Cloud Data Centers and Cost Modeling

A Complete Guide To Planning, Designing and Building a Cloud Data Center
 
 
Morgan Kaufmann (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 27. Februar 2015
  • |
  • 848 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-801688-6 (ISBN)
 

Cloud Data Centers and Cost Modeling establishes a framework for strategic decision-makers to facilitate the development of cloud data centers. Just as building a house requires a clear understanding of the blueprints, architecture, and costs of the project; building a cloud-based data center requires similar knowledge. The authors take a theoretical and practical approach, starting with the key questions to help uncover needs and clarify project scope. They then demonstrate probability tools to test and support decisions, and provide processes that resolve key issues. After laying a foundation of cloud concepts and definitions, the book addresses data center creation, infrastructure development, cost modeling, and simulations in decision-making, each part building on the previous. In this way the authors bridge technology, management, and infrastructure as a service, in one complete guide to data centers that facilitates educated decision making.


  • Explains how to balance cloud computing functionality with data center efficiency
  • Covers key requirements for power management, cooling, server planning, virtualization, and storage management
  • Describes advanced methods for modeling cloud computing cost including Real Option Theory and Monte Carlo Simulations
  • Blends theoretical and practical discussions with insights for developers, consultants, and analysts considering data center development


Caesar Wu is a Senior Domain Specialist on Cloud Computing and Data Centers at Telstra, as well as a Principle Research Fellow, at The University of Melbourne, Australia. He has over 18 years' of experience in ICT architecture, solution design, services delivery and operation management, IT data center lifecycle and transformation. For the past five years he has been responsible for cost modeling of all Telstra cloud computing projects, for both enterprise and government clients, and designed and managed eight data centers in Australia. In 2012, Wu supervised three University of Melbourne PhD students in cloud computing strategic investment decision making.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 118,17 MB
978-0-12-801688-6 (9780128016886)
0128016884 (0128016884)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
1 - Front Cover [Seite 1]
2 - Cloud Data Centers and Cost Modeling [Seite 4]
3 - Copyright Page [Seite 5]
4 - Contents [Seite 6]
5 - Preface [Seite 18]
5.1 - Organisation of the Book [Seite 21]
6 - Acknowledgments [Seite 22]
7 - I. Cloud Computing Foundations and Business Requirements [Seite 24]
7.1 - 1 Cloud Computing [Seite 26]
7.1.1 - 1.1 Introduction [Seite 26]
7.1.1.1 - 1.1.1 Operation Cost Rationalization [Seite 26]
7.1.1.2 - 1.1.2 Revenue Estimation for Emerging Products [Seite 28]
7.1.2 - 1.2 Cloud Computing at a Glance [Seite 30]
7.1.3 - 1.3 Right Approach to Definition [Seite 31]
7.1.4 - 1.4 A Brief History of Cloud Computing Definitions [Seite 32]
7.1.5 - 1.5 Parallel Computing [Seite 39]
7.1.5.1 - 1.5.1 Hardware Parallelism [Seite 40]
7.1.5.1.1 - 1.5.1.1 Processor parallelism [Seite 40]
7.1.5.1.2 - 1.5.1.2 Memory parallelism [Seite 40]
7.1.5.2 - 1.5.2 Software Parallelism [Seite 41]
7.1.5.2.1 - 1.5.2.1 Algorithm parallelism [Seite 41]
7.1.5.2.2 - 1.5.2.2 Programming parallelism [Seite 42]
7.1.5.2.3 - 1.5.2.3 Data parallelism [Seite 42]
7.1.5.2.4 - 1.5.2.4 Architecture balance parallelism [Seite 42]
7.1.5.3 - 1.5.3 Different Types of Parallel Models [Seite 43]
7.1.6 - 1.6 Distributed Computing [Seite 47]
7.1.7 - 1.7 Grid Computing [Seite 48]
7.1.8 - 1.8 Utility Computing [Seite 50]
7.1.9 - 1.9 Cloud Computing [Seite 53]
7.1.10 - 1.10 Summary [Seite 62]
7.1.10.1 - 1.10.1 Software (Applications) [Seite 62]
7.1.10.2 - 1.10.2 IT Infrastructure (Hardware) [Seite 63]
7.1.11 - 1.11 Review Questions [Seite 64]
7.2 - 2 Business Needs [Seite 66]
7.2.1 - 2.1 Introduction [Seite 66]
7.2.2 - 2.2 Project Contents and Processes [Seite 71]
7.2.3 - 2.3 Allocate the Right People for the Right Job [Seite 72]
7.2.4 - 2.4 Business Analyst Role [Seite 74]
7.2.5 - 2.5 Defining Business [Seite 80]
7.2.6 - 2.6 Business Variables [Seite 82]
7.2.6.1 - 2.6.1 Business Entity [Seite 82]
7.2.6.2 - 2.6.2 Business Strategy [Seite 83]
7.2.6.3 - 2.6.3 Business Profile (Variety) [Seite 85]
7.2.6.4 - 2.6.4 Business Size (Volume) [Seite 85]
7.2.6.5 - 2.6.5 Business Variation [Seite 87]
7.2.7 - 2.7 Classification of Business Requirements [Seite 88]
7.2.7.1 - 2.7.1 Business Requirements [Seite 89]
7.2.7.2 - 2.7.2 Stakeholder requirements [Seite 89]
7.2.7.3 - 2.7.3 Solution Requirements [Seite 89]
7.2.7.3.1 - 2.7.3.1 Functional requirements [Seite 91]
7.2.7.3.2 - 2.7.3.2 Nonfunctional requirements [Seite 91]
7.2.7.4 - 2.7.4 Transition Requirements [Seite 91]
7.2.8 - 2.8 E2E Process of Business Problem Solving [Seite 91]
7.2.8.1 - 2.8.1 Business Problem Definition [Seite 94]
7.2.8.1.1 - 2.8.1.1 Preliminary definition [Seite 95]
7.2.8.1.2 - 2.8.1.2 Analysis process [Seite 96]
7.2.8.1.3 - 2.8.1.3 Confirmation and documentation of the real problem [Seite 97]
7.2.8.1.4 - 2.8.1.4 Challenges of problem definition [Seite 99]
7.2.8.1.4.1 - 2.8.1.4.1 Barking up the wrong tree [Seite 99]
7.2.8.1.4.2 - 2.8.1.4.2 Solution side effects [Seite 99]
7.2.8.1.4.3 - 2.8.1.4.3 Complex problems [Seite 99]
7.2.8.1.4.4 - 2.8.1.4.4 Hidden or avoided problems [Seite 100]
7.2.8.1.4.5 - 2.8.1.4.5 Sensitive problems [Seite 100]
7.2.8.1.4.6 - 2.8.1.4.6 Presenting the wrong information [Seite 100]
7.2.8.1.4.7 - 2.8.1.4.7 No single solution for the problem [Seite 100]
7.2.8.2 - 2.8.2 Goals of Defining Business Problems [Seite 100]
7.2.8.3 - 2.8.3 Techniques for Identifying Real Problems [Seite 101]
7.2.8.4 - 2.8.4 Business Requirements Gathering Phase [Seite 101]
7.2.8.4.1 - 2.8.4.1 Preparation [Seite 102]
7.2.8.4.2 - 2.8.4.2 Conducting eliciting [Seite 103]
7.2.8.4.3 - 2.8.4.3 Documenting [Seite 103]
7.2.8.4.4 - 2.8.4.4 Updating [Seite 104]
7.2.8.5 - 2.8.5 Provide the Right Solution [Seite 104]
7.2.8.5.1 - 2.8.5.1 Information processing [Seite 105]
7.2.8.5.1.1 - 2.8.5.1.1 Information classification [Seite 105]
7.2.8.5.1.2 - 2.8.5.1.2 Information prioritization [Seite 105]
7.2.8.5.1.3 - 2.8.5.1.3 Current process analysis [Seite 107]
7.2.8.5.1.4 - 2.8.5.1.4 Historic event analysis [Seite 107]
7.2.8.5.2 - 2.8.5.2 Modeling process [Seite 107]
7.2.8.5.2.1 - 2.8.5.2.1 Assumptions [Seite 108]
7.2.8.5.2.2 - 2.8.5.2.2 Data modeling [Seite 108]
7.2.8.5.2.3 - 2.8.5.2.3 Process modeling [Seite 110]
7.2.8.5.2.4 - 2.8.5.2.4 Behavior modeling [Seite 110]
7.2.8.5.3 - 2.8.5.3 Solution process [Seite 111]
7.2.8.5.3.1 - 2.8.5.3.1 Solution assessment [Seite 111]
7.2.8.5.3.2 - 2.8.5.3.2 Gap analysis [Seite 111]
