Bailliere's Nurses' Dictionary - E-Book

for Nurses and Healthcare Workers
 
 
Bailliere Tindall (Verlag)
  • 26. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 11. April 2014
  • |
  • 624 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-5373-3 (ISBN)
 

This popular classic, Baillière's Nurses' Dictionary, is now in its 26th edition, and fully updated to ensure it retains its usefulness to nurses and health care workers. New entries reflect the constantly changing world of health care services. Containing a wealth of useful information in a convenient pocket-sized format, this is an essential resource for everyone involved in nursing and health care.

Appendices:

1 Nutrition

2 Resuscitation

3 First Aid

4 Medicines and their Control

5 The Legal and Professional Framework of Nursing

6 Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics

Section 1: Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC)

Section 2: Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC)

7 Common Abbreviations

8 Common Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots

9 Units of Measurement and Tables of Normal Values

10 Immunization and Vaccinations

11 Occupational Health and Safety

12 Prevention and Control of Infection

13 Practice Development

14 Clinical Supervision

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    • Englisch
    • London
    Elsevier Health Sciences
    • 17,92 MB
    978-0-7020-5373-3 (9780702053733)
    0702053732 (0702053732)
    weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
    1 - Front cover [Seite 1]
    2 - Bailliere's Nurses' Dictionary [Seite 2]
    3 - Copyright page [Seite 5]
    4 - Table of Contents [Seite 6]
    5 - Contributors [Seite 8]
    6 - Foreword [Seite 10]
    7 - Preface [Seite 13]
    8 - Acknowledgements [Seite 14]
    9 - Style Guide [Seite 15]
    9.1 - Subentries [Seite 15]
    9.2 - Cross-referencing [Seite 15]
    9.3 - Translations [Seite 15]
    9.4 - Abbreviations Used in this Dictionary [Seite 15]
    9.5 - Drug Names [Seite 16]
    10 - A [Seite 18]
    11 - B [Seite 58]
    12 - C [Seite 83]
    13 - D [Seite 128]
    14 - E [Seite 149]
    15 - F [Seite 169]
    16 - G [Seite 184]
    17 - H [Seite 197]
    18 - I [Seite 224]
    19 - J [Seite 244]
    20 - K [Seite 247]
    21 - L [Seite 252]
    22 - M [Seite 269]
    23 - N [Seite 293]
    24 - O [Seite 308]
    25 - P [Seite 319]
    26 - Q [Seite 363]
    27 - R [Seite 366]
    28 - S [Seite 382]
    29 - T [Seite 413]
    30 - U [Seite 432]
    31 - V [Seite 437]
    32 - W [Seite 447]
    33 - X [Seite 452]
    34 - Y [Seite 453]
    35 - Z [Seite 455]
    36 - Appendices [Seite 458]
    36.1 - Appendices [Seite 458]
    36.2 - Appendix 1 [Seite 460]
    36.2.1 - Nutrition [Seite 460]
    36.2.1.1 - Protein [Seite 460]
    36.2.1.2 - Carbohydrate [Seite 461]
    36.2.1.3 - Fat [Seite 461]
    36.2.1.4 - Vitamins [Seite 463]
    36.2.1.4.1 - Vitamin A [Seite 463]
    36.2.1.4.1.1 - Retinol [Seite 463]
    36.2.1.4.1.2 - Carotene [Seite 463]
    36.2.1.4.2 - Vitamin B Complex [Seite 463]
    36.2.1.4.2.1 - Vitamin B12 [Seite 464]
    36.2.1.4.2.2 - Folate (folic acid - the man-made version) [Seite 464]
    36.2.1.4.3 - Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) [Seite 464]
    36.2.1.4.4 - Vitamin D [Seite 464]
    36.2.1.4.5 - Vitamin E [Seite 465]
    36.2.1.4.6 - Vitamin K [Seite 465]
    36.2.1.5 - Minerals [Seite 465]
