Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 2. Februar 2019
  • |
  • 712 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-813823-6 (ISBN)
 

Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes, Second Edition is a valuable scientific resource that explores the latest advances in bioactive food research and the potential benefits of bioactive food choice on diabetic conditions. Written by experts from around the world, it presents important information that can help improve the health of those at risk for diabetes and diabetes related conditions using food selection as its foundation. This important resource for those involved in the dietary and nutritional care of diabetic patients is also ideal for researchers seeking information on alternative bioactive food-based solutions.

  • Serves as a starting point for in-depth discussions in academic settings that can lead to revised and updated treatment options for diabetes
  • Offers detailed, well-documented reviews outlining the ability of bioactive foods to improve and treat diabetes and obesity
  • Includes updated research on the global epidemic of diabetes
  • Presents global perspectives and coverage of regional foods
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
  • 42,00 MB
978-0-12-813823-6 (9780128138236)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part A: Overview of Food, Diet and Diabetes
  • Chapter 1: Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Systemic Glucose Homeostasis Is a Multi-Organ Process
  • 3. Glucose Dysregulation: The Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance
  • 4. Origins of Oxidative Stress in Various Cell Types
  • 4.1. Renin-Angiotensin System and NADPH Oxidase
  • 4.2. Nutrient Excess and Mitochondrial Overactivity
  • 4.3. Hyperglycemia
  • 4.4. Dyslipidemia: Role of Excess FFAs
  • 4.5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • 4.6. Additional Role of Nitrosative Stress
  • 5. Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress-Associated Insulin Resistance
  • 5.1. Oxidative Stress and Defects in Insulin Signaling: Skeletal Muscle and Liver
  • 5.2. Oxidative Stress and Defects in Insulin Secretion: Pancreatic Beta-Cells
  • 5.3. Oxidative Stress and Defects in Vascular Function
  • 6. Utility of Select Antioxidants as Interventions in Oxidative Stress-Associated Insulin Resistance
  • 6.1. General Concepts of Antioxidant Properties
  • 6.2. a-Lipoic Acid and Its Effects on Glucoregulation
  • 7. Conclusions and Perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils and Trans Fatty Acids: Profile and Application to Diabetes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Dietary Fats: HVOs and TFAs
  • 3. Global Consumption Rates of TFAs
  • 4. TFAs, HVOs, and T2DM
  • 5. Cell Studies
  • 6. Animal Studies
  • 7. Epidemiological Studies
  • 8. Randomized Control Trials
  • 9. Mechanisms of TFAs/HVOs in the Progression of T2DM
  • 10. Policy Efforts Regarding TFAs/HVOs Reduction
  • 11. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3: A Protocol Outline of Dietary Intervention to Contrast Diabetic Nephropathy
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Overall Caloric Intake and General Nutrition Patterns
  • 3. Proteins in the Diet
  • 3.1. Protein Restriction: How Far?
  • 3.2. Sources of Dietary Proteins, Associated Micronutrients, and Nephrotoxic Food-Related Components
  • 4. Sodium and Phosphorous
  • 5. Fruit and Vegetables
  • 5.1. Olive Oil
  • 5.2. Anthocyanin-Rich Vegetables
  • 5.3. Additional Studies on Vegetables and Herbs
  • 6. Nutraceuticals of Both Plant and Animal Origin
  • 6.1. Vitamin B6
  • 6.2. Lipoic Acid
  • 7. Nutritional Therapy in DM: A Road Map to Contrast Onset and Progression of DN
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 4: Bioactive Foods as Dietary Intervention for Diabetes From the Perspective of Persian Medicine
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Persian Medicine
  • 3. Diabetes in PM
  • 4. Dietary Interventions for Diabetes in PM
  • 4.1. Healthy Eating Rules in PM
  • 4.2. Individualized Dietary Recommendations for Diabetes in PM
  • 5. Herbal Supplements Recommended for Diabetes in PM
  • 5.1. Plantago psyllium
  • 5.2. Cinnamomum verum
  • 5.3. Spinacia oleracea
  • 5.4. Rhus coriaria
  • 5.5. Citrullus colocynthis
  • 5.6. Portulaca oleracea
  • 5.7. Hordeum vulgare
  • 5.8. Carthamus tinctorius
  • 6. Conclusion and Future Research
  • 7. Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Dietary Manipulations for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Weight Loss and Caloric Restriction
  • 3. Carbohydrates and Low Glycemic Index Diets
  • 4. Fructose
  • 5. Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA)
  • 6. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA)
  • 7. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)
  • 8. Mediterranean Diet
  • 9. Coffee
  • 10. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Avocado Oil and Diabetic Complications Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Role of Mitochondria Dysfunction in the Development of Diabetic Complications
  • 3. Protective Effects of Avocado Oil on the Alterations Induced by Diabetes on the ETC and Oxidative Stress in Liver, Kid ...