7.2.8.5.3.3 - 2.8.5.3.3 Determining the best solution [Seite 112]
7.2.8.5.3.4 - 2.8.5.3.4 Understanding the constraints of the solution [Seite 113]
7.2.8.5.4 - 2.8.5.4 Communication process [Seite 113]
7.2.8.5.4.1 - 2.8.5.4.1 Presentation and walking through the solution [Seite 113]
7.2.8.5.4.2 - 2.8.5.4.2 Interpretation [Seite 113]
7.2.8.5.4.3 - 2.8.5.4.3 Confirmation [Seite 114]
7.2.8.5.4.4 - 2.8.5.4.4 Confirmation upgrading [Seite 114]
7.2.9 - 2.9 Managing Expectations [Seite 114]
7.2.10 - 2.10 Summary [Seite 117]
7.2.11 - 2.11 Review Questions [Seite 118]
7.3 - 3 Identifying Business Problems: A Case Study [Seite 120]
7.3.1 - 3.1 Case Information Briefing [Seite 120]
7.3.1.1 - 3.1.1 Servers [Seite 122]
7.3.1.1.1 - 3.1.1.1 x86 servers: HP [Seite 122]
7.3.1.1.2 - 3.1.1.2 RISC servers: Oracle/Sun E25K [Seite 122]
7.3.1.1.2.1 - 3.1.1.2.1 E25K RISC server details [Seite 122]
7.3.1.1.2.2 - 3.1.1.2.2 Maintenance and support requirements for E25K [Seite 124]
7.3.1.1.2.3 - 3.1.1.2.3 Space requirements for E25K frame [Seite 126]
7.3.1.1.2.4 - 3.1.1.2.4 Power and cooling requirements of E25K [Seite 126]
7.3.1.1.2.5 - 3.1.1.2.5 Application requirements of E25K [Seite 129]
7.3.1.1.3 - 3.1.1.3 Service contract for all RISC servers [Seite 129]
7.3.1.2 - 3.1.2 Storage [Seite 132]
7.3.1.2.1 - 3.1.2.1 NAS [Seite 132]
7.3.1.2.2 - 3.1.2.2 SAN [Seite 132]
7.3.1.3 - 3.1.3 Storage Switches [Seite 134]
7.3.2 - 3.2 Define the Problems [Seite 136]
7.3.2.1 - 3.2.1 Elicit Multiple Issues [Seite 139]
7.3.2.1.1 - 3.2.1.1 Decision making [Seite 139]
7.3.2.1.1.1 - 3.2.1.1.1 Decision motivation [Seite 140]
7.3.2.1.1.2 - 3.2.1.1.2 Decision information and knowledge [Seite 141]
7.3.2.1.1.3 - 3.2.1.1.3 Decision process [Seite 142]
7.3.2.1.2 - 3.2.1.2 Cost transparency issue [Seite 146]
7.3.2.1.3 - 3.2.1.3 Application migration issue [Seite 146]
7.3.2.2 - 3.2.2 IT Asset Operation Practice [Seite 147]
7.3.2.2.1 - 3.2.2.1 Horizontal brick wall effects [Seite 147]
7.3.2.2.2 - 3.2.2.2 Vertical filtering effect [Seite 148]
7.3.2.3 - 3.2.3 IT Operational Structure [Seite 150]
7.3.2.3.1 - 3.2.3.1 Too many management layers [Seite 150]
7.3.2.3.2 - 3.2.3.2 Too many IT organization changes [Seite 151]
7.3.2.4 - 3.2.4 Misguided Incentive System [Seite 151]
7.3.2.4.1 - 3.2.4.1 Wrong reason for promotion [Seite 152]
7.3.2.4.2 - 3.2.4.2 IT contractors managing permanent employees [Seite 152]
7.3.2.4.3 - 3.2.4.3 Salary bottleneck [Seite 153]
7.3.3 - 3.3 Requirements [Seite 153]
7.3.3.1 - 3.3.1 Business Application Requirements [Seite 155]
7.3.3.2 - 3.3.2 Architecture Requirements [Seite 158]
7.3.3.3 - 3.3.3 Operational Requirements [Seite 160]
7.3.3.3.1 - 3.3.3.1 Shared infrastructure requirements (constraints) [Seite 160]
7.3.3.3.2 - 3.3.3.2 System integration or transition requirements [Seite 160]
7.3.3.3.3 - 3.3.3.3 Service monitoring requirements [Seite 160]
7.3.3.3.4 - 3.3.3.4 Service maintenance and support requirements [Seite 161]
7.3.3.4 - 3.3.4 Vendor Requirements [Seite 161]
7.3.3.5 - 3.3.5 Other Stakeholder Requirements [Seite 164]
7.3.3.6 - 3.3.6 Identify Hidden Requirements [Seite 164]
7.3.4 - 3.4 Solution [Seite 164]
7.3.4.1 - 3.4.1 Organizational Perspective [Seite 164]
7.3.4.2 - 3.4.2 Technical Perspective [Seite 166]
7.3.4.2.1 - 3.4.2.1 Problem statement [Seite 168]
7.3.4.2.2 - 3.4.2.2 ICT's IT strategy or business requirements [Seite 168]
7.3.4.2.3 - 3.4.2.3 Assumptions [Seite 168]
7.3.4.2.4 - 3.4.2.4 Proposed interim solution [Seite 168]
7.3.4.2.5 - 3.4.2.5 Issues with the proposed solution [Seite 169]
7.3.5 - 3.5 Summary [Seite 171]
7.3.6 - 3.6 Review Questions [Seite 173]
8 - II. Data Center Facilities and Cost [Seite 174]
8.1 - 4 Data Center Facilities [Seite 176]
8.1.1 - 4.1 Basic Understanding of a Data Center [Seite 176]
8.1.1.1 - 4.1.1 Definition of Data Center [Seite 176]
8.1.1.2 - 4.1.2 Data Center Architecture [Seite 179]
8.1.2 - 4.2 Data Center Capacity Planning [Seite 180]
8.1.2.1 - 4.2.1 Data Center Site Selection [Seite 185]
8.1.2.1.1 - 4.2.1.1 The environment [Seite 187]
8.1.2.1.2 - 4.2.1.2 The power [Seite 189]
8.1.2.1.3 - 4.2.1.3 The payload and IT workload [Seite 191]
8.1.2.1.4 - 4.2.1.4 The policy [Seite 191]
8.1.2.1.5 - 4.2.1.5 The human factor [Seite 191]
8.1.2.1.6 - 4.2.1.6 The network [Seite 191]
8.1.2.2 - 4.2.2 Data Center Performance [Seite 195]
8.1.2.2.1 - 4.2.2.1 Site availability [Seite 196]
8.1.2.2.2 - 4.2.2.2 Problem response and resolution time [Seite 197]
8.1.2.2.3 - 4.2.2.3 Scalability [Seite 197]
8.1.2.2.4 - 4.2.2.4 Utilization [Seite 198]
8.1.2.2.5 - 4.2.2.5 Latency and throughput [Seite 198]
8.1.2.3 - 4.2.3 Data Center Resource Celling [Seite 201]
8.1.3 - 4.3 Data Center Space [Seite 203]
8.1.3.1 - 4.3.1 Five Types of Space [Seite 204]
8.1.3.1.1 - 4.3.1.1 Total space (building shell) [Seite 204]
8.1.3.1.2 - 4.3.1.2 Total adjacent lot size (raw lot size) [Seite 206]
8.1.3.1.3 - 4.3.1.3 Whitespace (raised floor) [Seite 206]
8.1.3.1.4 - 4.3.1.4 Effective usable space (rack space) [Seite 207]
8.1.3.1.5 - 4.3.1.5 General space [Seite 207]
8.1.3.2 - 4.3.2 Data Center Functional Rooms [Seite 208]
8.1.3.2.1 - 4.3.2.1 Utility support functions [Seite 209]
8.1.3.2.1.1 - 4.3.2.1.1 Mechanical rooms [Seite 209]
8.1.3.2.1.2 - 4.3.2.1.2 Electrical rooms [Seite 209]
8.1.3.2.1.3 - 4.3.2.1.3 Staging area [Seite 209]
8.1.3.2.2 - 4.3.2.2 Computing functions [Seite 210]
8.1.3.2.2.1 - 4.3.2.2.1 Entrance rooms [Seite 210]
8.1.3.2.2.2 - 4.3.2.2.2 Computer rooms [Seite 210]
8.1.3.2.2.3 - 4.3.2.2.3 Telecommunication rooms [Seite 211]
8.1.3.2.3 - 4.3.2.3 Operational functions [Seite 211]
8.1.3.2.3.1 - 4.3.2.3.1 Network operation rooms [Seite 211]
8.1.3.2.3.2 - 4.3.2.3.2 Common area [Seite 211]
8.1.3.2.3.3 - 4.3.2.3.3 General office space [Seite 211]
8.1.4 - 4.4 How to Estimate Cost of Space [Seite 212]
8.1.5 - 4.5 Summary [Seite 213]
8.1.6 - 4.6 Review Questions [Seite 214]
8.2 - 5 Data Center Power [Seite 216]
8.2.1 - 5.1 Introduction [Seite 216]
8.2.2 - 5.2 Fundamentals of Power [Seite 218]
8.2.2.1 - 5.2.1 Three Basic Power Metrics [Seite 218]
8.2.2.2 - 5.2.2 Power Factor for AC Power [Seite 219]
8.2.3 - 5.3 Power Panel (Circuit Breaker) [Seite 221]
8.2.3.1 - 5.3.1 Type of Circuit Breaker and Selection [Seite 221]
8.2.3.2 - 5.3.2 Circuit Breaker Coordination [Seite 223]
8.2.4 - 5.4 Transfer Switches and Generators [Seite 223]
8.2.4.1 - 5.4.1 Static Transfer Switch (STS) [Seite 225]
8.2.4.2 - 5.4.2 Automatic transfer switch (ATS) [Seite 225]
8.2.4.3 - 5.4.3 Generator [Seite 225]
8.2.5 - 5.5 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) [Seite 230]
8.2.5.1 - 5.5.1 Different Types of UPS Topologies [Seite 233]
8.2.5.1.1 - 5.5.1.1 Standby or offline single UPS topology [Seite 234]
8.2.5.1.2 - 5.5.1.2 Line interactive UPS topology [Seite 235]
8.2.5.1.3 - 5.5.1.3 Online double conversion [Seite 235]
8.2.5.1.4 - 5.5.1.4 Delta conversion topology [Seite 235]
8.2.5.1.5 - 5.5.1.5 Rotary UPS topology [Seite 236]
