WISC-V Assessment and Interpretation

Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives
 
 
Elsevier Science (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 1. Januar 2015
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  • 456 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-405185-0 (ISBN)
 

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale is the most widely used intelligence test for children worldwide. WISC-V introduces new subtests, composite scores, process scores, error scores, and scaled scores as a more complex and accurate means of assessing cognitive abilities. WISC-V Assessment and Interpretation provides practical information for clinicians on selection of subtest measures, administration, and interpretation.

New subtests are described along with tips for accurate administration and scoring. Full Scale IQ is identified as important for predicting relevant behaviors, and primary index scores for characterizing the child's strengths and weaknesses. Classroom indicators of low scores on each of these abilities are identified, with suggested interventions, accommodations, and instructional strategies for low scorers. Coverage includes ethnic differences for the Full Scale IQ and each primary index score, along with evidence of the profound influence of parental attitudes and expectations. Several other societal and contextual factors relevant to understanding racial/ethnic differences are presented. Two chapters review use of the WISC-V for identifying learning disabilities, testing of individuals with dyslexia, and best-practice recommendations to ensure accurate diagnosis and intervention. Concluding chapters describe advances in the Q-interactive system platform allowing administration of the WISC-V on iPads and other tablets and how clinicians can tailor assessment using select WISC-V subtests and features.

  • Authored by the creators of the WISC-V
  • Describes the new subtests, revised test structure, and test extensions
  • Advises clinicians on test selection and custom tailoring of assessment measures
  • Provides best practice recommendations for accurate administration and scoring
  • Addresses electronic administration via tablets and comparison to print scores
  • Reviews social/contextual factors for understanding racial/ethnic differences
  • Translates scores to predict behaviors and identify child strengths and weaknesses
  • Suggests interventions, accommodations, and instructional strategies for low scorers


Lawrence G. Weiss, PhD is Vice President of Test Development for Pearson Clinical Assessment. He oversees a department of 150 professionals and is responsible for all research and test development activities related to the company's psychological, educational, speech, language, and occupational therapy assessment products as well as post college admissions tests. He also advises on test development activities for the company's international business partners around the globe including Pearson Clinical Assessment offices in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, India, China, Spain, and Brazil.

Dr. Weiss has presented widely on intelligence in more than a dozen countries. He has authored or co-authored the following 7 graduate level text books:

• WISC-III Cross Cultural Analyses: Culture and Children's Intelligence (2003)

• WISC-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation (2005)

• WISC-IV Advanced Clinical Interpretation (2006)

• WISC-IV Clinical Use and Intervention (2008)

• WAIS-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation (2010)

• BAYLEY-III Clinical Use and Interpretation (2010)

• Advanced Clinical Assessment with WAIS-IV and WMS-IV (2013)

Some of his books have been translated into Spanish, Japanese, and Korean. In addition, he has authored or coauthored approximately 30 journal articles, 12 technical reports, and 10 other book chapters.

Dr. Weiss holds a PhD degree in industrial and organizational psychology from Texas A&M University, and a master's degree in clinical psychology from Trinity University. He lives in San Antonio, Texas, with his wife of 28 years, Judy Ann. The Weiss' have two adult sons.

