This book provides in-depth insights into the biology, taxonomy, genetics, physiology and biotechnological applications of Actinobacteria. It especially focuses on the latter, reviewing the wide variety of actinobacterial bioactive molecules and their benefits for diverse industrial applications such as agriculture, aquaculture, biofuel production and food technology. Actinobacteria are one of the most promising sources of small bioactive molecules and it is estimated that only a small percentage of actinobacterial bioactive chemicals have been discovered to date. Identifying new diverse gene clusters of biotechnological relevance in the genome of Actinobacteria will be crucial to developing advanced applications for pharmaceutical, industrial and agricultural purposes. The book offers a unique resource for all graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of microbiology, microbial biotechnology, and the genetic engineering of Actinobacteria.
Joachim Wink has received his PhD from Frankfurt University, Germany in 1985. He then went into the pharmaceutical industry and started his career at the Hoechst AG, where he was responsible for the strain collection and specialized in the cultivation and taxonomic characterization of Actinobacteria and Myxobacteria. Over the years he became responsible for the strain library within the pharmaceutical research and a number of screening projects with Hoechst Marion Russel, Aventis and Sanofi. In 2005 he completed his postdoctoral degree at the Carolo Wilhelma University of Braunschweig, and in 2012 he transferred to the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig, where he founded the strain-collection working group and is currently working on the isolation and taxonomic characterization of Myxobacteria and Actinobacteria, as well as the analysis of their secondary metabolites. He has published more than 50 papers on secondary metabolites and the taxonomy of the producing microorganisms in reputed journals, a number of reviews and book chapters, and holds more than 35 patents. He is a member of the editorial board of several international journals.
Fatemeh Mohammadipanah completed her PhD project in a joint program between the University of Tehran and University of Göttingen in 2011. She has been working on Actinobacteria since 2008, when she started the taxonomical study of Actinobacteria at the DSMZ. She has been an Assistant Professor at the University of Tehran since 2012. Her primary research interests are in the isolation, taxonomy and in particular bioactive secondary metabolites of bacteria.
Javad Hamedi, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Chapter 1- Introduction to actinobacteria 1-1- Similarities and differences between actinobacteria, fungi and other bacteria1-2- General characteristic of actinobacteria
Chapter 2- Cellular structure 2-1- Cellular components2-2- Cellular skeleton
Chapter 3- Growth and Life Cycle 3-1- Life cycle3-2- Growth3-3- Chromosome movement during the growth3-4- Differentiation3-5- Aerial mycelium formation3-6- Spore formation3-7- Molecular principle of differentiation 3-8- Essential genes in morphogenesis and spore formation3-9- The other genes involved in morphogenesis and spore formation3-10- Differentiation factors
Chapter 4- Classification and Taxonomy 4-1- Classification criteria4-2- Microscopic and macroscopic morphology4-3- Molecular identification4-3-1- 16S rRNA gene sequence4-3-1- DNA-DNA hybridization and ANI value4-4- Chemical taxonomy4-3-1-Cell wall chemical composition4-3-2- Cell membrane isoprenoidquinones4-3-3- Cell membrane phospholipids4-3-4- Cell fatty acid pattern4-3-5- Cell membrane mycolic acid type4-4- Physiological characteristics
Chapter 5- Genetic of Actinobacteria 5-1- Chromosome structure and genetic elements5-2- Plasmids5-3- Genetic instability5-4- Proliferation5-5- Genomic sequence5-6- Sequenced actinobacteria5-7- Model actinobacteria in genetic studies5-8- Genetic signature molecules5-9- Genetic manipulation 5-10- Reporter systems5-11- Cloning5-12- Gene variation and substitution5-13- Genetic segments transportation5-14- Plasmid transportation5-15- Chromosome segments transportation5-16- Genes expression system5-17- Translation
Chapter 6- Ecology and habitat distribution 6-1- Expanding of actinobacteria in nature and extreme habitats6-2- Ecology of actinobacteria in terrestrial habitats6-3- Ecology of actinobacteria in aqueous habitats6-4- The impact of environmental factors6-5- Phages of actinobacteria
Chapter 7- Physiology of actinobacteria 7-1- Growth requirements7-1-1- Carbon sources7-1-2- Nitrogen sources7-2- Metabolite biosynthesis7-2-1- Primary metabolites7-2-2- Secondary metabolites
Chapter 8- Regulation of secondary metabolites of actinobacteria 8-1- Secondary metabolites evolution8-2- Regulation of Secondary metabolites production 8-2-1- Positive control mechanisms8-2-2- Negative control mechanisms8-3- Growth rate and nutritional limitation8-4- Extracellular signals8-5- Induction of silent secondary metabolite clusters
Chapter 9- Symbiosis and pathogenisity of actinobacteria 9-1- Symbiosis with other microorganisms9-2- Symbiosis with other macroorganisms9-2- 1- Symbiosis and Pathogenicity in human 9-2- 2- Symbiosis and Pathogenicity with animals9-2- 3- Symbiosis and Pathogenicity with plants
Chapter 10- The role of actinobacteria in biotechnology 10-1- Application in Red biotechnology10-1-1- Antibacterial agents10-1-2- Antifungal agents10-1-3- Antiviral agents10-1-4- Antitumor agents10-1-5- Immune regulator agents10-1-6- Cholesterol decreasing agents10-1-7- Antiparasites agents10-1-8- Enzyme inhibitors10-1-9- Siderophores10-1-10- Angiogeny10-1-12- Toxins 10-1-14- The other biological activities of actinobacterias metabolites10-2- Application in White biotechnology10-2-1- Organic solvents10-2-2- Enzyms10-2-2- Biotransformation10-2-2- Biofuel10-3- Application in Green biotechnology10-3-1- Biocontrol10-3-2- Herbicides and insecticides10-3-3- Animals growth enhancers10-4- Application in Yellow biotechnology10-4-1- Vitamins10-4-2- Amino acids10-4-3- Organic solvents10-5- Application in Blue biotechnology10-5-1- Aquaculture10-5-2- Antifouling compounds10-5-3- Biocontrol of pathogens10-6- Application in Grey biotechnology10-6-1- Recycling of organic compounds 10-6-2- Bioremediation of toxic agents10-6-3- Protection from corrosion10-7- Application in Gold biotechnology10-7-1- Systems biology10-7-2- Production of nanoparticles
Chapter 11- Practical aspects of working with Actinobacteria 11-1- Morphological investigation11-1-1- Macroscopic11-1-2- Microscopic11-1-3- Cultural analysis11-2- Physiological investigation11-2-1- Biochemical tests11-2-2- Metabolic investigation11-3- Molecular analysis11-3-1- Genomic 11-3-2- Proteomic11-4- Chemical analysis11-4-1- Cellular structure analysis11-4-2- Metabolite analysis