8.2.6 - 5.6 How to Select UPS Topologies [Seite 236]
8.2.6.1 - 5.6.1 UPS Redundancy and Cost Efficiency [Seite 238]
8.2.6.1.1 - 5.6.1.1 Configuration of UPS redundancy [Seite 238]
8.2.6.1.2 - 5.6.1.2 Single module system (SMS) [Seite 239]
8.2.6.1.3 - 5.6.1.3 1+1 redundancy or two module system [Seite 239]
8.2.6.1.4 - 5.6.1.4 N+1 redundancy [Seite 239]
8.2.6.1.5 - 5.6.1.5 2(N+1) redundancy [Seite 241]
8.2.6.1.6 - 5.6.1.6 How to balance UPS availability and cost [Seite 242]
8.2.7 - 5.7 UPS Batteries [Seite 243]
8.2.7.1 - 5.7.1 Vented (Flooded or Wet Cell) UPS Batteries [Seite 243]
8.2.7.2 - 5.7.2 Valve Regulated (VRLA) UPS Batteries [Seite 244]
8.2.7.3 - 5.7.3 Modular Battery Cartridge (MBC) UPS Batteries [Seite 245]
8.2.7.4 - 5.7.4 Comparison of Three Common UPS Battery Technologies [Seite 245]
8.2.7.5 - 5.7.5 Battery Monitoring [Seite 245]
8.2.8 - 5.8 Summary [Seite 247]
8.2.9 - 5.9 Review Questions [Seite 247]
8.3 - 6 Power Distribution Unit and Cabling [Seite 250]
8.3.1 - 6.1 Introduction [Seite 250]
8.3.1.1 - 6.1.1 Basic PDU [Seite 250]
8.3.1.2 - 6.1.2 Metered PDU [Seite 251]
8.3.1.3 - 6.1.3 Switched PDU [Seite 251]
8.3.2 - 6.2 Rack Power Distribution Unit and Redundancy [Seite 251]
8.3.3 - 6.3 Power Feed to 42RU Rack [Seite 254]
8.3.4 - 6.4 Data Center Power Cabling Installation [Seite 255]
8.3.4.1 - 6.4.1 Transformation of the Data Center [Seite 255]
8.3.4.2 - 6.4.2 Under the Floor Cabling [Seite 256]
8.3.4.3 - 6.4.3 Overhead Cabling [Seite 257]
8.3.5 - 6.5 Power Cable Layout Architectures [Seite 257]
8.3.5.1 - 6.5.1 Star Topology Cabling Architecture [Seite 257]
8.3.5.2 - 6.5.2 Bus Topology Cabling [Seite 258]
8.3.6 - 6.6 Data Center Power Calculation [Seite 258]
8.3.6.1 - 6.6.1 Process of Calculating Data Center Power Requirements [Seite 260]
8.3.7 - 6.7 Strategies for Power Saving [Seite 265]
8.3.7.1 - 6.7.1 Improve Efficiency of UPS or Remove Redundant Power Equipment [Seite 265]
8.3.7.2 - 6.7.2 Improve Power Configuration [Seite 265]
8.3.7.3 - 6.7.3 Reducing Data Center Capacity [Seite 267]
8.3.8 - 6.8 Summary [Seite 269]
8.3.9 - 6.9 Review Questions [Seite 269]
8.4 - 7 Data Center Cooling [Seite 272]
8.4.1 - 7.1 Introduction [Seite 272]
8.4.2 - 7.2 Understanding Cooling, Comfort, and Precision Cooling [Seite 272]
8.4.2.1 - 7.2.1 Understanding Cooling [Seite 272]
8.4.2.2 - 7.2.2 Comfort Cooling [Seite 273]
8.4.2.3 - 7.2.3 Precision Cooling [Seite 273]
8.4.2.4 - 7.2.4 Issues with Not Using Precision Cooling [Seite 274]
8.4.2.5 - 7.2.5 Heat Sources in a Data Center [Seite 274]
8.4.3 - 7.3 Temperature, Pressure, and Volume [Seite 275]
8.4.3.1 - 7.3.1 Heat [Seite 275]
8.4.3.2 - 7.3.2 Temperature [Seite 276]
8.4.3.2.1 - 7.3.2.1 Dry-Bulb Temperature (DBT) [Seite 276]
8.4.3.2.2 - 7.3.2.2 Wet-Bulb Temperature (WBT) [Seite 277]
8.4.3.2.3 - 7.3.2.3 Dew-Point Temperature (DPT) [Seite 277]
8.4.3.3 - 7.3.3 Humidity [Seite 277]
8.4.3.3.1 - 7.3.3.1 Relative humidity [Seite 278]
8.4.3.3.2 - 7.3.3.2 Absolute humidity [Seite 278]
8.4.3.3.3 - 7.3.3.3 Humidity ratio [Seite 278]
8.4.3.4 - 7.3.4 Relationship between Temperature and Humidity [Seite 278]
8.4.3.5 - 7.3.5 The Psychometric Chart (Humidity Chart) [Seite 280]
8.4.3.6 - 7.3.6 Refrigeration [Seite 281]
8.4.3.7 - 7.3.7 Refrigeration Unit [Seite 282]
8.4.3.8 - 7.3.8 Refrigeration Cycle [Seite 282]
8.4.3.8.1 - 7.3.8.1 Evaporation (state 1) [Seite 283]
8.4.3.8.2 - 7.3.8.2 Compression (state 2) [Seite 283]
8.4.3.8.3 - 7.3.8.3 Condensation (state 3) [Seite 285]
8.4.3.8.4 - 7.3.8.4 Expansion (state 4) [Seite 285]
8.4.3.9 - 7.3.9 Airflow and Airfow Rate [Seite 285]
8.4.3.9.1 - 7.3.9.1 Gas laws [Seite 286]
8.4.3.9.2 - 7.3.9.2 Boyle's law [Seite 286]
8.4.3.9.3 - 7.3.9.3 Charles' law [Seite 287]
8.4.3.9.4 - 7.3.9.4 Gay-Lussac's law [Seite 287]
8.4.3.10 - 7.3.10 Fan Types and Fan Laws [Seite 287]
8.4.3.10.1 - 7.3.10.1 Axial and propeller fans [Seite 288]
8.4.3.10.2 - 7.3.10.2 Centrifugal and radial fans [Seite 289]
8.4.3.10.3 - 7.3.10.3 Fan laws [Seite 289]
8.4.4 - 7.4 Data Center Cooling Components [Seite 290]
8.4.4.1 - 7.4.1 CRAC [Seite 290]
8.4.4.2 - 7.4.2 CRAH [Seite 290]
8.4.4.3 - 7.4.3 Chiller [Seite 290]
8.4.4.4 - 7.4.4 Humidifier and Dehumidifier [Seite 290]
8.4.5 - 7.5 Data Center Cooling Control [Seite 291]
8.4.5.1 - 7.5.1 Demand Fighting among Different CRAC Units [Seite 292]
8.4.5.2 - 7.5.2 Adopting a Dew Point and Avoiding Relative Humidity Control [Seite 293]
8.4.5.3 - 7.5.3 How to Control Humidity and Temperature [Seite 294]
8.4.5.4 - 7.5.4 Consequences of Under- or Overhumidification [Seite 294]
8.4.5.5 - 7.5.5 Managing the Data Center Temperature [Seite 295]
8.4.5.5.1 - 7.5.5.1 Rack temperature measurement [Seite 296]
8.4.5.5.2 - 7.5.5.2 CRAC temperature measurement [Seite 296]
8.4.5.5.3 - 7.5.5.3 ASHRAE thermal guidelines for controlling temperature [Seite 298]
8.4.5.6 - 7.5.6 Making Temperature Changes Based on the Heat Transfer Equation [Seite 299]
8.4.5.7 - 7.5.7 Five Different Technologies for Removal of Data Center Heat [Seite 300]
8.4.5.7.1 - 7.5.7.1 Air cooled DX system (two piece) [Seite 300]
8.4.5.7.2 - 7.5.7.2 Air-cooled self-contained system (one piece) [Seite 301]
8.4.5.7.3 - 7.5.7.3 Ceiling mounted system [Seite 302]
8.4.5.7.4 - 7.5.7.4 Glycol-cooled system [Seite 302]
8.4.5.7.5 - 7.5.7.5 Water-cooled system [Seite 302]
8.4.5.7.6 - 7.5.7.6 Chilled water system [Seite 303]
8.4.6 - 7.6 Summary [Seite 304]
8.4.7 - 7.7 Review Questions [Seite 307]
8.5 - 8 Effective Air Distribution in Data Centers [Seite 308]
8.5.1 - 8.1 Introduction [Seite 308]
8.5.2 - 8.2 Methods of Air Distribution [Seite 309]
8.5.2.1 - 8.2.1 Flooded Approach for Hard Floor [Seite 309]
8.5.2.2 - 8.2.2 Targeted or Locally Ducted Approach for Hard Floor [Seite 310]
8.5.2.3 - 8.2.3 Fully Ducted or Contained Approach for Hard Floor [Seite 310]
8.5.2.4 - 8.2.4 Locally Ducted for Supply Air with Hard Floor [Seite 311]
8.5.2.5 - 8.2.5 Fully Ducted for Both Supply and Return Air with Hard Floor [Seite 312]
8.5.2.6 - 8.2.6 Locally Ducted or Targeted Approach with Raised Floor [Seite 313]
8.5.2.7 - 8.2.7 Fully Ducted Return Air with Raised Floor [Seite 314]
8.5.2.8 - 8.2.8 Fully Ducted Supply Air with Raised Floor [Seite 314]
8.5.2.9 - 8.2.9 Fully Ducted Supply Air and Locally Ducted Return Air with Raised Floor [Seite 314]
8.5.2.10 - 8.2.10 Fully Ducted Supply and Return Air with Raised Floor [Seite 315]
8.5.3 - 8.3 Guidelines for Air Distribution Methods [Seite 316]
8.5.4 - 8.4 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis [Seite 317]
8.5.4.1 - 8.4.1 What Is Data Center CFD Analysis and Simulation? [Seite 318]
8.5.4.2 - 8.4.2 The Process of CFD Modeling and Simulation [Seite 319]
8.5.5 - 8.5 Data Center Cooling Calculations [Seite 321]
8.5.5.1 - 8.5.1 Converting Energy in kW to Tons of Ice Cooling Equivalent [Seite 321]
8.5.5.2 - 8.5.2 IT Load Calculations [Seite 321]
8.5.5.2.1 - 8.5.2.1 Assumptions [Seite 321]
8.5.5.2.2 - 8.5.2.2 Cooling load calculations [Seite 322]
8.5.5.3 - 8.5.3 Total Cooling Requirement Calculation [Seite 322]
