Fundamentals of Applied Reservoir Engineering

Appraisal, Economics and Optimization
 
 
Gulf Professional Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 20. April 2016
  • |
  • 248 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-101900-9 (ISBN)
 

Fundamentals of Applied Reservoir Engineering introduces early career reservoir engineers and those in other oil and gas disciplines to the fundamentals of reservoir engineering. Given that modern reservoir engineering is largely centered on numerical computer simulation and that reservoir engineers in the industry will likely spend much of their professional career building and running such simulators, the book aims to encourage the use of simulated models in an appropriate way and exercising good engineering judgment to start the process for any field by using all available methods, both modern simulators and simple numerical models, to gain an understanding of the basic 'dynamics' of the reservoir -namely what are the major factors that will determine its performance. With the valuable addition of questions and exercises, including online spreadsheets to utilize day-to-day application and bring together the basics of reservoir engineering, coupled with petroleum economics and appraisal and development optimization, Fundamentals of Applied Reservoir Engineering will be an invaluable reference to the industry professional who wishes to understand how reservoirs fundamentally work and to how a reservoir engineer starts the performance process.


  • Covers reservoir appraisal, economics, development planning, and optimization to assist reservoir engineers in their decision-making.
  • Provides appendices on enhanced oil recovery, gas well testing, basic fluid thermodynamics, and mathematical operators to enhance comprehension of the book's main topics.
  • Offers online spreadsheets covering well test analysis, material balance, field aggregation and economic indicators to help today's engineer apply reservoir concepts to practical field data applications.
  • Includes coverage on unconventional resources and heavy oil making it relevant for today's worldwide reservoir activity.


Richard Wheaton is currently a Senior Lecturer in Petroleum Engineering , University of Portsmouth. He has 33 years of experience in the oil and gas industry. He joined BG Group (then British Gas) in 1980 starting as a Senior Scientist (Reservoir Engineering) in the Research Division and becoming a Research Project Leader developing an 'in-house' compositional reservoir simulator. He has held posts as a Principle Petroleum Engineer, Reservoir Engineering Manager, Chief Reservoir Engineer, Chief Petroleum Engineer and as Head of Corporate Reserves. In the last three years, he has been a Special Advisor to the Chief Executive. Dr. Wheaton's areas of expertise include reservoir engineering, reservoir modelling, development planning, reserves and resource estimation, project evaluation. He has worked extensively on both conventional oil, gas and condensate fields and on unconventional (coal seam and shale gas) and has worked on worldwide projects (Kazakhstan, Russia, Egypt, Trinidad, Vietnam, India, Australia, US, Brazil, Bolivia, UK) over the last 22 years.
  • Englisch
  • London
Elsevier Science
  • 11,47 MB
978-0-08-101900-9 (9780081019009)
0081019009 (0081019009)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF APPLIED RESERVOIR ENGINEERING
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF APPLIED RESERVOIR ENGINEERING
  • Copyright
  • CONTENTS
  • LIST OF FIGURES
  • FOREWORD
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Basic Rock and Fluid Properties
  • 2.1 FUNDAMENTALS
  • 2.2 POROSITY
  • 2.2.1 Basics
  • 2.2.2 Measurement of Porosity
  • 2.2.2.1 Wire Line Logs
  • 2.2.2.2 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity
  • 2.2.3 Variable Nature of Porosity
  • 2.2.4 Net to Gross (NTG)
  • 2.3 PERMEABILITY
  • 2.3.1 Basics
  • 2.3.2 Measurement of Permeability
  • 2.3.2.1 Laboratory Determination of Permeability
  • 2.3.2.2 Permeability From Well-Test Analysis
  • 2.3.2.3 Darcy's Law in Field Units
  • 2.3.3 Permeability Variation in a Reservoir
  • 2.3.4 Vertical and Horizontal Permeability
  • 2.4 WETTABILITY
  • 2.4.1 Basics
  • 2.4.1.1 Hysteresis
  • 2.4.1.2 Imbibition and Drainage
  • 2.4.2 Measuring Wettability
  • 2.5 SATURATION AND CAPILLARY PRESSURE
  • 2.5.1 Saturation
  • 2.5.2 Capillary Pressure
  • 2.5.3 Reservoir Saturation With Depth
  • 2.5.3.1 Oil-Water Reservoirs With a Gas Cap
  • 2.6 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY
  • 2.6.1 Basics
  • 2.6.2 Oil-Water Systems
  • 2.6.3 Gas-Water Systems
  • 2.6.4 Gas-Oil Relative Permeability
  • 2.6.5 Semi-Empirical Equations for Two-Phase Relative Permeabilities
  • 2.6.6 Three-Phase Relative Permeabilities
  • 2.6.7 Measurement of Relative Permeability
  • 2.6.8 Excel Software for Producing Empirical Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure Curves
  • 2.7 RESERVOIR FLUIDS
  • 2.7.1 Basics
  • 2.7.1.1 Hydrocarbons
  • 2.7.1.2 Inerts
  • 2.7.1.3 Types of Reservoir Fluid
  • 2.7.2 Relationship Between Gas and Oil Phases-Single-Component Systems
  • 2.7.3 Phase Equilibria in Multicomponent Systems
  • 2.7.3.1 A Different Representation-Two-Pseudocomponent Pressure Composition Plots
  • 2.7.4 Volume Changes With Pressure and Temperature (PVT Relationships)
  • 2.7.5 Obtaining Representative Reservoir Fluid Samples
  • 2.7.5.1 Surface Flow Testing
  • 2.7.5.2 Direct Reservoir Fluid Sampling-Repeat Formation Testing
  • 2.7.6 Laboratory Studies on Reservoir Fluids
  • 2.7.6.1 Constant Volume Depletion for Gas and Gas Condensate Systems
  • 2.7.6.2 Constant Composition Expansion
  • 2.7.6.3 Differential Depletion for Oil
  • 2.7.7 Use of Equations of State in Reservoir Engineering
  • 2.7.7.1 Real Gases
  • 2.7.8 Black Oil Model
  • 2.7.8.1 Formation Volume Factors
  • 2.7.8.1.1 Oil FVF
  • 2.7.8.1.2 Gas FVF
  • 2.7.8.2 Solution GOR
  • 2.7.9 Excel Software for Producing Empirical Black Oil Curves
  • 2.7.10 Compositional Flash Calculations
  • 2.7.10.1 Chemical Potentials
  • 2.7.10.2 Fugacities
  • 2.7.10.3 For a Real Gas
  • 2.7.10.4 Cubic Equation of State of Form
  • Solved to Give PVT Relationships
  • 2.7.10.5 Allowing Composition of Coexisting Phases to Be Determined
  • 2.8 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 2.9 FURTHER READING
  • 2.10 SOFTWARE
  • 3 - Well-Test Analysis
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 BASIC EQUATIONS
  • 3.3 LINE SOURCE-INFINITE RESERVOIR
  • 3.4 BOUNDED RESERVOIR WITH ``NO FLOW'' BOUNDARY
  • 3.5 CONSTANT PRESSURE BOUNDARY
  • 3.6 SKIN EFFECTS
  • 3.7 WELLBORE STORAGE
  • 3.8 PRESSURE DRAWDOWN ANALYSIS
  • 3.9 PRESSURE BUILDUP ANALYSIS
  • 3.9.1 The Principle of Superposition
  • 3.9.2 Horner Plots-Permeability and Initial Pressure From Pressure Buildup Data
  • 3.9.3 Skin Factor From Buildup Data
  • 3.10 LOG-LOG PLOTS-MOST COMMONLY USED ANALYSIS TOOL
  • 3.11 RESERVOIR TYPES
  • 3.11.1 Radial Composite Models
  • 3.11.2 Constant Pressure Boundary
  • 3.11.3 Closed Radial System
  • 3.11.4 Fractured Reservoir
  • 3.12 EXCEL SPREADSHEET FOR PRESSURE BUILDUP ANALYSIS
  • 3.13 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 3.14 FURTHER READING
  • 3.15 SOFTWARE
  • 4 - Analytical Methods for Prediction of Reservoir Performance
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 DECLINE PERFORMANCE FROM MATERIAL BALANCE
  • 4.2.1 Material Balance for Gas Reservoirs
  • 4.2.1.1 Gas Equation of State
  • 4.2.2 Diagnostics-Determination of Gas Initially in Place
  • 4.2.3 Material Balance for Oil Reservoirs
  • 4.2.4 Diagnostics-Determination of Oil Initially in Place: Havlena-Odeh Analysis