    36.2.1.5.1 - Iron [Seite 465]
    36.2.1.5.2 - Calcium [Seite 465]
    36.2.1.5.3 - Phosphorus [Seite 466]
    36.2.1.5.4 - Sodium [Seite 466]
    36.2.1.5.5 - Potassium [Seite 466]
    36.2.2 - Artificial Nutritional Support [Seite 466]
    36.2.2.1 - Indications [Seite 466]
    36.2.2.2 - Artificial Nutritional Support [Seite 467]
    36.2.2.3 - Enteral Nutrition [Seite 467]
    36.2.2.3.1 - Enteral Nutrition Modalities [Seite 467]
    36.2.2.3.1.1 - Oral Diet [Seite 467]
    36.2.2.3.1.2 - Nutritional Supplements [Seite 467]
    36.2.2.3.1.3 - Tube Feeding [Seite 467]
    36.2.2.3.2 - Indications for Enteral Tube Feeding [Seite 468]
    36.2.2.3.3 - Contraindications for Enteral Tube Feeding [Seite 468]
    36.2.2.3.4 - Composition of Enteral Tube Feeds [Seite 468]
    36.2.2.3.5 - Tube Feeding Regimen [Seite 469]
    36.2.2.3.6 - Check Tube Position Prior to Initiating Feed [Seite 469]
    36.2.2.3.7 - Complications of Enteral Tube Feeding [Seite 469]
    36.2.2.3.8 - Other Tube Feeding Considerations [Seite 469]
    36.2.2.3.8.1 - Feed Administration Sets [Seite 469]
    36.2.2.3.8.2 - Drug Administration [Seite 469]
    36.2.2.3.8.3 - Water [Seite 471]
    36.2.2.3.8.4 - Home Tube Feeding [Seite 471]
    36.2.2.3.8.5 - Monitoring [Seite 471]
    36.2.2.4 - Parenteral Nutrition (PN) [Seite 471]
    36.2.2.4.1 - Possible Indications for Parenteral Nutrition [Seite 471]
    36.2.2.4.2 - Routes Used for Parenteral Nutrition [Seite 472]
    36.2.2.4.2.1 - Central Access [Seite 472]
    36.2.2.4.2.2 - Peripheral Access [Seite 472]
    36.2.2.4.3 - Composition of Parenteral Nutrition Feeds [Seite 472]
    36.2.2.4.4 - Feeding Regimens [Seite 473]
    36.2.2.4.5 - Glutamine [Seite 473]
    36.2.2.4.6 - Complications [Seite 473]
    36.2.2.4.7 - Basic Monitoring for Enteral (Tube Feeding) and Parenteral Nutrition [Seite 473]
    36.2.2.5 - References/Bibliography [Seite 475]
    36.2.2.6 - Useful Websites [Seite 476]
    36.2.3 - Nutritional Management of Cardiovascular Disease [Seite 476]
    36.2.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 476]
    36.2.3.2 - What is a Healthy Diet? [Seite 477]
    36.2.3.3 - Total Energy [Seite 477]
    36.2.3.3.1 - Fat [Seite 477]
    36.2.3.3.1.1 - Oily Fish [Seite 477]
    36.2.3.3.2 - Cholesterol [Seite 478]
    36.2.3.3.2.1 - Serum Cholesterol and Exercise [Seite 478]
    36.2.3.3.3 - Carbohydrate [Seite 478]
    36.2.3.3.4 - Fibre [Seite 478]
    36.2.3.3.5 - Minerals, Vitamins and Antioxidants [Seite 479]
    36.2.3.3.6 - Salt [Seite 479]
    36.2.3.3.7 - Alcohol [Seite 479]
    36.2.3.3.8 - Novel Foods [Seite 480]
    36.2.3.4 - References/Bibliography [Seite 480]
    36.2.4 - Nutritional Management of Obesity [Seite 481]
    36.2.4.1 - Definition [Seite 481]
    36.2.4.2 - Prevalence [Seite 481]
    36.2.4.3 - Waist Circumference [Seite 482]
    36.2.4.4 - Why Should Individuals Who are Overweight Lose Weight? [Seite 482]
    36.2.4.5 - What Does Losing Weight Involve? [Seite 483]
    36.2.4.6 - Practical Guidelines for Weight Loss [Seite 483]
    36.2.4.7 - Prevention is Better than Cure [Seite 484]
    36.2.4.8 - References [Seite 484]
    36.2.5 - Nutritional Management of Diabetes [Seite 485]
    36.2.5.1 - Nutritional Advice for People with Diabetes [Seite 485]
    36.2.5.2 - Dietary Goals [Seite 486]
    36.2.5.3 - Why Should People with Diabetes Reduce their Fat Intake? [Seite 487]
    36.2.5.4 - Which Foods are High in Fat? [Seite 487]