  • 4. Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Whey Protein and the Metabolic Syndrome
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Dairy Proteins
  • 3. Hypertension
  • 4. Vascular Function
  • 5. Glucose and Insulin
  • 6. Satiety and Appetite
  • 7. Body Composition
  • 8. Blood Lipids
  • 9. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict of Interest Statement
  • References
  • Chapter 8: The Effects of Soy Products and Isoflavones in Metabolic Syndrome and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Fermented Soy Product and Isoflavones in Adipose Tissue Metabolism
  • 3. Soy and Isoflavones in Weight Loss
  • 4. Soy and Isoflavones in Cardiovascular Diseases and Dyslipidemias
  • 5. Soy and Isoflavones in Glycemic Control
  • 6. Soy and Isoflavones in NAFLD
  • 7. Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 9: The Genus Allium (Amaryllidaceae: Alloideae): Features, Phytoconstituents, and Mechanisms of Antidiabetic Poten ...
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Amaryllidaceae Family
  • 3. A. cepa and A. sativum
  • 4. Chemical Profiles of Onion and Garlic
  • 5. Quercetin
  • 6. Isorhamnetin
  • 7. Kaempferol and Anthocyanins
  • 8. Rutin and Luteolin
  • 9. Fructan and Coumarin
  • 10. Steroids
  • 11. Allicin
  • 12. Antidiabetic Significance of Onion and Garlic
  • 13. Conclusion
  • References
  • Part B: Micronutrients and Diabetes
  • Chapter 10: The Role of Vitamin D in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Vitamin D and Diabetes Mellitus Pathogenesis
  • 2.1. Vitamin D and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Pathogenesis
  • 2.1.1. Vitamin D-Related Genetic Predisposition
  • 2.1.2. Immunomodulatory Role of Vitamin D in Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2.2. Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Pathogenesis
  • 2.2.1. Vitamin D and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2.2.2. Vitamin D and Pancreatic ß-Cell Dysfunction
  • 2.2.3. Vitamin D and Inflammation
  • 3. Vitamin D and Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 3.1. Vitamin D and Prevention of T1DM
  • 3.2. Vitamin D and Prevention of T2DM
  • 4. Vitamin D and Glycemic Control
  • 4.1. Vitamin D and Glycemic Control in T1DM
  • 4.2. Vitamin D in Glycemic Treatment of T2DM
  • 5. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Vitamin D3 in the Type 1 Diabetes and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults, Its Use for Prevention and Treatment
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Vitamin D3: Immune System, T1DM and LADA
  • 3. Vitamin D3-Potential Therapeutic on Immune System and Beta Cell Function for Type 1 Diabetes and LADA. Questions to Answer
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Funding Source
  • Competing Interests
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Role of Omega-3-Fatty Acids in the Management of Diabetes and Associated Complications
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Complications Associated With Diabetes
  • 2. Bioactive Foods
  • 2.1. Omega-3-Fatty Acids
  • 2.2. What Are Omega-3-Fatty Acids?
  • 2.3. How Omega-3-Fatty Acids Works?
  • 2.4. Sources of Omega-3-Fatty Acids
  • 2.5. Benefits of Omega-3-Fatty Acids in Diabetic Complications
  • 3. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 13: n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 1.2. Pathogenesis and Metabolism of T2DM
  • 1.3. Nutritional Metabolism of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs
  • 1.4. Inflammatory Markers in T2DM
  • 1.5. Effects of PUFA on Metabolic and Inflammatory Processes in T2DM
  • 2. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Oleic Acid in the Diet and What It Does: Implications for Diabetes and Its Complications
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus With OA Intake
  • 3. Benefits of OA in T2DM
  • 3.1. Blood Pressure
  • 3.2. Adiposity Parameters
  • 3.3. Glycemic Control
  • 3.4. Lipid Profile
  • 3.5. Insulin Resistance
  • 3.6. Hemostasis, Platelet Aggregation, and Fibrinolysis
  • 3.7. Low-Grade Inflammatory Response
  • 4. Effect of OA in the Prevention of Complications
  • 4.1. Microvascular Complications
  • 4.1.1. Diabetic Retinopathy
  • 4.1.2. Diabetic Nephropathy
  • 4.2. Macrovascular Complications
  • 4.2.1. Cerebrovascular Disease
  • 4.2.2. Peripheral Arterial Disease
  • 4.2.3. Coronary Heart Disease
  • 5. Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Micronutrient Deficiencies and Dysfunctional Endothelial Phenotype in Obesity
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Obesity and Micronutrients Deficiency
