This book is an ethnohistorical reconstruction of the establishment in New Zealand of a rare case of Maori home-rule over their traditional domain, backed by a special statute and investigated by a Crown commission the majority of whom were Tuhoe leaders. However, by 1913 Tuhoe home-rule over this vast domain was being subverted by the Crown, which by 1926 had obtained three-quarters of their reserve. By the 1950s this vast area had become the rugged Urewera National Park, isolating over 200 small blocks retained by stubborn Tuhoe "non-sellers". After a century of resistance, in 2014 the Tuhoe finally regained statutory control over their ancestral domain and a detailed apology from the Crown.
The resistance of the Tuhoe Maori of New Zealand to colonisation began more than century before the final return of their sanctuary in the Urewera mountains by the Crown in 2014. In Volume I of A Separate Authority (He Mana Motuhake), Steven Webster provides an ethnohistorical reconstruction of the establishment in New Zealand of a rare case of Maori home-rule over their traditional domain, backed by a special statute and investigated by a Crown commission, the majority of whom were Tuhoe leaders. This relatively benevolent colonial policy enabled the Tuhoe to control the establishment of their vast Native Reserve in a way that entrenched their social organisation, particularly their traditional deployment of kin-based power, while at once manipulating the power of the Crown to their joint advantage from 1894 to 1908. In Volume II, Webster documents how this same form of resistance enabled the Tuhoe to withstand predatory Crown policies between 1908 and 1926, thereby retaining remnants of their ancestral sanctuary-which later became the basis upon which they won statutory control of the territory.
In both volumes of A Separate Authority (He Mana Motuhake), Webster takes the stance of an ethnohistorian: he not only examines the various ways control over the Urewera District Native Reserve (UDNR) was negotiated, subverted or betrayed, and renegotiated during this time period, but also focuses on the role of Maori hapu, ancestral descent groups and their leaders, including the political economic influence of extensive marriage alliances between them. The ethnohistorical approach developed here may be useful to other studies of governance, indigenous resistance, and reform, whether in New Zealand or elsewhere.
Chapter 1: Introduction1. A Brief Historical Overview2. Ngai Tuhoe and Te Urewera3. Historical Background of the Urewera District Native Reserve4. A Preview of the Following ChaptersPart I: Tuhoe hap
u and the Establishment of the Urewera District Native ReserveChapter 2:The Tuhoe rohe p
tae and the Urewera District Native Reserve Commission 1. The general procedures and findings of the commission2. The legitimacy of the Commission among Tuhoe Chapter 3: Difficulties of the commission defining Urewera blocks by hap
u1. Introduction2. Changes in identification of Urewera hapu 1896-19073. Procedural precedents and compromises in the Te Waipotiki case4. Establishing a system for assignment of relative shares5. The resolution to expedite hearings and merge claims6. The aborted plan for radical block amalgamationsChapter 4: The Tamaikoha hap
u branch: internal social organization1. Introduction: the Tamaikoha kawai or hapu branch2. Sibling groups and surnames3. Spouses, mothers, marriages, and land rights 4. Difficulties determining hapu affiliations of the Tamaikoha hapu branchChapter 5: The Tamaikoha hap
u branch: hap
u affiliations1. Introduction2. Potential and active hapu affiliations3. Ngai Tokotuai hapu and claims to Tauwhare Manuka and Pukepohatu blocks4. Te Urewera hapu and the claims to Whaitiripapa block5. Ngati Tawhaki hapu and the claims to Tarapounamu-Matawhero block6. Further awards without formal claims7. Block committee appointments8. ConclusionChapter 6: Tuhoe hap
u organization and the amalgamation plan1. Introduction2. The Ohaua te Rangi amalgamation3. The Parekohe amalgamation4. ConclusionPart II: Kinship and power in Ruatahuna and Waikaremoana 1899-1913Chapter 7: The Ruatahuna-Waikaremoana migrant marriage alliance by 18981. Introduction2. The migrant marriage alliance between Ruatahuna and Waikaremoana areas3. Kinship, affinity, and political activities of marriage alliance leaders4. ConclusionChapter 8: Confrontations over Waikaremoana and Ruatahuna 1899-19071. Introduction2. Investigation of the Waikaremoana block 1899 - 19073. Investigation of the Ruatahuna block 1899-19074. ConclusionChapter 9: The Ruatahuna Partition, 19121. Introduction2. Manawaru: the 'internal boundary dispute'3. Numia Kereru builds his case4. ConclusionChapter 10: Some Plausible Explanations1. Introduction2. Behind the scenes of the Ruatahuna and Waikaremoana hearings 1900-19033. The emergence of Numia Kereru's strategy 1903-19074. Arranging succession to Te Whenuanui II's title5. ConclusionPart III: Conclusion Chapter 11: A Contemporary Retrospect: Getting to Know Ngai Tuhoe1. 'Kaupois' lost in Te Urewera2. Tatau pounamu?: belatedly understanding some marriages 1890s - 1950s3. The 1983 Tekaumarua at Ohaua