8.5.5.3.1 - 8.5.3.1 UPS heat output calculation [Seite 322]
8.5.5.3.2 - 8.5.3.2 PDU heat output calculation [Seite 323]
8.5.5.3.3 - 8.5.3.3 Light heat output calculation [Seite 323]
8.5.5.3.4 - 8.5.3.4 People heat output [Seite 323]
8.5.5.3.5 - 8.5.3.5 Summary of all heat outputs [Seite 324]
8.5.5.3.6 - 8.5.3.6 Other consideration for cooling requirements [Seite 324]
8.5.5.3.7 - 8.5.3.7 High density blade server cooling considerations [Seite 324]
8.5.6 - 8.6 Managing and Optimizing Cooling Systems [Seite 326]
8.5.6.1 - 8.6.1 Resolve Easy Issues Immediately to Improve Cooling Efficiency [Seite 326]
8.5.6.1.1 - 8.6.1.1 Install blank panel [Seite 326]
8.5.6.1.2 - 8.6.1.2 Manage racks and cables properly [Seite 326]
8.5.6.1.3 - 8.6.1.3 Optimizing raised floor height for cooling [Seite 327]
8.5.6.2 - 8.6.2 Guidelines to Manage Perforated Tiles and Racks [Seite 328]
8.5.6.2.1 - 8.6.2.1 Avoid the Venturi effect [Seite 330]
8.5.6.2.2 - 8.6.2.2 Avoid the supply short circuit [Seite 331]
8.5.6.3 - 8.6.3 Conditional Monitoring for Cooling System [Seite 332]
8.5.6.4 - 8.6.4 Handling High-Density Rack Cooling [Seite 332]
8.5.6.4.1 - 8.6.4.1 Row-based and rack-based cooling [Seite 333]
8.5.6.4.2 - 8.6.4.2 Cold and hot aisle containment [Seite 334]
8.5.6.4.3 - 8.6.4.3 Summary of pros and cons of different containment approaches [Seite 335]
8.5.6.4.4 - 8.6.4.4 Which one is better? [Seite 337]
8.5.7 - 8.7 Summary [Seite 338]
8.5.8 - 8.8 Review Questions [Seite 338]
8.6 - 9 Cooling Strategy [Seite 340]
8.6.1 - 9.1 Cooling Control for Wiring Closets [Seite 340]
8.6.1.1 - 9.1.1 Sharing Comfort Cooling System [Seite 340]
8.6.1.2 - 9.1.2 Conduction Cooling [Seite 341]
8.6.1.3 - 9.1.3 Conduction, Passive, and Fan-Assisted Ventilation [Seite 342]
8.6.2 - 9.2 Room-Based Cooling [Seite 342]
8.6.3 - 9.3 Row-Based Cooling [Seite 343]
8.6.4 - 9.4 Rack-Based Cooling [Seite 344]
8.6.5 - 9.5 Comparison of Room-, Row-, and Rack-Based Cooling [Seite 344]
8.6.5.1 - 9.5.1 Mixing with Room and Row Based Cooling [Seite 345]
8.6.5.2 - 9.5.2 Hot Aisle and Rack Containment for High-Density Zone [Seite 347]
8.6.5.3 - 9.5.3 Uncontained [Seite 348]
8.6.6 - 9.6 Rack Rear Door-Based Cooling Strategy [Seite 348]
8.6.7 - 9.7 Raising the Data Center Temperature [Seite 349]
8.6.8 - 9.8 Free Cooling Using Economizers [Seite 351]
8.6.8.1 - 9.8.1 Airside Economizer [Seite 353]
8.6.8.2 - 9.8.2 Waterside Economizer [Seite 353]
8.6.9 - 9.9 Summary [Seite 357]
8.6.10 - 9.10 Review Questions [Seite 362]
8.7 - 10 Fire Suppression and On-Site Security [Seite 364]
8.7.1 - 10.1 Introduction [Seite 364]
8.7.2 - 10.2 Issues with Traditional Fire Suppression Systems [Seite 365]
8.7.3 - 10.3 Fire Classification and Standards [Seite 366]
8.7.3.1 - 10.3.1 Fire Detection [Seite 366]
8.7.3.1.1 - 10.3.1.1 Computer room detection [Seite 367]
8.7.3.1.2 - 10.3.1.2 Power room detection [Seite 367]
8.7.3.1.3 - 10.3.1.3 Fire detection system [Seite 368]
8.7.4 - 10.4 Fire Suppression Solution Selection [Seite 368]
8.7.4.1 - 10.4.1 Traditional Fire Suppression Solutions [Seite 370]
8.7.4.1.1 - 10.4.1.1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) fire suppression [Seite 370]
8.7.4.1.2 - 10.4.1.2 Water-based (or water mist) fire suppression [Seite 370]
8.7.4.1.3 - 10.4.1.3 Halon [Seite 372]
8.7.5 - 10.5 Inert Gases, Halocarbons, and Aerosol [Seite 373]
8.7.5.1 - 10.5.1 Inert Gases [Seite 373]
8.7.5.2 - 10.5.2 Halocarbons [Seite 373]
8.7.5.3 - 10.5.3 Aerosol [Seite 373]
8.7.5.4 - 10.5.4 Fluorinated Ketone (Liquid) (Novec 1230) [Seite 374]
8.7.5.5 - 10.5.5 Most Commonly Used Agents in Today's Data Center [Seite 374]
8.7.6 - 10.6 Fire Suppression System Cost for Data Centers [Seite 374]
8.7.7 - 10.7 Summary of Fire Suppression Selection [Seite 375]
8.7.8 - 10.8 On-Site or Physical Security [Seite 377]
8.7.9 - 10.9 Physical Layers [Seite 379]
8.7.9.1 - 10.9.1 Protecting Data Center Perimeters [Seite 379]
8.7.9.2 - 10.9.2 Security Envelope [Seite 381]
8.7.9.3 - 10.9.3 Access Points and Door Control [Seite 381]
8.7.9.4 - 10.9.4 Camera or CCTV Control [Seite 382]
8.7.9.5 - 10.9.5 Security Guards [Seite 382]
8.7.10 - 10.10 Organizational Layer [Seite 383]
8.7.10.1 - 10.10.1 People [Seite 383]
8.7.10.2 - 10.10.2 Organizational Structure and Policy [Seite 385]
8.7.10.3 - 10.10.3 Security Process [Seite 386]
8.7.11 - 10.11 Establishing Physical Security [Seite 386]
8.7.11.1 - 10.11.1 Cost Calculations for Physical Security Systems [Seite 387]
8.7.11.1.1 - 10.11.1.1 Proportion of data center infrastructure cost [Seite 388]
8.7.11.1.2 - 10.11.1.2 Cost per watt per month (opex)+capex [Seite 388]
8.7.11.1.3 - 10.11.1.3 Cost per terabytes data storage (opex)+capex [Seite 389]
8.7.11.1.4 - 10.11.1.4 Baseline cost plus incremental opex per square meter of computer room [Seite 389]
8.7.11.2 - 10.11.2 Summary of physical security [Seite 389]
8.7.12 - 10.12 Summary [Seite 389]
8.7.13 - 10.13 Review Questions [Seite 390]
9 - III. Cloud Infrastructure and Management [Seite 392]
9.1 - 11 Cloud Infrastructure Servers: CISC, RISC, Rack-Mounted, and Blade Servers [Seite 394]
9.1.1 - 11.1 Cloud Servers [Seite 394]
9.1.1.1 - 11.1.1 A Client/Server Architecture [Seite 398]
9.1.2 - 11.2 x86 Server [Seite 400]
9.1.2.1 - 11.2.1 CPU [Seite 404]
9.1.2.1.1 - 11.2.1.1 Socket [Seite 404]
9.1.2.1.2 - 11.2.1.2 Chip [Seite 405]
9.1.2.1.3 - 11.2.1.3 Core, multicore, processor, and CPU [Seite 405]
9.1.2.1.4 - 11.2.1.4 N-way servers [Seite 407]
9.1.2.1.5 - 11.2.1.5 Multithreading and processes [Seite 408]
9.1.2.1.6 - 11.2.1.6 Hyperthreading [Seite 409]
9.1.2.2 - 11.2.2 Server CPU Cache [Seite 410]
9.1.2.3 - 11.2.3 RAM [Seite 410]
9.1.2.4 - 11.2.4 NUMA [Seite 411]
9.1.2.5 - 11.2.5 Server PCI Cards [Seite 413]
9.1.2.6 - 11.2.6 Server Storage [Seite 414]
9.1.2.7 - 11.2.7 Server Network [Seite 415]
9.1.2.8 - 11.2.8 Server Motherboard [Seite 415]
9.1.3 - 11.3 Rack-Mounted Servers and Vendors [Seite 415]
9.1.4 - 11.4 Blade Servers [Seite 418]
9.1.4.1 - 11.4.1 What Is a Blade Server? [Seite 418]
9.1.4.2 - 11.4.2 History of Blade Servers [Seite 420]
9.1.4.3 - 11.4.3 Rack vs. Blade Server [Seite 424]
9.1.5 - 11.5 RISC Server [Seite 425]
9.1.5.1 - 11.5.1 History of RISC Servers [Seite 426]
9.1.5.2 - 11.5.2 CISC vs. RISC [Seite 427]
9.1.5.3 - 11.5.3 RISC Server Market Share [Seite 431]
9.1.6 - 11.6 Oracle/Sun SPARC Servers [Seite 432]
9.1.6.1 - 11.6.1 Oracle/Sun M-Series RISC Servers [Seite 437]
9.1.6.2 - 11.6.2 Oracle/Sun T-Series RISC Servers [Seite 440]
9.1.6.3 - 11.6.3 SPARC Logical Domain and Virtual Machine (VM) [Seite 441]
9.1.7 - 11.7 Summary [Seite 446]
9.1.8 - 11.8 Review Questions [Seite 447]
9.2 - 12 Cloud Storage Basics [Seite 448]
9.2.1 - 12.1 Storage Hierarchy [Seite 448]
9.2.1.1 - 12.1.1 Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Fundamentals [Seite 449]
9.2.1.1.1 - 12.1.1.1 HDD physical metrics [Seite 450]
9.2.1.1.2 - 12.1.1.2 HDD evolution [Seite 453]
9.2.1.2 - 12.1.2 Storage SLA and RAID Architecture [Seite 456]