  • 3. The Continuum of Obesity-Related Endothelial Dysfunction
  • 4. Mechanisms of Reduced NO Bioavailability in Obesity
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict OF Interests
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 16: Magnesium and Relationship with Diabetes
  • 1. Magnesium
  • 2. Diabetes
  • 3. Mg Deficiency in the General Population, Chronically Ill and Diabetics
  • 4. Mg Intakes and Serum Mg Concentrations Are Inversely Associated With Diabetes Risk and Abnormal Glucose Metabolism
  • 5. Mg Supplementation and Glucose Metabolism: Results From RCT
  • 6. Mg Deficiency and Insulin Sensitivity: Molecular Mechanisms
  • 7. Mg Intake and Diabetes
  • 8. Type 2 Diabetes for Setting Dietary Reference Values for Mg and a Reference Interval for Total Serum Mg Concentration
  • 9. Conclusions and Future Directions
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Plasma Levels of Tryptophan Metabolites in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ethics
  • 3. Statistics
  • 4. Methods
  • 4.1. Assays of TRP Metabolites
  • 4.1.1. Reagents
  • 4.1.2. Instrumentation and Analytical Conditions
  • 4.1.3. Sample Pretreatment
  • 5. Results
  • 6. Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Financial Support
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 18: Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Lipid Profile: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
  • 1. Lipids and Cardiovascular Risk
  • 2. Metabolic Pathways of Magnesium in the Lipid Profile
  • 3. Magnesium Supplementation in the Improvement of Lipid Profile
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Part C: Macronutrients and Diabetes
  • Chapter 19: Nutritional Management of Diabetes-A Critical Review
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Minerals
  • 2.1. Magnesium
  • 2.2. Zinc
  • 2.3. Chromium
  • 3. Olive Oil
  • 4. Coffee
  • 5. Tea
  • 6. Bitter Melon
  • 7. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
  • 8. MUFA, PUFA, and Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs)
  • 9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid
  • 10. Findings on Fruits and Vegetables
  • 11. Vegetarian Diets and Nutrient Deficiencies
  • 12. Dietary Patterns
  • 12.1. Carbohydrate Diet
  • 12.2. Protein Diet
  • 13. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Phytotherapeutics in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Phytotherapeutics in Prediabetes
  • 3. Phytotherapeutics for Glycemic Control
  • 4. Phytotherapeutics in Diabetes-Associated Diseases
  • 5. Summary: Phytotherapeutics in an Integrative Diabetes Management
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 21: The Mediterranean Diet for an Effective Management of Metabolic Syndrome in Both Men and Women
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Metabolic Syndrome and Weight Loss
  • 3. MedDiet and Traditional CVD Risk Factors Associated With MetS
  • 4. MedDiet and Nontraditional CVD Risk Factors Associated With MetS
  • 4.1. Inflammation
  • 4.2. Endothelial Function
  • 4.3. Atherogenic LDL Particles
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 6. Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Antidiabetic Efficacy of Citrus Fruits With Special Allusion to Flavone Glycosides
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Citrus Fruits
  • 3. Citrus Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus
  • 4. Citrus Flavone Glycosides
  • 4.1. Naringin
  • 4.2. Hesperidin
  • 4.3. Diosmin
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Part D: Functional Food and Diabetes
  • Chapter 23: Nutritional and Therapeutic Applications of Prickly Pear Cacti
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Botanical Characteristics
  • 3. Nutritional and Medicinal Uses of Prickly Pear Cacti
  • 4. Medicinal Parts and Bioactive Ingredients
  • 5. Uses in Mexican Traditional Medicine
  • 6. Scientific Studies With Prickly Pear Cacti
  • 7. Animal Studies Using Different Species of Opuntia
  • 8. Human Studies With Using Various Species of Opuntia
  • 9. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Cardioprotective Potential of Flaxseeds in Diabetes
  • 1. Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2. Flaxseed
  • 3. Flaxseeds as a Nutritional Therapy for Diabetes
  • 3.1. Weight Management
  • 3.2. Glucose Regulation
  • 3.3. Lipid Regulation
  • 3.4. Blood Pressure Regulation
  • 4. Flaxseeds: Dietary Recommendation
  • 5. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 25: May Achillea Species Be a Source of Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus?