    36.2.5.5 - It is Important to Remember [Seite 487]
    36.2.5.6 - References [Seite 487]
    36.2.6 - Nutrition in Paediatrics [Seite 488]
    36.2.6.1 - Nutrient Requirements [Seite 488]
    36.2.6.2 - Infant Feeding [Seite 488]
    36.2.6.3 - Nutritional Deficiencies [Seite 489]
    36.2.6.4 - Obesity [Seite 489]
    36.2.6.5 - Allergies [Seite 490]
    36.2.6.6 - Chronic Diseases of Childhood [Seite 490]
    36.2.6.7 - References [Seite 490]
    36.2.6.8 - Useful Resources [Seite 491]
    36.3 - Appendix 2 Resuscitation [Seite 492]
    36.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 492]
    36.3.2 - Adult Cardiac Arrest [Seite 492]
    36.3.2.1 - Danger [Seite 493]
    36.3.2.2 - Response [Seite 493]
    36.3.2.3 - Shout [Seite 493]
    36.3.2.4 - Airway [Seite 493]
    36.3.2.5 - Breathing [Seite 495]
    36.3.2.5.1 - Obtain Help [Seite 495]
    36.3.2.6 - Circulation [Seite 496]
    36.3.2.6.1 - Attempt Two Ventilations [Seite 497]
    36.3.2.6.2 - Continue Resuscitation [Seite 497]
    36.3.3 - Adult Choking [Seite 498]
    36.3.3.1 - Partial or Mild Obstruction [Seite 498]
    36.3.3.2 - Complete or Severe Obstruction [Seite 499]
    36.3.3.3 - Collapsed Choking Casualty [Seite 499]
    36.3.4 - Other Situations [Seite 500]
    36.3.4.1 - Obstetric Cardiac Arrest [Seite 500]
    36.3.4.2 - Tracheostomy [Seite 500]
    36.3.5 - Paediatric Cardiac Arrest [Seite 500]
    36.3.6 - Paediatric Choking [Seite 501]
    36.3.6.1 - Infants (under one year of age) [Seite 501]
    36.3.6.2 - Child (above one year old) [Seite 501]
    36.3.7 - Bibliography [Seite 503]
    36.3.8 - Illustration References [Seite 503]
    36.4 - Appendix 3 First Aid [Seite 504]
    36.4.1 - Action at an Emergency [Seite 504]
    36.4.2 - Priorities of Treatment: Patient Assessment and Primary Survey [Seite 504]
    36.4.3 - Casualty Breathing Normally: Recovery Position [Seite 505]
    36.4.4 - Priorities of Treatment: Patient Assessment and Secondary Survey [Seite 507]
    36.4.4.1 - Consider: [Seite 507]
    36.4.4.2 - Check them from head to toe: [Seite 507]
    36.4.4.3 - Other information: [Seite 508]
    36.4.5 - Disorders of Circulation: External Bleeding [Seite 508]
    36.4.6 - Shock [Seite 509]
    36.4.6.1 - Recognition [Seite 509]
    36.4.6.2 - Treatment [Seite 509]
    36.4.7 - Respiratory Conditions [Seite 509]
    36.4.7.1 - Asthma [Seite 510]
    36.4.7.1.1 - Recognition [Seite 510]
    36.4.7.1.2 - Treatment [Seite 510]
    36.4.7.2 - Heart Conditions: Angina and Myocardial Infarction [Seite 510]
    36.4.7.3 - Angina [Seite 511]
    36.4.7.3.1 - Treatment [Seite 511]
    36.4.7.4 - Heart Attack [Seite 511]
    36.4.7.4.1 - Treatment [Seite 511]
    36.4.8 - Cerebrovascular Accidents (Strokes) [Seite 511]
    36.4.8.1 - Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) [Seite 511]
    36.4.8.1.1 - Assessment [Seite 512]
    36.4.8.1.2 - Treatment [Seite 512]
    36.4.9 - Burns and Scalds [Seite 512]
    36.4.9.1 - Assessment [Seite 513]
    36.4.9.1.1 - Consider: [Seite 513]
    36.4.9.1.2 - Assess the severity: [Seite 513]
    36.4.9.1.3 - Treatment [Seite 513]
    36.4.10 - Anaphylaxis [Seite 514]
    36.4.10.1 - Treatment [Seite 514]
    36.4.11 - Poisoning [Seite 515]
    36.4.11.1 - General advice [Seite 515]
    36.4.11.2 - Treatment [Seite 515]
    36.4.12 - Musculoskeletal Injuries and Falls [Seite 516]
    36.4.12.1 - Recognition [Seite 516]