9.2.1.2.1 - 12.1.2.1 The common definition of an SLA [Seite 457]
9.2.1.2.2 - 12.1.2.2 RAID techniques [Seite 458]
9.2.1.2.2.1 - 12.1.2.2.1 Striping [Seite 459]
9.2.1.2.2.2 - 12.1.2.2.2 Mirroring [Seite 460]
9.2.1.2.2.3 - 12.1.2.2.3 Parity [Seite 460]
9.2.1.2.3 - 12.1.2.3 RAID configurations [Seite 460]
9.2.1.2.3.1 - 12.1.2.3.1 RAID-0 [Seite 460]
9.2.1.2.3.2 - 12.1.2.3.2 RAID-1 [Seite 461]
9.2.1.2.3.3 - 12.1.2.3.3 RAID-5 (distributed parity with N+1) [Seite 461]
9.2.1.2.3.4 - 12.1.2.3.4 RAID-6 (distributed parity with double parity redundancy) [Seite 462]
9.2.1.2.3.5 - 12.1.2.3.5 RAID-10 or RAID-01 (nested RAID-1 and RAID-0 or RAID1+0) [Seite 462]
9.2.1.2.4 - 12.1.2.4 Comparison of RAID options [Seite 463]
9.2.1.2.4.1 - 12.1.2.4.1 Summary of common RAID characteristics, cost and write penalties [Seite 464]
9.2.1.2.4.2 - 12.1.2.4.2 RAID options and application IOPS [Seite 465]
9.2.1.3 - 12.1.3 Storage LUN [Seite 466]
9.2.1.3.1 - 12.1.3.1 LUN capacity expansion [Seite 467]
9.2.1.3.1.1 - 12.1.3.1.1 Meta LUN concatenation [Seite 467]
9.2.1.3.1.2 - 12.1.3.1.2 Meta LUN striping [Seite 468]
9.2.1.3.2 - 12.1.3.2 LUN masking [Seite 468]
9.2.2 - 12.2 Solid State Disk or Flash SSD [Seite 468]
9.2.2.1 - 12.2.1 What Is an SSD? [Seite 471]
9.2.2.2 - 12.2.2 SSD versus HDD [Seite 473]
9.2.2.3 - 12.2.3 Total Cost of Ownership of SSD [Seite 474]
9.2.3 - 12.3 Storage Topologies and Connections [Seite 476]
9.2.3.1 - 12.3.1 Direct Attached Storage (DAS) [Seite 476]
9.2.3.1.1 - 12.3.1.1 Internal DAS [Seite 476]
9.2.3.1.2 - 12.3.1.2 External DAS [Seite 476]
9.2.3.2 - 12.3.2 Storage Area Network (SAN) [Seite 477]
9.2.3.3 - 12.3.3 Network Attached Storage (NAS) and File Storage Protocols [Seite 482]
9.2.3.3.1 - 12.3.3.1 The idea of NAS [Seite 482]
9.2.3.3.2 - 12.3.3.2 Elements of a NAS device [Seite 483]
9.2.3.3.2.1 - 12.3.3.2.1 Special server and network elements [Seite 484]
9.2.3.3.2.2 - 12.3.3.2.2 Storage elements [Seite 484]
9.2.3.3.2.3 - 12.3.3.2.3 Software elements and file system [Seite 485]
9.2.3.3.2.4 - 12.3.3.2.4 Integrated NAS [Seite 485]
9.2.3.3.2.5 - 12.3.3.2.5 Gateway NAS [Seite 487]
9.2.4 - 12.4 Storage Protocols [Seite 487]
9.2.4.1 - 12.4.1 File-Oriented Protocols [Seite 487]
9.2.4.1.1 - 12.4.1.1 Server Message Blocks (SMB)/Common Internet File System (CIFS) [Seite 488]
9.2.4.1.2 - 12.4.1.2 Network File System (NFS) [Seite 488]
9.2.4.2 - 12.4.2 Block-Oriented Protocols [Seite 490]
9.2.4.2.1 - 12.4.2.1 IDE/ATA/parallel ATA or PATA [Seite 490]
9.2.4.2.2 - 12.4.2.2 Serial ATA or SATA [Seite 491]
9.2.4.2.3 - 12.4.2.3 SCSI [Seite 493]
9.2.4.2.4 - 12.4.2.4 ISCSI [Seite 495]
9.2.4.2.5 - 12.4.2.5 Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) [Seite 497]
9.2.4.2.6 - 12.4.2.6 Fibre Channel IP (FCIP) [Seite 499]
9.2.4.2.7 - 12.4.2.7 Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP) [Seite 500]
9.2.4.2.8 - 12.4.2.8 Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) Protocol [Seite 500]
9.2.4.2.8.1 - 12.4.2.8.1 Converged Network Adapter (CNA) [Seite 503]
9.2.4.2.8.2 - 12.4.2.8.2 Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) Switch [Seite 503]
9.2.4.3 - 12.4.3 Storage Interface Protocols Summary [Seite 503]
9.2.5 - 12.5 Pros and Cons for Different Storage Topologies [Seite 506]
9.2.6 - 12.6 Traditional Storage vs. Cloud Storage [Seite 509]
9.2.7 - 12.7 Major Storage Vendors and Market Trends [Seite 513]
9.2.8 - 12.8 Summary [Seite 516]
9.2.9 - 12.9 Review Questions [Seite 517]
9.3 - 13 Data Center Networks [Seite 520]
9.3.1 - 13.1 Key Network Terms and Components [Seite 520]
9.3.1.1 - 13.1.1 Network Hardware [Seite 521]
9.3.1.1.1 - 13.1.1.1 Hub [Seite 522]
9.3.1.1.2 - 13.1.1.2 Switch [Seite 525]
9.3.1.1.3 - 13.1.1.3 Bridge [Seite 527]
9.3.1.1.4 - 13.1.1.4 Router [Seite 532]
9.3.1.1.4.1 - 13.1.1.4.1 Principles of routing [Seite 532]
9.3.1.1.4.2 - 13.1.1.4.2 Router size [Seite 534]
9.3.1.1.4.3 - 13.1.1.4.3 Router types [Seite 534]
9.3.1.1.4.4 - 13.1.1.4.4 Routing protocols [Seite 536]
9.3.1.1.5 - 13.1.1.5 Gateway [Seite 538]
9.3.2 - 13.2 Data Center Network Terms and Jargon [Seite 539]
9.3.2.1 - 13.2.1 DCN Terms, Jargon, and Definitions [Seite 539]
9.3.2.1.1 - 13.2.1.1 Topology [Seite 540]
9.3.2.1.2 - 13.2.1.2 Network topology [Seite 540]
9.3.2.1.3 - 13.2.1.3 Data center network topology [Seite 540]
9.3.2.1.4 - 13.2.1.4 Node [Seite 541]
9.3.2.1.5 - 13.2.1.5 Node degree [Seite 541]
9.3.2.1.6 - 13.2.1.6 Neighbor nodes [Seite 541]
9.3.2.1.7 - 13.2.1.7 Diameter [Seite 541]
9.3.2.1.8 - 13.2.1.8 Dimension [Seite 541]
9.3.2.1.9 - 13.2.1.9 Radix [Seite 541]
9.3.2.1.10 - 13.2.1.10 Regular topology [Seite 542]
9.3.2.1.11 - 13.2.1.11 Irregular topology [Seite 542]
9.3.2.1.12 - 13.2.1.12 Nonblocking and blocking [Seite 542]
9.3.2.1.13 - 13.2.1.13 Direct network [Seite 542]
9.3.2.1.14 - 13.2.1.14 Indirect network [Seite 542]
9.3.3 - 13.3 Metrics of DCN Topology [Seite 543]
9.3.4 - 13.4 Types of Network Topology [Seite 544]
9.3.4.1 - 13.4.1 Common DCN Topologies [Seite 550]
9.3.4.1.1 - 13.4.1.1 Basic trees [Seite 551]
9.3.4.1.2 - 13.4.1.2 Fat tree [Seite 552]
9.3.4.1.3 - 13.4.1.3 Commodity switch fabric-based fat tree (Al-Fares) [Seite 553]
9.3.4.1.4 - 13.4.1.4 Top of Rack (ToR) solution [Seite 555]
9.3.4.1.5 - 13.4.1.5 End of Row (EoR) and middle of ROW (MoR) solutions [Seite 556]
9.3.4.2 - 13.4.2 Recursive DCN Topologies [Seite 558]
9.3.4.2.1 - 13.4.2.1 DCell [Seite 558]
9.3.4.2.1.1 - 13.4.2.1.1 Principles of DCell [Seite 558]
9.3.4.2.1.2 - 13.4.2.1.2 Structure of DCell [Seite 559]
9.3.4.2.1.3 - 13.4.2.1.3 DCell formula [Seite 561]
9.3.4.2.1.4 - 13.4.2.1.4 DCell summary [Seite 561]
9.3.4.2.2 - 13.4.2.2 BCube [Seite 562]
9.3.4.2.2.1 - 13.4.2.2.1 Principles of BCube [Seite 562]
9.3.4.2.2.2 - 13.4.2.2.2 Structure of BCube [Seite 563]
9.3.4.2.2.3 - 13.4.2.2.3 BCube formula [Seite 564]
9.3.4.2.2.4 - 13.4.2.2.4 BCube summary [Seite 566]
9.3.4.3 - 13.4.3 Other DCN Topologies [Seite 567]
9.3.4.3.1 - 13.4.3.1 Virtual layer 2 (VL2) [Seite 567]
9.3.4.3.1.1 - 13.4.3.1.1 Principles of VL2 [Seite 568]
9.3.4.3.1.2 - 13.4.3.1.2 Structure of VL2 [Seite 570]
9.3.4.3.1.3 - 13.4.3.1.3 Summary of VL2 [Seite 571]
9.3.4.3.2 - 13.4.3.2 Conventional butterfly and flattened butterfly [Seite 572]
9.3.4.3.2.1 - 13.4.3.2.1 Principle of flattened butterfly [Seite 573]
9.3.4.3.2.2 - 13.4.3.2.2 Structure of flattened butterfly [Seite 574]
9.3.4.3.2.3 - 13.4.3.2.3 Flattened butterfly formula [Seite 575]
9.3.4.3.2.4 - 13.4.3.2.4 Flattened butterfly summary [Seite 576]
9.3.4.3.2.5 - 13.4.3.2.5 2-Dilated Flattened Butterfly (2DFB) [Seite 578]
9.3.4.3.3 - 13.4.3.3 Dragonfly topology [Seite 578]
9.3.4.3.3.1 - 13.4.3.3.1 Principle of dragonfly solution [Seite 580]
9.3.4.3.3.2 - 13.4.3.3.2 Structure of dragonfly [Seite 580]
9.3.4.3.3.3 - 13.4.3.3.3 Dragonfly formula [Seite 581]
9.3.4.3.3.4 - 13.4.3.3.4 Dragonfly summary [Seite 582]
9.3.4.4 - 13.4.4 Characteristics of Different DCN Topologies [Seite 583]
9.3.5 - 13.5 Characteristics of Cloud Data Center Network [Seite 583]
