexity during immobilization of such nanoscale components may be a challenging task. The chemical reaction at the site of bioreceptor, also termed as biorecognition, results in the generation of various signals such as light, changes in pH, heat generation, or changes in mass, which can be perceived by the physical component, transducer. The transducer can be defined as a device that can convert one form of energy to another. Therefore, depending on the type of biochemical reactions, several types of transducers can be used during construction of a biosensor; for instance, if the biorecognition process yields output in the form of light, then an optical transducer (e.g. photodetector) can perceive the incoming light and convert into a measurable electrical form [16]. Notably, all of the conversion processes are directly proportional to the amount of analyte-bioreceptor interactions at the biorecognition unit. The signals generated by the transducer (usually electrical) are in analogous form and cannot be read directly. Therefore, a signal conditioning unit assimilating various high pass/low pass/notch filters, amplifiers, and analogs to digital converters usually quantifies the signal that can be displayed directly in a readable format [17]. Biosensors may consist of different types of display units such as liquid crystal display (LCD), computer, or directly to the printer that comprises a pictorial representation of the measured signal. Depending on the user's requirement, the format of output signals may vary, e.g. the final data can be either numeric, tabular, graphics, or an image.

Figure 1.3 Schematic of biosensor components.

1.3 Characteristics of a Biosensor

The design of a biosensor defines the intended purpose of the application; however, other key factors are still central to manipulate the performance of these biosensors (Figure 1.4) [18].

1.3.1 Selectivity

Selectivity is the ability of a biosensor to detect a specific target analyte from a pooled sample containing mixtures of unwanted contaminants. The best classical example to explain selectivity is the interaction between an immobilized antibody and an antigen that is highly specific in nature.

1.3.2 Reproducibility

Reproducibility, on the other hand, is the ability of a biosensor to yield identical end results regardless of the number of times experiment is repeated. This is mainly determined by the precision and accuracy of the transducer or electronic components in a biosensor. The reliability of biosensor output is highly dependent on the reproducibility of the biosensor devices.

Figure 1.4 Biosensor characteristics.

1.3.3 Stability

Although precision and accuracy regulate the ability of biosensors to yield highly reproducible results, nevertheless, stability is another...

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