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978-0-12-405185-0 (9780124051850)
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  • Front Cover
  • WISC-V Assessment and Interpretation
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • About the Authors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • I. Applied Considerations
  • 1 WISC-V: Advances in the Assessment of Intelligence
  • Introduction
  • A Brief Historical Recap
  • From the Past to the Present
  • Structure and Content of the WISC-V
  • The WISC-V Primary Indexes and Subtests
  • Verbal Comprehension Index
  • Similarities
  • Vocabulary
  • Information
  • Comprehension
  • Visual-Spatial Index
  • Block Design
  • Visual Puzzles
  • The WISC-V Fluid Reasoning Index
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Figure Weights
  • Picture Concepts
  • Arithmetic
  • Working Memory Index
  • Digit Span
  • Picture Span
  • Letter-Number Sequencing
  • Processing Speed Index
  • Coding
  • Symbol Search
  • Cancellation
  • The WISC-V Full Scale Intelligence Quotient
  • The WISC-V Ancillary Indexes and Subtests
  • The General Ability Index
  • The Cognitive Proficiency Index
  • Nonverbal Index
  • Quantitative Reasoning Index
  • Auditory Working Memory Index
  • The WISC-V Complementary Indexes and Subtests
  • Naming Speed Index
  • Naming Speed Literacy
  • Naming Speed Quantity
  • Symbol Translation Index
  • Immediate Symbol Translation
  • Delayed Symbol Translation
  • Recognition Symbol Translation
  • Storage and Retrieval Index
  • Summary
  • References
  • 2 Practical Issues in WISC-V Administration and Scoring
  • Introduction
  • General WISC-V Administration and Scoring Tips
  • WISC-V Administration
  • WISC-V Scoring
  • Administering the WISC-V Subtests
  • Verbal Comprehension Subtests
  • General Instructions
  • Similarities
  • Vocabulary
  • Information
  • Comprehension
  • Visual-Spatial Subtests
  • Block Design
  • Visual Puzzles
  • Fluid Reasoning Subtests
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Figure Weights
  • Picture Concepts
  • Arithmetic
  • Working Memory Subtests
  • General Instructions
  • Digit Span
  • Picture Span
  • Letter-Number Sequencing
  • Processing Speed Subtests
  • Coding
  • Symbol Search
  • Cancellation
  • Complementary Subtests
  • Naming Speed Subtests
  • Symbol Translation Subtests
  • Concluding Comments
  • Appendix 2A. Frequently Asked Questions
  • Appendix 2B. How is WISC-V Different from WISC-IV?
  • Similarities
  • Vocabulary
  • Information
  • Comprehension
  • Block Design
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Picture Concepts
  • Digit Span
  • Letter-Number Sequencing
  • Arithmetic
  • Coding
  • Symbol Search
  • Cancellation
  • References
  • 3 Practical Considerations in WISC-V Interpretation and Intervention
  • Introduction
  • Levels Of Interpretation: When The Overall Ability Score Does Not Tell The Whole Story
  • How Important is g, the Measure of Overall Ability?
  • The Importance of Interpreting the Component Abilities
  • Personifying the Primary Abilities: A Simple Analogy
  • VCI: The Librarian
  • VSI: The Architect
  • WMI: The General Manager
  • PSI: The Clerk
  • FRI: The Detective
  • Issues Related to Intervention
  • Intervention Suggestions Related to Verbal Comprehension
  • Intervention Suggestions Related To Visual-Spatial Processing
  • Intervention Suggestions Related to Fluid Reasoning
  • Intervention Suggestions Related to Working Memory
  • Intervention Suggestions Related to Processing Speed
  • Comment on Intervention Suggestions
  • Case Example
  • References
  • II. Theoretical Considerations
  • 4 Theoretical and Clinical Foundations of the WISC-V Index Scores
  • Introduction
  • The WISC-V Index Scores
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis
  • Verbal Comprehension
  • Visual-Spatial Organization
  • Fluid Reasoning
  • Working Memory
  • In What Ways are WM and FR Alike How are They the Same?
  • Processing Speed
  • The Role of Executive Functions in Intelligence
  • An Integrative Theory of Cognitive Abilities
  • Summary
  • References
  • 5 WISC-V Use in Societal Context
  • Bias Issues in Intellectual Assessment
  • Consequences of Testing and the Fairness of Test Use in Special Education
  • Demographic Disparities in Various Areas of Life
  • Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Education
  • Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Income, Occupation, and Poverty Status
  • Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Physical Health Status
  • Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Mental Health Status
  • Implications of Demographic Differences in Various Areas of Life
  • Cognitive Development, Home Environment, and Culture
  • Theoretical Considerations
  • Home Environment and African-American Children
  • Home Environment and Mexican-American Children
  • Home Environment and Academic Achievement
  • The Role of Cognitive Stimulation in Intellectual Development
  • The Role of the Child in Academic and Intellectual Development
  • Patterns Of WISC-V IQ Scores Across Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups
  • SES Mediators of FSIQ Differences Between Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups
  • Previous Findings with WISC-IV and WAIS-IV
  • WISC-V Findings