9.3.5.1 - 13.5.1 Management Network [Seite 583]
9.3.5.2 - 13.5.2 Kernel Network [Seite 584]
9.3.5.3 - 13.5.3 Virtual Machine Network [Seite 588]
9.3.5.4 - 13.5.4 Virtualized Storage Network [Seite 588]
9.3.5.5 - 13.5.5 Example of Connection Details [Seite 589]
9.3.6 - 13.6 Cloud DCN Summary [Seite 593]
9.3.6.1 - 13.6.1 DCN Component Summary [Seite 593]
9.3.6.2 - 13.6.2 Terms and Definitions Summary [Seite 596]
9.3.6.3 - 13.6.3 Metrics Summary [Seite 596]
9.3.6.4 - 13.6.4 DCN Topology Summary [Seite 596]
9.3.6.5 - 13.6.5 Cloud DCN [Seite 598]
9.3.7 - 13.7 Review Questions [Seite 599]
10 - IV. Cloud Computing Cost Models and Framework [Seite 600]
10.1 - 14 Cost Modeling: Terms and Definitions [Seite 602]
10.1.1 - 14.1 Concept of Cost Model [Seite 603]
10.1.1.1 - 14.1.1 Definition of Cost [Seite 603]
10.1.1.1.1 - 14.1.1.1 Tangible costs [Seite 604]
10.1.1.1.2 - 14.1.1.2 Intangible costs [Seite 604]
10.1.1.1.3 - 14.1.1.3 Cost parameters [Seite 604]
10.1.1.1.4 - 14.1.1.4 Sunk cost [Seite 606]
10.1.1.1.5 - 14.1.1.5 Direct Variable Cost (DVC) [Seite 607]
10.1.1.1.6 - 14.1.1.6 Capital Expenditure (Capex) [Seite 608]
10.1.1.1.7 - 14.1.1.7 Operational Cost or Operational Expenditure (Opex) [Seite 608]
10.1.1.2 - 14.1.2 Capex and Opex Shift in a Cloud Environment [Seite 608]
10.1.1.3 - 14.1.3 Benefits [Seite 612]
10.1.1.4 - 14.1.4 Risks and Opportunity [Seite 612]
10.1.1.5 - 14.1.5 Definition of Model [Seite 613]
10.1.1.5.1 - 14.1.5.1 Objective cost model [Seite 616]
10.1.1.5.2 - 14.1.5.2 Subjective cost model [Seite 617]
10.1.1.6 - 14.1.6 Model Measurement or Metrics [Seite 618]
10.1.1.7 - 14.1.7 Analysis [Seite 620]
10.1.1.8 - 14.1.8 Framework and Methodology [Seite 621]
10.1.1.9 - 14.1.9 Formulating a Cost Model [Seite 622]
10.1.2 - 14.2 Purposes of Cost Modeling for Cloud Computing [Seite 623]
10.1.2.1 - 14.2.1 Visualize Abstract Structure of the Complex World [Seite 623]
10.1.2.2 - 14.2.2 Organize Concepts, Thoughts, and Ideas [Seite 624]
10.1.2.3 - 14.2.3 Communicate with Other People [Seite 625]
10.1.3 - 14.3 Challenges of Cloud Cost Modeling [Seite 625]
10.1.3.1 - 14.3.1 Not All Factors Are within the Framework [Seite 629]
10.1.3.2 - 14.3.2 Limitation of Framework Size [Seite 630]
10.1.3.3 - 14.3.3 Objective or Subjective Process of Cost Modeling [Seite 630]
10.1.3.4 - 14.3.4 Limitation of Individual Knowledge and Experience [Seite 630]
10.1.3.5 - 14.3.5 A Time Stamp on the Model [Seite 631]
10.1.4 - 14.4 Summary [Seite 631]
10.1.5 - 14.5 Review Questions [Seite 632]
10.2 - 15 Cost Model Categories [Seite 634]
10.2.1 - 15.1 Review of Cost Models [Seite 634]
10.2.1.1 - 15.1.1 The Cost Model of the First CPU [Seite 638]
10.2.1.2 - 15.1.2 Recent Cloud Computing Cost Models [Seite 639]
10.2.1.2.1 - 15.1.2.1 Hybrid solution for cloud computing cost model [Seite 641]
10.2.1.2.2 - 15.1.2.2 Cloud service provider's cost model [Seite 645]
10.2.1.2.3 - 15.1.2.3 Optimizing cost models [Seite 646]
10.2.1.2.4 - 15.1.2.4 Cost model using the method of traditional economic mapping [Seite 648]
10.2.1.2.5 - 15.1.2.5 Cost model oriented by service level agreement (SLA) [Seite 648]
10.2.1.2.6 - 15.1.2.6 Cost model from a TCO perspective [Seite 652]
10.2.1.2.7 - 15.1.2.7 Computable general equilibrium (CEG) model [Seite 655]
10.2.2 - 15.2 Cloud Computing Issues, Impacts, the Right Questions for the Cost Model [Seite 655]
10.2.2.1 - 15.2.1 Cloud Service Consumers [Seite 656]
10.2.2.2 - 15.2.2 Cloud Service Providers [Seite 656]
10.2.3 - 15.3 Cost Models over the Last 50 Years [Seite 656]
10.2.4 - 15.4 Common Financial Cost Models [Seite 659]
10.2.4.1 - 15.4.1 Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) [Seite 660]
10.2.4.2 - 15.4.2 Breakeven Point (BEP) [Seite 661]
10.2.4.3 - 15.4.3 Cost/Benefit and Cost/Benefit Ratio [Seite 662]
10.2.4.4 - 15.4.4 Cost of Revenue Model [Seite 663]
10.2.4.5 - 15.4.5 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) [Seite 663]
10.2.4.5.1 - 15.4.5.1 What are the pros and cons of IRR? [Seite 664]
10.2.4.6 - 15.4.6 Net Present Value (NPV) [Seite 664]
10.2.4.6.1 - 15.4.6.1 What are the pros and cons of the NPV model? [Seite 665]
10.2.4.7 - 15.4.7 Simple Payback Period (SPP) [Seite 665]
10.2.4.8 - 15.4.8 Discounted Payback Period [Seite 666]
10.2.4.9 - 15.4.9 Profitability index [Seite 666]
10.2.4.10 - 15.4.10 Return on Investment (ROI) Model [Seite 667]
10.2.4.11 - 15.4.11 Total Cost of Ownership [Seite 668]
10.2.4.12 - 15.4.12 TCO/ROI Model [Seite 668]
10.2.5 - 15.5 Summary [Seite 669]
10.2.6 - 15.6 Review Questions [Seite 670]
10.3 - 16 Chargeback [Seite 672]
10.3.1 - 16.1 Introduction to Chargebacks [Seite 672]
10.3.1.1 - 16.1.1 Understanding Enterprise IT Operations [Seite 674]
10.3.2 - 16.2 No IT Cost Allocation [Seite 679]
10.3.3 - 16.3 Non-IT-Based Cost Allocation [Seite 681]
10.3.4 - 16.4 IT Domain-Based Cost Allocation [Seite 681]
10.3.4.1 - 16.4.1 Direct Cost [Seite 682]
10.3.4.2 - 16.4.2 Measured Resource Usage [Seite 682]
10.3.4.3 - 16.4.3 Subscription-Based Cost Allocation [Seite 684]
10.3.4.4 - 16.4.4 High-Level Allocation [Seite 684]
10.3.4.5 - 16.4.5 Low-Level Allocation [Seite 685]
10.3.4.6 - 16.4.6 Hardware-Based Cost [Seite 685]
10.3.4.7 - 16.4.7 Static Capacity-Based Cost [Seite 685]
10.3.4.8 - 16.4.8 Ticket-Based Cost [Seite 685]
10.3.4.9 - 16.4.9 Peak Level-Based Cost [Seite 686]
10.3.4.10 - 16.4.10 Virtual Server- or VM Account-Based Cost [Seite 686]
10.3.5 - 16.5 Fee-Based Cost Allocation [Seite 687]
10.3.5.1 - 16.5.1 Negotiated Flat Rate [Seite 687]
10.3.5.2 - 16.5.2 Tiered Flat Rate [Seite 688]
10.3.5.3 - 16.5.3 Transaction Ratio-Based Cost [Seite 688]
10.3.5.4 - 16.5.4 Activity-Based Cost [Seite 689]
10.3.5.5 - 16.5.5 SLA Performance Metrics [Seite 690]
10.3.6 - 16.6 Business-Based Cost Allocation [Seite 691]
10.3.6.1 - 16.6.1 Fixed Revenue-Based Cost [Seite 691]
10.3.6.2 - 16.6.2 Fixed Revenue with Predefined Range [Seite 692]
10.3.6.3 - 16.6.3 Profit-Oriented Cost Model [Seite 692]
10.3.6.3.1 - 16.6.3.1 Capacity reservation-based rate [Seite 693]
10.3.6.3.2 - 16.6.3.2 Bidding instance (market base rate) [Seite 693]
10.3.7 - 16.7 Summary [Seite 693]
10.3.8 - 16.8 Review Questions [Seite 694]
11 - V. Cloud Strategy and Critical Decision Making [Seite 696]
11.1 - 17 Cost Model Calculation [Seite 698]
11.1.1 - 17.1 Case Study [Seite 698]
11.1.1.1 - 17.1.1 Company History [Seite 698]
11.1.1.2 - 17.1.2 Basic Business Profile [Seite 699]
11.1.1.3 - 17.1.3 Current IT Assets and Operation [Seite 702]
11.1.1.4 - 17.1.4 Strategic IT Investment Decision Options [Seite 702]
11.1.1.4.1 - 17.1.4.1 Data center facility capex [Seite 703]
11.1.1.4.2 - 17.1.4.2 IT hardware expenses [Seite 704]
11.1.1.4.3 - 17.1.4.3 Software licenses [Seite 704]
11.1.1.4.4 - 17.1.4.4 Other implementation costs [Seite 704]
11.1.1.4.5 - 17.1.4.5 Building an E2E cost framework [Seite 704]
11.1.1.5 - 17.1.5 Model Assumption Details [Seite 708]
11.1.1.5.1 - 17.1.5.1 Server workload assumptions [Seite 708]