    36.4.12.2 - Treatment [Seite 516]
    36.4.13 - First Aid and the Elderly [Seite 516]
    36.5 - Appendix 4 Medicines and their Control [Seite 518]
    36.5.1 - Definitions [Seite 518]
    36.5.2 - Legislation [Seite 518]
    36.5.2.1 - The Medicines Act 1968 [Seite 519]
    36.5.2.2 - The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 [Seite 519]
    36.5.2.2.1 - Controlled Drugs [Seite 520]
    36.5.2.2.2 - Unlicensed Medicines [Seite 521]
    36.5.2.2.3 - Complementary and Alternative Therapies [Seite 522]
    36.5.3 - Abbreviations Used in Prescriptions [Seite 523]
    36.5.4 - Guidance [Seite 523]
    36.5.4.1 - NMC: Standards for Medicine Management (2008) [Seite 523]
    36.5.4.2 - Administration of Medicines [Seite 524]
    36.5.4.2.1 - Standards for Practice of Administration of Medicines [Seite 524]
    36.5.4.3 - Aids to Support Concordance (compliance aids) [Seite 526]
    36.5.4.4 - Self-Administration of Medicines [Seite 526]
    36.5.4.5 - Management of Adverse Events (errors or incidents) in the Administration of Medicines [Seite 527]
    36.5.4.5.1 - Reporting Adverse Reactions [Seite 528]
    36.5.4.6 - Prescribing Medicines [Seite 528]
    36.5.4.6.1 - Prescribing by Nurses, Midwives and Specialist Community Public Health Nurses [Seite 529]
    36.5.4.6.2 - Prescribing by Other Therapists [Seite 530]
    36.5.4.7 - Patient Group Directions (PGDs) [Seite 530]
    36.5.4.8 - Dispensing [Seite 530]
    36.5.5 - Information on New and Developing Pharmacy Services and Extended Roles of Pharmacists [Seite 531]
    36.5.5.1 - Medicines Use Review (MUR) [Seite 531]
    36.5.5.2 - Repeat Dispensing Schemes [Seite 531]
    36.5.5.3 - The Supply of Emergency Hormonal Contraception as a Pharmacy Medicine [Seite 532]
    36.5.5.4 - Health Care Information and Advice [Seite 533]
    36.5.5.5 - Diagnostic Testing and Health Screening [Seite 533]
    36.5.5.6 - Advisory Services to Nursing and Residential Homes [Seite 533]
    36.5.5.7 - Needle and Syringe Exchange Schemes [Seite 534]
    36.5.6 - References/Bibliography [Seite 535]
    36.5.7 - Further Information [Seite 536]
    36.6 - Appendix 5 The Legal and Professional Framework of Nursing [Seite 537]
    36.6.1 - Accountability [Seite 537]
    36.6.2 - Law - Criminal Law [Seite 538]
    36.6.3 - Civil Law - Professional Negligence [Seite 538]
    36.6.4 - Legal Issues Affecting Clinical Practice [Seite 540]
    36.6.5 - Consent [Seite 540]
    36.6.6 - Confidentiality [Seite 542]
    36.6.7 - Drug Administration [Seite 544]
    36.6.8 - Safety [Seite 544]
    36.6.9 - Documentation [Seite 546]
    36.6.10 - Decisions Made by Patients [Seite 546]
    36.6.11 - Patients' Property [Seite 547]
    36.6.12 - References [Seite 548]
    36.6.13 - Further Reading [Seite 548]
    36.7 - Appendix 6 Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics [Seite 549]
    36.7.1 - Section 1 [Seite 549]
    36.7.1.1 - Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) [Seite 549]
    36.7.1.2 - Make the Care of People Your First Concern, Treating Them as Individuals and Respecting Their Dignity [Seite 550]
    36.7.1.2.1 - Treat People as Individuals [Seite 550]
    36.7.1.2.2 - Respect People's Confidentiality [Seite 550]
    36.7.1.2.3 - Collaborate with Those in Your Care [Seite 550]
    36.7.1.2.4 - Ensure You Gain Consent [Seite 550]
    36.7.1.2.5 - Maintain Clear Professional Boundaries [Seite 551]