  • 4.3 EXTENDING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS TO OBTAIN PRODUCTION PROFILES
  • 4.3.1 Dry Gas Rate Decline With Time
  • 4.3.2 Wet Gas Rates
  • 4.3.3 Gas Condensate Rates
  • 4.3.3.1 Depletion
  • 4.3.3.2 Recycling
  • 4.3.4 Oil Rates With Time
  • 4.4 WATER-FLOOD PERFORMANCE ESTIMATION FROM ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS
  • 4.4.1 Frontal Advance Equations
  • 4.4.1.1 Piston-like Displacement
  • 4.4.1.2 Self-Sharpening Systems
  • 4.4.1.3 Nonsharpening Systems
  • 4.4.1.3.1 Steps
  • 4.4.1.3.2 Position of Any Given Water Saturation Front Sw
  • 4.4.2 Time to Water Breakthrough
  • 4.4.3 Sweep Efficiency and Recovery Factor at Breakthrough
  • 4.4.4 Production Rates
  • 4.4.5 Excel Spreadsheet ``Waterflood''
  • 4.5 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 4.6 FURTHER READING
  • 4.7 SOFTWARE
  • 5 - Numerical Simulation Methods for Predicting Reservoir Performance
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2 BASIC STRUCTURE OF NUMERICAL MODELS
  • 5.3 TYPES OF RESERVOIR MODEL
  • 5.3.1 Grid Types
  • 5.3.2 Flow Types
  • 5.4 BASIC EQUATIONS
  • 5.4.1 Conservation of Mass
  • 5.4.2 Conservation of Momentum
  • 5.4.3 Thermodynamic Relationships
  • 5.4.4 Combined Equations-Diffusivity Equations
  • 5.4.4.1 Black-Oil Models
  • 5.4.4.2 Compositional Models
  • 5.5 FINITE DIFFERENCES
  • 5.5.1 Taylor Series
  • 5.5.1.1 For the First Derivative
  • 5.5.1.2 For the Second Derivative
  • 5.5.2 Explicit Methods
  • 5.5.3 Implicit Methods
  • 5.6 INPUT DATA FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATORS
  • 5.6.1 Grid Properties
  • 5.6.2 Rock Properties
  • 5.6.3 Fluid Properties
  • 5.6.3.1 Black-Oil Models
  • 5.6.3.2 Compositional Models
  • 5.6.3.3 Dual-Porosity Models
  • 5.6.4 Saturation Properties
  • 5.6.5 Initial Reservoir Conditions
  • 5.6.6 Well Location and Rate Control
  • 5.6.7 Aquifers
  • 5.7 USE OF NUMERICAL SIMULATORS
  • 5.7.1 Introduction
  • 5.7.2 Single-Well Modeling
  • 5.7.3 Coarse Grid Modeling
  • 5.7.4 Conceptual/Sector Modeling
  • 5.7.4.1 General
  • 5.7.4.2 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 5.7.4.3 Appraisal Planning-Value of Information
  • 5.7.4.4 Field Development Planning
  • 5.7.5 Full-Field Modeling
  • 5.8 HISTORY MATCHING
  • 5.8.1 What Is History Matched?
  • 5.8.2 What Is Changed to Achieve a History Match?
  • 5.9 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 5.10 FURTHER READING
  • 6 - Estimation of Reserves and Drive Mechanisms
  • 6.1 HYDROCARBONS IN PLACE
  • 6.1.1 Hydrocarbon Pore Volume
  • 6.1.2 Oil in Place
  • 6.1.3 Gas in Place
  • 6.2 RESERVES
  • 6.3 RECOVERY FACTORS FOR VARIOUS FIELD TYPES
  • 6.3.1 Dry and Wet Gas Reservoirs
  • 6.3.2 Gas Condensate Reservoirs
  • 6.3.3 Undersaturated Oil Fields
  • 6.3.3.1 Liquid Expansion Drive
  • 6.3.3.2 Solution Gas Drive
  • 6.3.3.3 Water Flooding
  • 6.3.4 Saturated Oil Fields
  • 6.3.5 Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • 6.3.6 Field Management
  • 6.4 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 6.5 FURTHER READING
  • 7 - Fundamentals of Petroleum Economics
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 NET CASH FLOW
  • 7.3 INFLATION
  • 7.4 DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW
  • 7.5 NET PRESENT VALUE
  • 7.6 REAL RATE OF RETURN
  • 7.7 PAYBACK TIME AND MAXIMUM EXPOSURE
  • 7.8 PROFIT-TO-INVESTMENT RATIO
  • 7.9 RISKED INDICATORS - ESTIMATED MONETARY VALUE
  • 7.10 ECONOMIC INDICATOR SOFTWARE
  • 7.11 EXAMPLES WITH ECONOMIC INDICATORS
  • 7.12 EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON ECONOMIC INDICATORS
  • 7.13 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 7.14 FURTHER READING
  • 7.15 SOFTWARE
  • 8 - Field Appraisal and Development Planning