11.1.1.5.2 - 17.1.5.2 Server cost assumptions and vendor selection decision [Seite 708]
11.1.1.5.3 - 17.1.5.3 Network cost assumptions [Seite 709]
11.1.1.5.4 - 17.1.5.4 Storage cost assumptions [Seite 709]
11.1.1.5.5 - 17.1.5.5 Data center facility cost assumptions [Seite 711]
11.1.1.5.6 - 17.1.5.6 VMware hypervisor license cost assumptions [Seite 712]
11.1.1.5.7 - 17.1.5.7 Operation system and other middleware assumptions [Seite 715]
11.1.1.5.8 - 17.1.5.8 Amazon EC2 and S3 cost assumptions [Seite 715]
11.1.2 - 17.2 Calculation Steps and Results [Seite 716]
11.1.2.1 - 17.2.1 Calculate Growth Rate [Seite 718]
11.1.2.2 - 17.2.2 Calculate Dedicated and Virtualized Workload [Seite 720]
11.1.2.3 - 17.2.3 Calculate Static Net Present Value (NPV) [Seite 722]
11.1.3 - 17.3 Conclusion of Case Study [Seite 724]
11.1.4 - 17.4 Summary [Seite 726]
11.1.5 - 17.5 Review Questions [Seite 728]
11.2 - 18 Real Option Theory and Monte Carlo Simulation [Seite 730]
11.2.1 - 18.1 Overview of Real Option Theory [Seite 730]
11.2.2 - 18.2 History of Real Options [Seite 731]
11.2.3 - 18.3 What Are Real Options? [Seite 733]
11.2.3.1 - 18.3.1 Equations of Real Option Theory [Seite 735]
11.2.3.2 - 18.3.2 Criteria of Real Options from a Project Perspective [Seite 735]
11.2.3.3 - 18.3.3 Real Options for Investment Decision [Seite 737]
11.2.3.3.1 - 18.3.3.1 Learning option [Seite 737]
11.2.3.3.2 - 18.3.3.2 Modular or discrete option [Seite 737]
11.2.3.3.3 - 18.3.3.3 Insurance option [Seite 738]
11.2.3.3.4 - 18.3.3.4 Irreversible option [Seite 738]
11.2.3.3.5 - 18.3.3.5 Flexible option [Seite 738]
11.2.3.3.6 - 18.3.3.6 Platform option [Seite 738]
11.2.4 - 18.4 Possible Real Options [Seite 739]
11.2.4.1 - 18.4.1 Growth or Expansion or Leveraging Option [Seite 739]
11.2.4.2 - 18.4.2 Time-to-Build or Open Option [Seite 740]
11.2.4.3 - 18.4.3 Multiple Interacting Options [Seite 740]
11.2.4.4 - 18.4.4 Option to Switch [Seite 740]
11.2.4.5 - 18.4.5 Option to Defer [Seite 741]
11.2.4.6 - 18.4.6 Option to Alter the Operating Scale [Seite 741]
11.2.4.7 - 18.4.7 Option to Abandon (Put Option) [Seite 741]
11.2.4.8 - 18.4.8 Different Terms for Real Options [Seite 741]
11.2.5 - 18.5 Real Options versus Financial Options [Seite 742]
11.2.6 - 18.6 Real Options versus Traditional Approaches [Seite 743]
11.2.7 - 18.7 What Is Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS)? [Seite 747]
11.2.7.1 - 18.7.1 Probability of Probability (Monte Carlo Tests) [Seite 749]
11.2.7.2 - 18.7.2 Simulation Process [Seite 750]
11.2.7.3 - 18.7.3 Different Types of Monte Carlo Simulation [Seite 753]
11.2.7.3.1 - 18.7.3.1 Linear MCS [Seite 753]
11.2.7.3.2 - 18.7.3.2 Nonlinear MCS [Seite 754]
11.2.7.4 - 18.7.4 Pros and Cons of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) [Seite 755]
11.2.7.4.1 - 18.7.4.1 What is MCS good at? (Pros) [Seite 755]
11.2.7.4.2 - 18.7.4.2 What is MCS not good at? (Cons) [Seite 755]
11.2.7.4.3 - 18.7.4.3 Good applications for MCS [Seite 756]
11.2.7.4.4 - 18.7.4.4 Bad applications for MCS [Seite 757]
11.2.8 - 18.8 Random Numbers and Brownian Motion [Seite 758]
11.2.8.1 - 18.8.1 Pseudorandom versus Random Numbers [Seite 758]
11.2.8.2 - 18.8.2 Brownian Motion (BM) and Geometric BM [Seite 759]
11.2.8.2.1 - 18.8.2.1 Brownian motion [Seite 759]
11.2.8.2.2 - 18.8.2.2 Wiener process or standard brownian motion [Seite 761]
11.2.8.2.2.1 - 18.8.2.2.1 Levy Processes [Seite 761]
11.2.8.2.2.2 - 18.8.2.2.2 Mathematical Terms of Standard Brownian Motion [Seite 762]
11.2.8.2.2.3 - 18.8.2.2.3 Brownian Motion with Drift [Seite 763]
11.2.8.2.2.4 - 18.8.2.2.4 Geometric Brownian motion [Seite 764]
11.2.9 - 18.9 MCS and ROT Process [Seite 764]
11.2.9.1 - 18.9.1 Calculation Process [Seite 764]
11.2.9.2 - 18.9.2 Tactical Level of Analysis [Seite 766]
11.2.9.2.1 - 18.9.2.1 Project prioritization and listing target projects for analysis [Seite 766]
11.2.9.2.2 - 18.9.2.2 Static NPV calculation (Traditional Analysis) [Seite 767]
11.2.9.2.3 - 18.9.2.3 Verifying business criteria [Seite 767]
11.2.9.2.4 - 18.9.2.4 Monte carlo simulation for revenue forecasting [Seite 767]
11.2.9.2.5 - 18.9.2.5 Checking that everything makes sense and MCS input calibration [Seite 768]
11.2.9.3 - 18.9.3 Strategic Level of Analysis [Seite 769]
11.2.9.3.1 - 18.9.3.1 Strategic level of real options problem [Seite 769]
11.2.9.3.2 - 18.9.3.2 Real option modeling [Seite 769]
11.2.9.3.3 - 18.9.3.3 Portfolio and resource optimization [Seite 770]
11.2.9.3.4 - 18.9.3.4 Documenting conclusions and recommendations [Seite 771]
11.2.9.3.5 - 18.9.3.5 Update and revise [Seite 772]
11.2.10 - 18.10 Summary of MCS and ROT Concepts [Seite 772]
11.2.11 - 18.11 MCS Analysis Process Details [Seite 774]
11.2.11.1 - 18.11.1 Sensitivity Analysis with DCF (Five-Year Revenue) [Seite 774]
11.2.11.1.1 - 18.11.1.1 Change Discount Cash Flow (DCF) ±10% [Seite 775]
11.2.11.1.2 - 18.11.1.2 Change initial capex ±10% [Seite 775]
11.2.11.1.3 - 18.11.1.3 Change interest rate ±10% [Seite 775]
11.2.11.2 - 18.11.2 Sensitivity Analysis with Different Scenarios [Seite 775]
11.2.11.3 - 18.11.3 Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) Analysis [Seite 777]
11.2.11.3.1 - 18.11.3.1 Scenario MCS (Radical Sensitivity) [Seite 777]
11.2.11.3.2 - 18.11.3.2 Normal case MCS (General Sensitivity) [Seite 777]
11.2.12 - 18.12 Real Option Theory Analysis Process Details [Seite 781]
11.2.13 - 18.13 Real Option Theory Process Equations [Seite 782]
11.2.13.1 - 18.13.1 Implement the Real Option Value Calculation Process [Seite 783]
11.2.13.1.1 - 18.13.1.1 Step 1: Binomial lattice process [Seite 785]
11.2.13.1.2 - 18.13.1.2 Step 2: forward process [Seite 785]
11.2.13.1.3 - 18.13.1.3 Step 3: backward induction process [Seite 785]
11.2.14 - 18.14 Summary [Seite 791]
11.2.15 - 18.15 Review Questions [Seite 793]
12 - Appendices [Seite 796]
12.1 - Appendix A. Catalogue of Major IT Project Catastrophe [Seite 796]
12.2 - Appendix B. An Example of BRD Template [Seite 805]
12.2.1 - B.1 Business Requirements Document Table of Contents [Seite 806]
12.3 - Appendix C. Global Data Center Map (100 Countries and 3236 Data Centers for Colocation in 2014 Based on datacentermap.com) [Seite 808]
12.4 - Appendix D. Comparison of Different Cost Models [Seite 809]
12.5 - Appendix E. Nineteen Free Cloud Storage Options (2013 Data) [Seite 810]
12.6 - Appendix F. List of Different Cost Model Analysis [Seite 811]
12.7 - Appendix G. Server Products Provided by Major Server Different Vendors [Seite 812]
12.7.1 - G.1 IBM Rack-Mounted Server [Seite 812]
12.7.2 - G.2 Dell Rack-Mounted Server [Seite 813]
12.7.3 - G.3 Lenovo Rack-Mounted Server [Seite 813]
12.7.4 - G.4 Huawei Rack-Mounted Server [Seite 813]
12.7.5 - G.5 Oracle/Sun ×86 Rack-Mounted Server [Seite 814]
12.7.6 - G.6 Fujitsu Rack-Mounted Server [Seite 814]
12.7.7 - G.7 Cisco Rack-Mounted Server [Seite 815]
12.8 - Appendix H. TIA-942 Telecommunication Infrastructure Standard for Data Center Tier [Seite 815]
13 - References [Seite 818]
14 - Index [Seite 832]