    36.7.1.3 - Work with Others to Protect and Promote the Health and Wellbeing of Those in Your Care, their Families and Carers, and the Wider Community [Seite 551]
    36.7.1.3.1 - Share Information with Your Colleagues [Seite 551]
    36.7.1.3.2 - Work Effectively as Part of a Team [Seite 551]
    36.7.1.3.3 - Delegate Effectively [Seite 551]
    36.7.1.3.4 - Manage Risk [Seite 552]
    36.7.1.4 - Provide a High Standard of Practice and Care at All Times [Seite 552]
    36.7.1.4.1 - Use the Best Available Evidence [Seite 552]
    36.7.1.4.2 - Keep Your Skills and Knowledge Up To Date [Seite 552]
    36.7.1.4.3 - Keep Clear and Accurate Records [Seite 552]
    36.7.1.5 - Be Open and Honest, Act with Integrity and Uphold the Reputation of Your Profession [Seite 553]
    36.7.1.5.1 - Act with Integrity [Seite 553]
    36.7.1.5.2 - Deal with Problems [Seite 553]
    36.7.1.5.3 - Be Impartial [Seite 553]
    36.7.1.5.4 - Uphold the Reputation of Your Profession [Seite 553]
    36.7.1.6 - Information About Indemnity Insurance [Seite 554]
    36.7.1.6.1 - Contact: [Seite 554]
    36.7.2 - Section 2 [Seite 554]
    36.7.2.1 - Your Duties as a Registrant [Seite 555]
    36.7.2.1.1 - The Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics You Must Keep To [Seite 555]
    36.7.2.1.2 - What We Expect Of You [Seite 556]
    36.7.2.1.3 - The Standards and Your Practice [Seite 556]
    36.7.2.1.4 - Meeting the Standards [Seite 556]
    36.7.2.1.5 - Making Informed and Reasonable Decisions [Seite 557]
    36.7.2.1.6 - Language [Seite 557]
    36.7.2.1.7 - Changing these Standards in the Future [Seite 558]
    36.7.2.1.7.1 - 1. You Must Act in the Best Interests of Service Users [Seite 558]
    36.7.2.1.7.2 - 2. You Must Respect the Confidentiality of Service Users [Seite 559]
    36.7.2.1.7.3 - 3. You Must Keep High Standards of Personal Conduct [Seite 559]
    36.7.2.1.7.4 - 4. You Must Provide (to us and any other relevant regulators) Any Important Information about Your Conduct and Competence [Seite 559]
    36.7.2.1.7.5 - 5. You Must Keep Your Professional Knowledge and Skills Up To Date [Seite 560]
    36.7.2.1.7.6 - 6. You Must Act Within the Limits of Your Knowledge, Skills and Experience and, if Necessary, Refer the Matter to Another Practitioner [Seite 560]
    36.7.2.1.7.7 - 7. You Must Communicate Properly and Effectively with Service Users and Other Practitioners [Seite 561]
    36.7.2.1.7.8 - 8. You Must Effectively Supervise Tasks You Have Asked Other People to Carry Out [Seite 561]
    36.7.2.1.7.9 - 9. You Must Get Informed Consent to Provide Care or Services (as far as possible) [Seite 562]
    36.7.2.1.7.10 - 10. You Must Keep Accurate Records [Seite 562]
    36.7.2.1.7.11 - 11. You Must Deal Fairly and Safely with the Risks of Infection [Seite 563]
    36.7.2.1.7.12 - 12. You Must Limit Your Work or Stop Practising if Your Performance or Judgement is Affected by Your Health [Seite 563]
    36.7.2.1.7.13 - 13. You Must Behave With Honesty and Integrity and Make Sure that Your Behaviour Does Not Damage the Public's Confidence in You or Your Profession [Seite 563]
    36.7.2.1.7.14 - 14. You Must Make Sure that Any Advertising You Do is Accurate [Seite 564]
    36.7.2.1.7.15 - Fitness to Practise [Seite 564]
    36.8 - Appendix 7 Common Abbreviations [Seite 565]
    36.9 - Appendix 8 Common Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots [Seite 570]