  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8.2 INITIAL EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS
  • 8.3 USE OF ANALOG DATA
  • 8.4 EMPIRICAL DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS
  • 8.4.1 General
  • 8.4.2 Gas Wells
  • 8.4.3 Oil Wells
  • 8.4.4 Excel Spreadsheet for Arp's Decline Equation
  • 8.5 USE OF SINGLE-WELL ANALYTICAL METHODS
  • 8.6 APPRAISAL PROGRAMME-SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
  • 8.7 VALUE OF INFORMATION
  • 8.8 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 8.9 FURTHER READING
  • 8.10 SOFTWARE
  • 9 - Unconventional Resources
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES
  • 9.3 SHALE GAS AND OIL
  • 9.3.1 Global Distribution
  • 9.3.2 Nature of Shale
  • 9.3.3 Fracking
  • 9.3.4 Use of Microseismic to Monitor Fracture Stimulation
  • 9.3.5 Shale Gas Reserves
  • 9.3.6 Estimation of Production Profiles
  • 9.4 COALBED METHANE
  • 9.4.1 Global Distribution
  • 9.4.2 Nature of CBM
  • 9.4.3 Estimation of Gas in Place
  • 9.4.4 Recovery Factors
  • 9.4.5 Estimation of Production Potential and Reserves
  • 9.4.6 Water Disposal
  • 9.5 HEAVY OIL
  • 9.5.1 General
  • 9.5.2 Continuous Steam Injection
  • 9.5.3 Cyclic Steam Injection
  • 9.5.4 Combustion Methods
  • 9.5.5 Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand
  • 9.6 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 9.7 FURTHER READING
  • 10 - Producing Field Management
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 RESERVOIR MONITORING
  • 10.2.1 Production Rates
  • 10.2.2 Pressure Data
  • 10.2.3 Tracer Data
  • 10.2.4 Phase Saturation Distribution-4D Time Lapse
  • 10.3 RESERVOIR HISTORY MATCHING AND REMODELING
  • 10.4 REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
  • 10.5 FURTHER READING
  • 11 - Uncertainty and the Right to Claim Reserves
  • 11.1 WHAT ARE RESERVES AND RESOURCES?
  • 11.2 INTERNATIONAL RULES ON PUBLIC DECLARATION OF RESERVES
  • 11.3 HANDLING UNCERTAINTIES ON RESERVES
  • 11.3.1 Uncertainty Overview
  • 11.3.2 Deterministic Estimation of Reserves
  • 11.3.3 Probabilistic Estimation of Reserves
  • 11.3.3.1 Monte Carlo Analysis
  • 11.3.3.2 Experimental Design
  • 11.4 PUBLIC DECLARATION OF RESERVES
  • 11.4.1 Prospect Stage Resources
  • 11.4.2 Discovery to Presanction Resources
  • 11.4.3 Presanction to Project Sanction Reserves
  • 11.4.4 Project Sanction to First Oil or Gas Reserves
  • 11.4.5 Fields in Production Reserves
  • 11.5 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
  • 11.6 FURTHER READING
  • 1 - Basic Fluid Thermodynamics
  • GIBBS FREE ENERGY OF MIXING
  • ENTROPY OF MIXING
  • INTERNAL ENERGY OF MIXING
  • GIBBS FREE ENERGY OF MIXING-COMBINATION OF TERMS
  • PHASE SPLIT FOR TWO-COMPONENT MIXTURES
  • 2 - Mathematical Note
  • GRADIENTS
  • 3 - Gas Well Testing
  • 4 - Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • GENERAL
  • GAS INJECTION
  • MISCIBLE SOLVENTS-SURFACTANTS
  • THERMAL METHODS
  • ECONOMICS
  • FURTHER READING
  • 5 - Simple Oil Material Balance for Rate as a Function of Time
  • 6 - Conversion Factors
  • 7 - Answers to Questions and Exercises
  • BASIC ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES
  • WELL-TEST ANALYSIS
  • ANALYTICAL METHODS
  • ESTIMATION OF RESERVES
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM ECONOMICS
  • FIELD APPRAISAL AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
  • UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES
  • UNCERTAINTY AND THE RIGHT TO CLAIM RESERVES
  • 8 - Nomenclature
  • 9 - Accompanying Spreadsheets
  • ECONOMIC INDICATORS
  • PRODUCTION AGGREGATION
  • WELL-TEST ANALYSIS
  • EMPIRICAL DECLINE CURVES
  • WATER FLOODING
  • MATERIAL BALANCE
  • RESERVOIR PROPERTIES
  • GLOSSARY
  • INDEX
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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