  • Further Considerations of Home Environment on Intellectual and Academic Development of Children
  • Conclusions Regarding Home Environment and Cognitive Development
  • Summary
  • References
  • 6 The Flynn Effect and Its Clinical Implications
  • What do we Know about the Flynn Effect?
  • Definition
  • Variability According to the Intellectual Tasks
  • Variability According to Gender and IQ Level
  • Variation of the Flynn Effect Over Time
  • Causes of the Flynn Effect
  • Implications of the Flynn Effect for Practitioners
  • Implications for the Identification of Learning and Intellectual Disabilities
  • Implications for High Stakes Legal Evaluations
  • The Flynn Effect in the WISC-V
  • Recommendations
  • Recommendations for Researchers
  • Recommendations for Clinical Practice
  • References
  • III. Clinical Considerations
  • 7 Testing Hispanics with WISC-V and WISC-IV Spanish
  • Introduction
  • Testing Hispanics with WISC-V
  • Hispanic Base Rates for WISC-V
  • Testing Spanish-Speaking Clients
  • Use of Interpreters
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 8 WISC-V and the Evolving Role of Intelligence Testing in the Assessment of Learning Disabilities
  • Introduction
  • Learning Disability: Current Definitions and Subtypes
  • Identification of a Learning Disability
  • Subtypes of Learning Disability
  • Intelligence: A Key Link in the Assessment and Diagnosis of Learning Disability
  • Beyond the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ): Advances in Intelligence and its Relevance in LD Assessment
  • A Taxonomy of Cognitive Abilities Related to Learning Disabilities
  • Psychoeducational Relevance of the WISC-V
  • Naming Speed Index
  • Symbol Translation Index
  • Storage and Retrieval Index
  • WISC-V Studies of Children with SLD
  • Revisiting SLD Identification with the WISC-V
  • Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Summary and Concluding Comments
  • References
  • 9 Translating Scientific Progress in Dyslexia into Twenty-first Century Diagnosis and Interventions
  • Introduction
  • Evolution of Dyslexia as an Unexpected Difficulty in Relation to Intelligence
  • Neurobiological Evidence Supporting Dyslexia
  • Making a Hidden Disability Visible
  • Necessity and Challenge of Bringing Diagnosis of Dyslexia into the Twenty-First Century
  • Operationalizing "Unexpected"
  • Diagnosing Dyslexia: Operationalizing "Unexpected" in Young Children
  • Development and Assessment of Phonological Processing
  • Tests Helpful in the Evaluation of Children with Dyslexia
  • Phonological Processing
  • Letter Knowledge
  • Academic Achievement
  • Diagnosis of Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults
  • Essential Components of Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults
  • Lack of Automaticity
  • Measure of Intelligence
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 10 Issues Related to the WISC-V Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Clinical and Special Groups
  • Introduction
  • The Relevance and Purpose of Cognitive Assessment
  • Clinical and Special Groups: General Description and Intellectual Functioning
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Intellectual Giftedness
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD)
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Intellectual Assessment with the WISC-V in Diagnostic and Treatment Planning
  • WISC-V Performance in Special Groups
  • Intellectual Giftedness
  • Intellectual Disability-Mild and Moderate
  • Borderline Intellectual Functioning
  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Disruptive Behavior Disorder
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • The WISC-V in Context
  • Summary
  • References
  • IV. Current and Future Directions
  • 11 Digital Assessment with Q-interactive
  • Introduction
  • Overview of Components and Workflow
  • Assess
  • Phases of Assess Evolution
  • Design Requirements (Phase 1)
  • Equivalence
  • Clinical Flexibility and Robustness
  • Development Steps
  • Designing and Prototyping
  • Evaluating Equivalence
  • Equivalence for Subgroups
  • Beta Testing
  • During Administration
  • During Data Upload
  • Storage
  • Central
  • Security
  • Flexible Test Selection
  • Data Visualization
  • Implications for Professional Practice
  • Examinee Engagement
  • Training
  • Novel Data and Analyses
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 12 WISC-V and the Personalized Assessment Approach
  • Introduction
  • Obtaining and Refining Initial Impressions of the Child
  • Reason for Referral
  • Background Information and a priori Hypothesis Building
  • Background Research
  • Parent and Teacher Ratings
  • An Assessment Plan
  • Language
  • Attention/Executive Functioning
  • Working Memory
  • Academic Skills
  • Social Cognition/Pragmatic Language Skills
  • Memory
  • Processing Speed
  • Visual-Spatial and Fluid Reasoning
  • Sensory and Motor Tests
  • Example of Pre-Assessment Planning
  • Background
  • The Assessment Plan
  • On-the-Fly Adjustments to the Assessment
  • Identifying Low Scores
  • Multivariate Base Rates
  • Cognitive Variability
  • Performance Indexing
  • General Concepts for On-the-Fly Assessments
  • Setting Multivariate Criteria
  • Assessing High Probability and Important Functions
  • Drop and Pursue Logic
  • Verification
  • Interpreting the Test Scores
  • Summary
  • References
  • Index

Foreword


Susan Engi Raiford, Pearson Clinical Assessment, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Alan S. Kaufman, Yale Child Study Center, School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The publication of the WISC-V marks a milestone in children's test development. It was published during a year-2014-when other state-of-the-art intelligence tests were also published, namely the CHC-based Woodcock-Johnson IV (Schrank, McGrew, Mather, & Woodcock, 2014) and the Luria-based Cognitive Assessment System-2nd edition (CAS2) (Naglieri, Das, & Goldstein, 2014). The competition for supremacy is steep and the WISC-V has met the challenge. The battery is comprehensive, versatile, child oriented, and clinically rich. It is steeped in a variety of well-researched and well-articulated theories that have roots in cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychological processing, and the CHC model that has expanded from a simple Cattell-Horn fluid-crystallized dichotomy (not unlike Wechsler's original Verbal-Performance distinction) to an array of important cognitive abilities. The developers of the WISC-V have met the challenges of this RTI-dominated and theory-driven decade with much the same goal-directed and ingenious fervor that characterized the great Dr. David Wechsler more than 75 years ago.

Indeed, Dr. Wechsler challenged the Stanford-Binet in the 1930s when no one else had either the courage or the inspiration. The original Stanford-Binet, published in 1916 by Lewis Terman, had many challengers (e.g., Goddard-Binet, Kuhlmann-Binet), all of whom were tied to Alfred Binet's groundbreaking age-based scale normed on Paris students. After Terman triumphed, largely because he had the insight to rearrange the Binet tasks assigned to each age level based on American data, and to actually obtain norms for children and adolescents living in the United States, his Binet test reigned as the measure of IQ.

That reign solidified in 1937 when Terman added a coauthor (Maud Merrill-like Terman, a professor at Stanford), an alternate form (the new Binet boasted Forms L and M), and a sophisticated statistical treatment of the data, thanks in large part to Dr. Quinn McNemar. Noted educator Ellwood P. Cubberly (1937) wrote in the Editor's Introduction to the test manual, "after ten years of painstaking research, two new and equivalent scales, each more extensive than the original both in range and in number of tests, and each providing for greater objectivity in scoring, are at last ready for public use" (pp. vi-vii).

Dr. Wechsler was not intimidated by the thoroughly revised and expanded Binet, touted in its own manual as the IQ test to end all IQ tests. He had vision. He insisted that a Performance Scale was just as necessary as a Verbal Scale to gain a full understanding of a person's mental functioning. Never mind the critics who asked unabashedly, "Why would anyone waste 3 minutes administering a single puzzle to an English-speaking person when a dozen or more Vocabulary words can be administered in the same time frame?" He offered the sophisticated standard score statistic to replace the antiquated and inadequate MA/CA X 100 formula. Terman and Merrill (1937) were well aware of standard scores; they provided a table that converted IQs to standard scores in the test manual, and praised the metric: "From the statistical point of view, every advantage is in favor of the standard score" (p. 27). Yet they continued to derive IQs by formula because "the majority of teachers, school administrators, social workers, physicians, and others who utilize mental test results have not learned to think in statistical terms. To such a person a rating expressed as '+2 sigma' is just so much Greek" (Terman and Merrill, 1937: 27-28).

Dr. Wechsler, never condescending to test users, knew better. When he published the Wechsler-Bellevue for children and adults (Wechsler, 1939), a scant 2 years after the revised Binet became available, he included state-of-the-art Performance subtests as a featured IQ scale and he never doubted that clinicians were smart enough to "speak Greek." Those two departures from tradition moved the field of intellectual assessment a couple of light years forward.

Dr. Wechsler single-handedly changed the face of intellectual assessment from psychometric to clinical. The Binet tradition, as expounded by Terman and McNemar, was psychometric in orientation. Dr. Wechsler changed that when he published the Wechsler-Bellevue in 1939 and wrote incisively about how to interpret his tests in clinical practice (Wechsler, 1939, 1950, 1958; see also Chapters 8-10 of this book). The field of clinical assessment was born, and, except for some purists who insist that subtest profile interpretation and qualitative analysis of test scores are sacrilegious (for example, McDermott, Fantuzzo, & Glutting, 1990), the practices of clinical assessment have thrived internationally and span the domains of clinical psychology, neuropsychology, and school psychology. Any time a child, adolescent, or adult is tested anywhere in the world, the imprint of Dr. Wechsler reverberates.

Dr. Wechsler's tests continue to dominate the IQ scene. More than 75 years after the original Wechsler-Bellevue was published, Wechsler's scales stand at the very top of the assessment dome for the assessment across the lifespan, from preschool to old age. The WISC-IV has clearly been the most popular IQ measure for children and adolescents, but it has had some company on the assessment scene in schools, clinics, and private practices. Other acronyms have also been tossed about over the past decade when choosing a children's test for this or that type of referral, such as the CAS (Naglieri & Das, 1997) and now the CAS2 (Naglieri et al., 2014); the DAS-II (Elliott, 2007), KABC-II (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004), RIAS (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003), and SB-5 (Roid, 2003); and the WJ-IV (Schrank et al., 2014). However, despite the raising of the bar to unprecedented heights, the WISC-V will undoubtedly continue to carry the international torch of intellectual assessment in the school-age range.

How Dr. Wechsler's legacy lives on! The chapters in this book attest to the WISC-V's superior psychometric and practical features, and demonstrate the test's contextual role within the theoretical, clinical, and research domains of assessment and, more broadly, within society. This volume, authored by the excellent team of Larry Weiss, Don Saklofske, Jim Holdnack, and Aurelio Prifitera, provides a compelling story of the WISC-V and its clinical use and interpretation. They and the varied contributors to this book represent some of the best that the field of intellectual assessment has to offer from the clinical, neuropsychological, and psychometric realms.

In Chapter 1, Weiss et al. offer a compelling introduction to the historical evolution of the WISC. Major innovations in the test model have characterized each revision of the scale. The development of the scale is traced from its origins in the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1939) to the present-day WISC-V (Wechsler, 2014), the subject of this book. The authors note that while the scale's evolution has been guided at The Psychological Corporation/Pearson through an emphasis on clinical research in neuropsychology and information processing, theory-based approaches to analysis derive "surprisingly similar models of intelligence based on different lines of research." Furthermore, Weiss et al. provide a history of the new fluid reasoning index, which has "been a systematic research goal since 1997, leading to the development and validation of three fluid reasoning subtests introduced successively in various subsequent editions; Matrix Reasoning, Picture Concepts, and Figure Weights." The chapter concludes with an overview of the test structure, which is at its heart familiar but contains a host of ancillary and complementary measures that enhance the clinical utility of the test for special uses.

In addition to the noticeable changes to the test structure, the WISC-V provides the option of a digital version on Q-interactive, which is a platform that provides the capability to administer tests on iPads and other tablets. Chapter 11 provides an overview of the Q-interactive system and examples of how the subtests are administered within the digital format. Wahlstrom and colleagues review the accumulated evidence of equivalence of the digital and paper versions of both the WISC-IV and the WISC-V, and discuss the implications on the potential to engage the child more readily as well as the potential for future data capture to measure constructs impossible to measure within a paper-and-pencil format.

In Chapter 5, the authors answer the "simple" psychometric question of the size of the ethnic differences for the Full Scale IQ and each primary index score. A regression approach is then used to explain increasingly the variability gaps in Full Scale IQs by race/ethnicity with other factors previously discussed, the distributions of which also have been shown to vary across racial/ethnic groups, such as marital status of parents and the number of parents in the home. Dr. Wechsler would have been fascinated by this research because he was always impressed that factor analyses of his scales only accounted for about 60% of the variance.

Dr. Wechsler was...

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