    36.10 - Appendix 9 Units of Measurement and Tables of Normal Values [Seite 574]
    36.10.1 - Metric Measures, Units and SI Symbols [Seite 574]
    36.10.2 - Decimal Multiples and Submultiples of the Units are Formed by the Use of Standard Prefixes [Seite 574]
    36.10.3 - Conversion Table for kPa . mmHg (e.g. for capillary pressures) [Seite 574]
    36.10.4 - Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH) [Seite 575]
    36.10.5 - Some Normal Plasma Levels in Adults [Seite 575]
    36.10.6 - Arterial Blood Gases [Seite 575]
    36.10.7 - Blood Pressure [Seite 575]
    36.10.8 - Heart Rate [Seite 575]
    36.10.9 - Respiration Rate [Seite 576]
    36.10.10 - Blood Count [Seite 576]
    36.10.11 - Coagulation Times [Seite 576]
    36.10.12 - Diet [Seite 576]
    36.10.13 - Urine [Seite 576]
    36.10.14 - Body Temperatures [Seite 576]
    36.10.15 - Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure [Seite 577]
    36.10.16 - Intraocular Pressure [Seite 577]
    36.11 - Appendix 10 Immunization and Vaccinations [Seite 578]
    36.11.1 - Immunization Aftercare and Side Effects [Seite 579]
    36.11.1.1 - Polio, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hib and MenC [Seite 579]
    36.11.1.2 - Measles, Mumps and Rubella [Seite 579]
    36.11.2 - Hepatitis A [Seite 580]
    36.11.3 - Hepatitis B [Seite 580]
    36.11.4 - Polio [Seite 581]
    36.11.5 - Rubella (German Measles) [Seite 581]
    36.11.6 - Tetanus [Seite 581]
    36.11.7 - Tuberculosis [Seite 581]
    36.11.8 - Influenza [Seite 582]
    36.11.9 - Pneumococcal Vaccination [Seite 582]
    36.11.10 - Shingles [Seite 583]
    36.11.11 - Rotavirus [Seite 583]
    36.11.12 - Travel Vaccinations [Seite 583]
    36.11.13 - References/Websites [Seite 583]
    36.12 - Appendix 11 Occupational Health and Safety [Seite 584]
    36.12.1 - Health and Safety Commission and Health and Safety Executive [Seite 584]
    36.12.2 - The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (amended 1998) [Seite 585]
    36.12.3 - Health Surveillance [Seite 585]
    36.12.4 - Environmental Monitoring [Seite 586]
    36.12.5 - Records [Seite 586]
    36.12.6 - The Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Substances Regulations 1985 [Seite 586]
    36.12.7 - The 'Six Pack' 1992 [Seite 586]
    36.12.8 - Working Time Regulations 1998 [Seite 587]
    36.12.9 - Hazard and Risk [Seite 588]
    36.12.10 - Failing to Safety as Opposed to Failing to Danger [Seite 588]
    36.12.11 - Safe Systems of Work and Human Factors [Seite 590]
    36.13 - Appendix 12 Prevention and Control of Infection [Seite 591]
    36.13.1 - References [Seite 599]
    36.14 - Appendix 13 Practice Development [Seite 602]
    36.14.1 - Introduction [Seite 602]
    36.14.2 - Defining Practice Development [Seite 602]
    36.14.3 - Purpose of Practice Development [Seite 603]
    36.14.4 - Differences with PD [Seite 603]
    36.14.5 - Attributes, Knowledge and Skills of Practice Developers [Seite 604]
    36.14.6 - Outcomes of Practice Development [Seite 605]
    36.14.7 - The Future for Practice Development [Seite 606]
    36.14.8 - References [Seite 607]
    36.14.9 - Useful Websites [Seite 609]
    36.15 - Appendix 14 Clinical Supervision [Seite 611]
    36.15.1 - Supervised Clinical Practice and Learning [Seite 613]
    36.15.2 - Organizational Supervision [Seite 614]
    36.15.3 - Supportive Supervision [Seite 614]
    36.15.4 - References [Seite 616]

    B


    Ba–barb


    Ba symbol for barium.

    Babinski's reflex or sign J.F.F. Babinski, French neurologist, 1857–1932. On stroking the sole of the foot, the great toe bends upwards instead of downwards (dorsal instead of plantar flexion). Present in disease or injury to the upper motor neurone. Babies who have not walked react in the same way, but normal flexion develops later.

    baby an infant or young child who is not yet walking. B. blues the transient feelings of unhappiness and tearfulness that affect many women after the birth of their baby. B. Friendly Initiative abbreviated BFI. Part of a global campaign by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to ensure that all mothers are facilitated in breast feeding to enable babies to benefit from the health and social advantages. Battered b. one suffering from the result of continued violence; extensive bruising, fractures of limbs, rib and skull, or an internal trauma may be found. See ABUSE. Blue b. one suffering from cyanosis at birth as a result of atelectasis or congenital heart malformation.

    Bach flower remedies a system of complementary medicine, devised by Dr Edward Bach and based on homeopathic principles. Flower remedies can be used to treat emotional and psychological disorders. There are 38 flower remedies. See also HOMEOPATHY.

    bacillaemia the presence of bacilli in the blood.

    bacilluria the presence of bacilli in the urine.

    Bacillus a genus of aerobic, spore-bearing Gram-positive bacteria. B. anthracis the causative agent of ANTHRAX.

    bacillus loosely, the cause of any bacterial infection by a rod-shaped microorganism, e.g. Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus.

    back dorsum. Posterior trunk from neck to pelvis. B. bone the vertebral column. B. slab plaster or plastic splint in which a limb is supported. Hunch b. kyphosis.

    backache any pain in the back, usually the lower part. The pain is often dull and continuous, but sometimes sharp and throbbing. Backache, or lumbago, is one of the most common ailments and can be caused by a variety of disorders. Health care workers are at particular risk and one in six nurses is thought to experience back pain.

    bacteraemia the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream.

    bacteria a general name given to minute vegetable organisms which may live on organic matter. There are many varieties, only some of which are pathogenic to humans, animals and plants. Each bacterium consists of a single cell and, given favourable conditions, multiplies by subdivision. Bacteria are classified according to their shape (a) bacilli, rod-shaped and (b) cocci, spherical (see Figure), subdivided into (i) streptococci, in chains; (ii) staphylococci, in groups; (iii) diplococci, in pairs; (c) spirilla, spirochaetes, spiral. Pathogenic b. those whose growth in the body gives rise to disease, either by destruction of tissue or by formation of toxins, which circulate in the blood. Pathogenic bacteria thrive on organic matter in the presence of warmth and moisture.