Preface


Caesar Wu and Rajkumar Buyya, Melbourne, Australia, 2014

How can we measure the sky? This question sometimes refers to how to measure the cost of cloud computing. For many people, it is a very challenging and tough question. And yet, many C-class senior executives (CEO, CFO, and CIO), stakeholders, and cloud investors would not only want to know "how" (cost model assumptions and calculations), but also want to know "why" (logic behind these assumptions).

Why is this so important? The simple answer is it is too big to be ignored. We have heard many stories about how some decision makers just throw big money into cloud projects without proper understanding of cloud technology and expect to catch up to the "wind" (win). This book will lay out the basic concepts and foundation of cloud computing and data center facilities and then provide tools and practical approaches for decision makers to make the right strategic investment decisions. It will help the decision maker to not only rely on "gut feelings" or previous experiences but also count on the scientific method.

One of the goals of this book is to establish a practical framework to enable IT executives to make a rational choice when they are facing a multimillion-dollar investment decision for a cloud project, which is to determine whether IT workloads should stay local or fly to a cloud. (inhouse or cloud computing).

Almost five years ago, this challenging task was assigned to us because a senior IT executive wanted to justify a multimillion investment decision that he had already made but he was not sure whether the decision was a rational choice or not. The original idea of this exercise was to check his intuition, estimate the strategic value, communicate with all the stakeholders, and change the scope of the cloud investment project if necessary.

At that time, many trial projects of cloud computing, server virtualization, and software multitenancy had just taken off. Various companies made different investment decisions in order to test the water or get a foothold on the cloud market.

With these intentions in our mind plus many years' practical experience in cost modeling of utilities and grid computing, hosting services management, network design, construction, operation, lifecycles, and service delivery, we elicited eight basic questions about this cost modeling exercise:

 What is the ultimate goal of measuring the sky?

 How many cost models are there?

 How can we make a logical and rational comparison with different models?

 Why is the TCO/ROI model is so popular? If we use TCO/ROI, would it be the right choice?

 What are the assumptions of these models?

 How can I select the right model to fit a particular business need?

 How can we establish both revenue- and nonrevenue-based cost models?

 What are the risks of keeping the IT workload in house versus migrating to the cloud?

We believe that most people, whether they are cloud service providers or cloud service consumers, will also face similar questions if they are asked to measure "the sky" or to prepare a business case for a cloud investment project. From this perspective, this book is also targeted for IT business analysts and MBA students as reference material.

In essence, the core objective of this book is to demonstrate how to build a cloud cost model. It will illustrate the process of establishing the cost framework and calculating the costs. One of the main reasons to address the cloud cost modeling issue is that many ordinary people have two popular misconceptions:

1. The cloud is free.

2. My data is stored anyway up in the air.

If this is so, why should we bother to measure the sky? The answer is dependent on who you are. If you are just an individual consumer and require very limited cloud resources, it is quite clear that you can obtain nearly free cloud resources. However, if you are a business consumer, especially for medium- and large-scale businesses, there will be no free lunch. You have to pay for what you have consumed. This leads to the issue of how to make the rational investment decision for the usage of IT resources.

For most small or medium size companies, the investment decision would be relatively simple. The decision criteria could be mainly based on financial or economic returns plus a decision maker's intuition or personal satisfaction. However, for a large enterprise, the strategic investment decision (very often involving millions of dollars) is not a simple intellectual exercise but rather than process of negotiation and compromise among different Line of Business (LoB) units.

However, to some degree, all models are subjective because cost modeling involves many subjective assumptions and selection of raw data and material. It would be impossible to avoid subjective assumptions and personal opinions. Strictly speaking, any data selected and assumption made are subjective. It is based on personal experiences and intuition or perhaps, a gut feeling.

Many people think a gut feeling is negative or nonscientific. As a matter of fact, a gut feeling is kind of a super-logic or sixth sense or recognition of a subconscious pattern. It gives us a shortcut to quickly reach a solution. Sometimes, this shortcut serves us quite well, especially if we do not have enough time to analyze the circumstances surrounding us or do not have enough information available. In this case, the sixth sense would be the only choice for us to reach a self-satisfactory conclusion. It is not purely arbitrary or an illogical guess but rather meta-knowledge built upon the subconscious mind. Actually, people's minds are always searching for a recognised pattern based on available information, knowledge, experiences and most importantly, wisdom. Perhaps that is why a gut feeling is very often called an "educated guess," self-learning, working experience, or armchair thinking.

Many strategic investment decisions made by IT legends such as Steve Jobs and Marc R. Benioff [1] led to great success for their companies. Why did they achieve what most people cannot achieve? Is it because they not only have years of working experiences and cumulative knowledge, but also have "gut feelings" or wisdom? People speculate that they may have absorbed wisdom from Eastern philosophy and religion because they both went to India for enlightenment. In Steve Jobs' own words, "Trust in destiny" and "Follow your heart." Walter Isaacson, the exclusive biographer of Steve Jobs, wrote it this way:

Jobs's interest in Eastern spirituality, Hinduism (Krishna/God Consciousness), Zen Buddhism, and the search for enlightenment was not merely the passing phase of a nineteen-year-old. Throughout his life he would seek to follow many of the basic precepts of Eastern religions, such as the emphasis on experiential prajña, wisdom or cognitive understanding that is intuitively experienced through concentration of the mind. Years later, sitting in his Palo Alto garden, he reflected on the lasting influence of his trip to India [2].

For the East, it is the soul. The soul did not come with body nor die with the body. The body is just a temporary home for the soul. The soul can be enlightened by many sophisticated methodologies and practices that have been developed by Eastern philosophy, religion, and culture for many thousands of years or by messages delivered by the Supreme God personally (e.g., Lord Krishna's teachings compiled as Bhagavad Gita) or his incarnations.

For the West, it is subconsciousness. In Sigmund Freud's teachings, it is the unconscious mind beneath consciousness and awareness. It is a repository of idea, desire, memories, and emotion. It consists of any information and data the mind collects from five senses but cannot consciously process to make meaningful sense of. However, it can be retrieved or recalled to consciousness by the simple direction of attention.

In order to make the right decision at the right time, the spiritual mind constantly needs not only information and knowledge but also wisdom. Without that, a strategic decision may just be a tactical one. Long-term success would be dependent on pure luck rather than a strategy. Here, wisdom means abstract pattern recognition at hierarchical level. It is the experience of cumulative knowledge. Cumulative knowledge has four different levels:

 Level 1: You do not know what you do not know (ignorance).

 Level 2: You know what you do not know (know unknowns).

 Level 3: You know what you know and what you do not know (know your boundaries).

 Level 4: You know all - knowledge of knowledge or meta-knowledge, wisdom (wizard).

For many people and under many circumstances, they are just wandering around atknowledge level 1. If we borrow the Indian philosophy term, it is so-called "ignorance." There are two different scenarios when people face the unknown. One is either leaving to chance or pretending to know. The other is to wonder about the unknown and continuously search for knowledge and wisdom. That is why people often say wondering is the beginning of wisdom.

Unfortunately, we have witnessed many IT strategic decisions made by some wayward people subject to purely static...

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Dateiformat: PDF
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

85,62 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
Hinweis: Die Auswahl des von Ihnen gewünschten Dateiformats und des Kopierschutzes erfolgt erst im System des E-Book Anbieters
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung des WebShops erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok