Early Greek Ethics

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 1. September 2020
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  • 751 Seiten
 
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978-0-19-107641-1 (ISBN)
 
Early Greek Ethics is devoted to Greek philosophical ethics in its formative period, from the last decades of the sixth century BCE to the beginning of the fourth century BCE. It begins with the inception of Greek philosophical ethics and ends immediately before the composition of Plato's and Aristotle's mature ethical works Republic and Nicomachean Ethics. The ancient contributors include Presocratics such as Heraclitus, Democritus, and figures of the early Pythagorean tradition such as Empedocles and Archytas of Tarentum, who have previously been studied principally for their metaphysical, cosmological, and natural philosophical ideas. Socrates and his lesser known associates such as Antisthenes of Athens and Aristippus of Cyrene also feature, as well as sophists such as Gorgias of Leontini, Antiphon of Athens, and Prodicus of Ceos, and anonymous texts such as the Pythagorean Acusmata, Dissoi Logoi, Anonymus Iamblichi, and On Law and Justice. In addition to chapters on these individuals and texts, the volume explores select fields and topics especially influential to ethical philosophical thought in the formative period and later, such as early Greek medicine, music, friendship, justice and the afterlife, and early Greek ethnography. Consisting of thirty chapters composed by an international team of leading philosophers and classicists, Early Greek Ethics is the first volume in any language devoted to philosophical ethics in the formative period.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
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  • Großbritannien
  • 8,33 MB
978-0-19-107641-1 (9780191076411)
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David Conan Wolfsdorf is Professor of Philosophy at Temple University in Philadelphia. Previously he taught at Fairfield University in Connecticut. He is the author of On Goodness (Oxford, 2019), Pleasure in Ancient Greek Philosophy (Cambridge, 2012), and Trials of Reason (Oxford, 2008).
  • Cover
  • Early Greek Ethics
  • Copyright
  • Table of Contents
  • Chapter Abstracts and Contributor Information
  • 1. Johan C. Thom, "The Pythagorean Acusmata"
  • 2. Shaul Tor, "Xenophanes on the Ethics and Epistemology of Arrogance"
  • 3. Mark A. Johnstone, "On the Ethical Dimension of Heraclitus' Thought"
  • 4. John Palmer, "Ethics and Natural Philosophy in Empedocles"
  • 5. Tazuko A. van Berkel, "The Ethical Life of a Fragment: Three Readings of Protagoras' Man Measure Statement"
  • 6. Kurt Lampe, "The Logos of Ethics in Gorgias' Palamedes, On What is Not, and Helen"
  • 7. Joel E. Mann, "Responsibility Rationalized: Action and Pollution in Antiphon's Tetralogies"
  • 8. Mauro Bonazzi, "Ethical and Political Thought in Antiphon's Truth and Concord"
  • 9. David Conan Wolfsdorf, "The Ethical Philosophy of the Historical Socrates"
  • 10. Richard Bett, "Prodicus on the Choice of Heracles, Language, and Religion"
  • 11. Monte Ransome Johnson, "The Ethical Maxims of Democritus of Abdera"
  • 12. Alex Gottesman, "The Sophrosyne of Critias: Aristocratic Ethics after the Thirty Tyrants"
  • 13. Phillip Sidney Horky, "Anonymus Iamblichi, On Excellence (Peri Aretes): A Lost Defense of Democracy"
  • 14. David Conan Wolfsdorf, "On the Unity of the Dissoi Logoi"
  • 15. Susan Prince, "Antisthenes' Ethics"
  • 16. Mikolaj Domaradzki, "Antisthenes and Allegoresis"
  • 17. Voula Tsouna, "Aristippus of Cyrene"
  • 18. David M. Johnson, "Self-Mastery, Piety, and Reciprocity in Xenophon's Ethics"
  • 19. Nicholas D. Smith, "Ethics in Plato's Early Dialogues"
  • 20. Phillip Sidney Horky and Monte Ransome Johnson, "On Law and Justice: Attributed to Archytas of Tarentum"
  • 21. Joseph Skinner, "Early Greek Ethnography and Human Values"
  • 22. Paul Demont, "Ethics in Early Greek Medicine"
  • 23. Radcliffe Edmonds, "The Ethics of Afterlife in Classical Greek Thought"
  • 24. Dimitri El Murr, "Friendship in Early Greek Ethics"
  • 25. Svavar Hrafn Svavarsson, "Justice and the Afterlife"
  • 26. Eleonora Rocconi, "Music and the Soul"
  • 27. Christopher Rowe, "The Teachability of Arete among the Socratics"
  • 28. Will Desmond, "Diogenes of Sinope"
  • 29. Tim O'Keefe, "Anaxarchus on Indifference, Happiness, and Convention"
  • 30. Carl A. Huffman, "Aristoxenus' Pythagorean Precepts: A Rational Pythagorean Ethics"
  • Introduction
  • Bibliography
  • Part I: Individuals and Texts
  • 1 The Pythagorean Acusmata
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Definitional Sayings
  • 3. Religion, Cult, and the Sacred
  • 4. Dietary Taboos
  • 5. Virtues and Superstitions
  • 6. The Ethics of the Acusmata
  • Bibliography
  • 2 Xenophanes on the Ethics and Epistemology of Arrogance
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Xenophanes on Knowledge and Belief
  • 3. Epistemic Arrogance and Ethical Failure
  • 4. Between Arrogance and Self-Affirmation
  • 5. Mockeries and Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • 3 On the Ethical Dimension of Heraclitus' Thought
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Soul
  • 3. Human Understanding
  • 4. God and Wisdom
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • 4 Ethics and Natural Philosophy in Empedocles
  • Bibliography
  • 5 The Ethical Life of a Fragment: Three Readings of Protagoras' Man Measure Statement
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. The Problem with Fragments
  • 1.2. The Fragment and its Oldest Extant Exegesis
  • 2. Judging Man: Ethical Relativism
  • 2.1. "Whatever the polis decides"
  • 2.2. Human Measure versus Human Condition
  • 3. Measuring Man: An Alternative Ethical Reading
  • 3.1. Due Measures from a Pre-Protagorean Perspective
  • 3.2. Due Measures in Protagorean Allusions
  • 4. Monetary Man: An Undercurrent in the Biographical Tradition
  • 4.1. "The Customer is King"
  • 4.2. "The Measure of All Things Useful"
  • 5. Concluding Remarks
  • Bibliography
  • 6 The Logos of Ethics in Gorgias' Palamedes, On What is Not, and Helen
  • 1. Gorgias' Life and Works
  • 2. Ethics and Metaethics: Funeral Oration
  • 3. The Metaphysics of Judgment: On Nature
  • 4. The Dramatics of Judgment: Palamedes
  • 5. The Psychodynamics of Judgment: Helen
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • 7 Responsibility Rationalized: Action and Pollution in Antiphon's Tetralogies
  • 1. Projectiles of Pollution
  • 2. Two Tetralogies
  • 3. The Third Tetralogy: An Analysis
  • 4. The Implications for Material Miasma
  • Bibliography
  • 8 Ethical and Political Thought in Antiphon's Truth and Concord
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Truth
  • 3. Concord
  • 4. Self-Interest and Pleasure in Truth and Concord
  • 5. Concluding Remarks on Antiphon's Political Ideas (and on His Identity)
  • Bibliography
  • 9 The Ethical Philosophy of the Historical Socrates
  • 1. The Socratic Problem
  • 2. Ethics and the Scope of Socrates' Philosophy
  • 3. Socrates' Conception of His Philosophy
  • 4. Eudaimonism
  • 5. Psyche and Knowledge
  • 6. Techne, Sophia, Episteme
  • 7. Method
  • 8. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • 10 Prodicus on the Choice of Heracles, Language, and Religion
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Reputation
  • 3. Heracles' Choice
  • 4. Language
  • 5. Religion
  • Bibliography
  • 11 The Ethical Maxims of Democritus of Abdera
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The evidence for Democritus' ethical works
  • 3. Ethics in the Form of Maxims
  • 4. Democritus' Use of Maxims
  • 5. Democritus, Peri euthumies
  • 6. Social-Political dimensions of Democritus' ethics
  • 7. Democritus' Conception of Autonomy
  • 8. Democritus' Eudaimonistic and Therapeutic Ethics
  • 9. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • 12 The Sophrosyne of Critias: Aristocratic Ethics after the Thirty Tyrants
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Historical Context
  • 3. Works of Critias
  • 4. Debating Critias, debating aristocratic sophrosyne
  • Bibliography
  • 13 Anonymus Iamblichi, On Excellence(Peri Aretes): A Lost Defense of Democracy
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Context of Preservation: Iamblichus' Exhortation to Philosophy (c.300 CE)
  • 3. Context of Production: Social Contract Theoryin the Late Fifth Century BCE (?)
  • 4. Anonymus Iamblichi's On Excellence (?e?? ??et??): A Discussion of the Fragments
  • 4.1. Fragments 1-2: Excellence and Reputation
  • 4.2. Fragments 3-5: Excellence, Human Psychology, and Society
  • 4.3. Fragments 6-8: Law, Justice, and the "Superman"
  • 5. Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • 14 On the Unity of the Dissoi Logoi
  • 1. Orientation to the Text
  • 2. The Question of the Unity of T
  • 3.1. Opening Sentences and Connecting Particles
  • 3.2. The Antilogical and Monological Portions of T
  • 3.3. The Relation between the Antilogical and Monological Portions of T
  • 3.4. Conclusion to the Functional Unity of the Antilogical and Monological Portions of T
  • 4. The Topical Unity of Sections 1-3
  • 5.1 Introduction to the Topical and Functional Relation between sections 1-3 and Sections 4-5
  • 5.2. The Topical Relation between Sections 1-3 and Section 4
  • 5.3 The Topical and Functional Relation between Sections 1-4 and 5
  • 5.3.1 Introduction
  • 5.3.2 ?? Phrases
  • 5.3.3 Two Interpretations of the Identity and Differentiating Theses
  • 5.3.4 The Central Argument for the Differentiating Thesis in Section 4
  • 5.3.5 The Argument for the Differentiating Thesis in Section 5
  • 5.3.6 Conclusion to the Topical and Functional Relation between Sections 1-4 and Section 5
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • APPENDIX 1: The Manuscript Tradition
  • APPENDIX 2: Sections of Marcianus Gr. 262
  • 15 Antisthenes' Ethics
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Pleasure versus Toil: Antisthenes in the Doxographical Reception
  • 3. The Fortress of Reason and the Rejection of Conventional Norms
  • 4. Antisthenes in his Own Words
  • 5. The Virtue of Characters: The Forensic Speeches
  • 6. Interpretations of the Homeric Characters
  • 7. Antisthenes as Xenophon's Character
  • 8. Cyrus and Heracles
  • 9. Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • 16 Antisthenes and Allegoresis
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Two Dubious Testimonies
  • 3. The Most Attractive Candidates
  • 4. The Less Attractive Candidates
  • 5. The Least Attractive Candidates
  • 6. Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • 17 Aristippus of Cyrene
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Aristippus on Pleasure
  • 3. Aristippus as a Socratic
  • 4. The Reception of Aristippus as an Ethical Hedonist
  • Bibliography
  • 18 Self-Mastery, Piety, and Reciprocity in Xenophon's Ethics
  • 1. Works and Life
  • 2. Xenophon's Models
  • 3. Self-Mastery
  • 4. Piety, Reciprocity, and Friendship
  • 5. Ends
  • 6. Endings
  • Bibliography
  • 19 Ethics in Plato's Early Dialogues
  • 1. "The Socrates Problem"
  • 2. Pragmatism
  • 3. Eudaimonism
  • 4. Egoism?
  • 5. Virtue and the Virtues
  • 6. Virtue and Happiness
  • 7. The Necessity of Virtue
  • 8. Going Wrong
  • Bibliography
  • 20 On Law and Justice: Attributed to Archytas of Tarentum
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Authorship of On Law and Justice
  • 3. Analysis of the Fragments of On Law and Justice
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Part II: Topics and Fields
  • 21 Early Greek Ethnography and Human Values
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Defining Ethnography
  • 3. Ethnography and the Greeks
  • 4. The Relationship between Ethnography and Anthropology
  • 5. Greek Ethnography and Ethical Inquiry
  • 6. Ethics and Ethnography in Herodotus and Elsewhere
  • Bibliography
  • 22 Ethics in Early Greek Medicine
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Human Body, Character, and Emotions
  • 3. Medical Ethics
  • Bibliography
  • 23 The Ethics of Afterlife in Classical Greek Thought
  • 1. Introduction: Did the Greeks have an Ethical Idea of Life after Death?
  • 2. Afterlife as a Continuation of Life
  • 2.1. Continuative Afterlife in Mythic Imagery
  • 2.2. Continuity in the Afterlife in Funerary Practice
  • 3. Afterlife as Compensation for Life
  • 3.1. Achilles (and others) in the Isles of the Blessed
  • 3.2. Judgment for the Afterlife
  • 3.3. Torments in the Underworld
  • 3.4. Surrogate Punishers in the Underworld
  • 3.5. The Uninitiate in the Underworld
  • 3.6. The Ethical Value of Mystery Initiation
  • 3.7. Living the Good Life in the Afterlife
  • 3.8. Once is Not Enough
  • 4. Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • 24 Friendship in Early Greek Ethics
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Pythagorean Beginnings?
  • 3. Friendship as a Natural Force in Empedocles
  • 4. Friendship and Benefit in Democritus
  • 5. Philia, Nature and Convention: the Sophists on Friendship
  • 6. Self-sufficiency and Usefulness: the Socratics on Friendship
  • 7. Conclusion
  • Appendix: Philos and Philia in the Fifth Century
  • Bibliography
  • 25 Justice and the Afterlife
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Ethics of Afterlife in the Earliest Testimonies: Retributive Justice, if any
  • 3. The Promise of Happiness
  • 4. Posthumous Happiness in Pindar and Retributive Justice in Aeschylus
  • 5. Postmortem Retribution and Happiness in the Late Fifth Century
  • Bibliography
  • 26 Music and the Soul
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Music in Pythagorean ethics
  • 3. Music in sophistic ?p?de??e??
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • 27 The Teachability of Arete¯ among the Socratics
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Euclides
  • 3. Antisthenes
  • 4. Xenophon
  • 5. Aeschines
  • 6. Plato
  • 7. Socrates?
  • Bibliography
  • Part III: Coda
  • 28 Diogenes of Sinope
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Diogenes and Cynicism: A Synopsis of Themes
  • 2.1. Living According to Nature
  • 2.2. Criticism of Customs
  • 2.3. Anaideia and Parrhesia
  • 2.4. Ascetic Self-Mastery and Self-Sufficiency
  • 2.5. Cosmopolitanism
  • 2.6. Virtue Ethics
  • 3. Dualities of Diogenes
  • 3.1. Greek or Universal?
  • 3.2. Social or Individualistic?
  • 3.3. Rational or Mad?
  • 3.4. Dogmatist or Skeptic?
  • 3.5. Anarchist or King?
  • 3.6. Simple or Complex?
  • Bibliography
  • 29 Anaxarchus on Indifference, Happiness, and Convention
  • 1. Life and Sources
  • 2. Indifference Regarding Value: Its Basis and Its Benefits
  • 3. Anaxarchus' Atomism and Skepticism
  • 4. Indifference and Action
  • 5. Indifference and Convention
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Appendix. Passages on Anaxarchus
  • Bibliography
  • 30 Aristoxenus' Pythagorean Precepts: A Rational Pythagorean Ethics
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Index Locorum
  • General Index

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