    BACTERIA: BACILLI (ROD-SHAPED) AND COCCI (SPHERICAL)

    bacterialpertaining to bacteria.

    bactericidal capable of killing bacteria, e.g. disinfectants, great heat, intense cold or sunlight.

    bacteriologist one who is qualified in the science of bacteriology.

    bacteriology the scientific study of bacteria.

    bacteriolysin an antibody produced in the blood to assist in the destruction of bacteria. The action is specific.

    bacteriolysis the dissolution of bacteria by a bacteriolytic agent.

    bacteriophage a virus that only infects bacteria. Many strains exist, some of which are used for identifying types of staphylococci and salmonellae.

    bacteriostat an agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria.

    bacteriostatic inhibiting the growth of bacteria.

    bag a sac or pouch. B. of waters the membranes enclosing the AMNIOTIC (FLUID) and the developing fetus in utero. Ambu b. is a bag valve mask (BVM). It is a hand-held device used to provide positive ventilation to a patient who is not breathing or who is breathing inadequately. Use of the Ambu bag to ventilate a patient is frequently called ‘bagging’. Colostomy b. a receptacle worn over the stoma by the patient, to receive the faecal discharge. Douglas b. a receptacle for the collection of expired air, permitting measurement of respiratory gases. Ileostomy b. any of various plastic or latex pouches attached to the stoma for the collection of faecal material after ILEOSTOMY. Politizer b. a soft bag of rubber for inflating the pharyngotympanic tube. Urine b. a receptacle used for urine by ambulatory patients with urinary incontinence.

    balance the ability to remain upright and to move without falling over. In physiological terms the harmonious relationship between parts and organs of the body and their functions or between substances in the body. See ACIDBASE BALANCE. B. of probabilities the standard of proof required in civil proceedings.

    balanced diet a varied diet that contains all the nutritional elements in the correct quantities required for growth and repair of body tissues.

    balanced salt solution (BSS) a solution that is made to a physiological pH with appropriate concentrations of salts and electrolytes. Used during intraocular surgery to replace intraocular fluids.

    balanitis inflammation of the glans penis and of the prepuce, usually associated with phimosis. Balanoposthitis.

    baldness absence of hair, especially from the scalp. Alopecia.

    ballottement [Fr.] a method of testing for a floating object, e.g. abdominal palpation of the uterus when testing for pregnancy. The uterus is pushed upward by a finger in the vagina, and if a fetus is present it will fall back again like a heavy body in water.

    bandage 1. a strip or roll of gauze or other material for wrapping or binding any part of the body. 2. to cover by wrapping with such material. Bandages may be used to stop the flow of blood, to provide a safeguard against contamination, or to hold a dressing in place. They may also be used to hold a splint in position or otherwise immobilize an injured part of the body to prevent further injury and to facilitate healing.

    banding placing a band round a vessel to restrict the flow from it. Pulmonary arterial b. a palliative operation used in treating infants with ventricular septal defects.

    bank an institution offering services, or a store of donated human tissues for use in the future by other individuals, e.g. blood b., human milk b., sperm b. Nurse b. a group of nurses who are known to the employing authority and available for employment on an on-call basis.

    Bankhart's operation A.S.B. Bankhart, British orthopaedic surgeon, 1879–1951. An operation to repair a defect in the glenoid cavity that causes repeated dislocation of the shoulder joint.

    barbiturates a large group of sedative and hypnotic drugs derived from barbituric acid, e.g. phenobarbitone, amylobarbitone. Prolonged use may lead to addiction.

    bari–bea


    bariatrics a branch of medicine, surgery and dietetics that deals with obesity, its effects, treatment and control. See OBESITY.

    barium symbol Ba. A soft silvery metallic element. B. sulphate a heavy mineral salt that is comparatively impermeable to X-rays and can therefore be used as a contrast medium, given as a meal or as an enema. Used to demonstrate abnormality in the stomach or intestines, and to show peristaltic movement. B. sulphide the chief constituent of depilatory preparations, i.e. those which remove...

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