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Taxonomy of the Genus Achillea L (Table 1)12-15
  • 3. Botanical Characteristics of the Achillea Species11
  • 4. Chemical Profile of Achillea Species
  • 4.1. Sesquiterpene Lactones
  • 4.2. Flavonoids
  • 4.3. Essential Oils
  • 4.4. Other Phenolic Compounds
  • 4.5. Other Compounds
  • 5. Antidiabetic and Hypoglycemic Activity Studies on Achillea Species
  • 5.1. Achillea biebersteinii Afan
  • 5.2. Achillea millefolium L
  • 5.3. Achillea santolina L
  • 5.4. Other Achillea Species
  • 6. Conclusion
  • 7. Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Zingiberaceae Family Effects on Alpha-Glucosidase Activity: Implication for Diabetes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Diabetes and Obesity
  • 3. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzymes as a Therapeutic Target for Diabetes
  • 4. Benefits of Zingiberaceae as an Antidiabetic Drug
  • 5. Zingiberaceae Family as an Inhibitor of Alpha-glucosidase
  • 5.1. Curcuma longa L
  • 5.2. Zingiber officinale
  • 5.3. Zingiber zerumbet
  • 6. Safety Study of Zingiberaceae
  • 7. Implication of Zingiberaceae as an Antidiabetic Drug
  • 8. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz. (Anacardiaceae): Profiles and Applications to Diabetes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Botanical Description and Historical Background of Spondias pinnata in the Malesian Region
  • 3. Ethnobotanical Information Related to Spondias pinnata
  • 4. Antioxidant Properties of Spondias pinnata
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Synergy Among Dietary Spices in Exerting Antidiabetic Influences
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Dietary Management of Diabetes
  • 3. Spices as Useful Antidiabetic Adjuncts
  • 4. Fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum)
  • 5. Garlic (A. sativum) and Onion (A. cepa)
  • 6. Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
  • 7. Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
  • 8. Cumin Seeds (C. cyminum) and Black Seeds (N. sativa) (Fig. 9)
  • 9. Synergy Among Spices in Exerting Antidiabetic Influence
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Human Milk as a Bioactive Food
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Prevalence of BF
  • 3. Milk Secretion
  • 4. Composition of HM: Bioactive Factors in HM
  • 4.1. Macronutrients
  • 4.1.1. Nitrogen
  • Protein
  • Nonprotein Nitrogen
  • 4.1.2. Fat
  • 4.1.3. Carbohydrates
  • 4.2. Micronutrients
  • 4.2.1. Vitamins
  • 4.2.2. Mineral and Trace Elements
  • 4.3. Bioactive Component of HM
  • 4.3.1. Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs)
  • 4.3.2. Immunoglobulins
  • 4.3.3. Other Immunologic Components
  • 4.3.4. Milk Fat Globule Membrane
  • 4.3.5. Cells
  • 4.3.6. Growth Factors
  • 5. Benefits of BF for the Baby
  • 5.1. Short-Term Effects of BF
  • 5.1.1. Linear Growth
  • 5.1.2. Infectious Morbidity
  • 5.1.3. Effects on Atopic Disease
  • 5.2. Long-Term Effects
  • 5.2.1. BF and Blood Pressure in Later Life
  • 5.3. BF and Blood Cholesterol in Later Life
  • 5.4. BF and the Risk of Overweight and Obesity in Later Life
  • 5.5. Neurodevelopment
  • 5.6. Immune-Related Diseases
  • 6. BF and Women's Health
  • 6.1. BF and Cancer
  • 6.2. Lactation and the Risk of Maternal Cardiovascular Disease
  • 6.3. Osteoporosis
  • 7. Clinical Application of Bioactive Milk Components: Future Research
  • List of Relevant Web Pages
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Juniperus Species: Features, Profile and Applications to Diabetes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Scientific Classification
  • 3. Botanical Description
  • 4. Phytochemicals Present in Juniperus Species
  • 5. Traditional Uses and Biological Activities of Junipers
  • 6. Juniperus Species in the Treatment of Diabetes
  • 7. Conclusion
  • 8. Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Honey: Profile and Features: Applications to Diabetes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Antidiabetic Profile and Features of Honey
  • 2.1. Fructose
  • 2.2. Oligosaccharides
  • 2.3. Inorganic Honey Constituents with Antidiabetic Profile
  • 3. Antioxidant Profile and Features of Honey
  • 4. Honey: Application to Diabetes
  • 4.1. Role of Honey in Insulin Deficiency and Insulin Resistance
  • 4.2. Role of Honey in Diabetes-Induced Metabolic Derangements
  • 4.2.1. Preclinical Studies
  • 4.2.2. Clinical Studies
  • 4.3. Role of Honey in Diabetes-Induced Complications
  • 4.4. Role of Honey in Diabetic Microvascular Complications
  • 4.5. Role of Honey in Diabetic Macrovascular Complications
  • 5. Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Disclosure/Conflict of Interests
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Citrullus colocynthis and Its Potential Role Against Diabetes and Its Complications
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Common Names
  • 1.2. Distribution
  • 1.3. Botanical Descriptions
  • 1.4. Traditional Uses
  • 2. Diabetes Mellitus
  • 3. Animal Studies on C. colocynthis and Diabetes Mellitus
  • 4. Clinical Studies on C. colocynthis and Diabetes Mellitus
  • 4.1. Mechanism of Action
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Red Sour Cherry for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Scientific Classification
  • 3. Botanical Description
  • 4. Antioxidant activity of Red Sour Cherry
  • 5. Antidiabetic Activity of Red Sour Cherry
  • 6. Adverse Effects
  • 7. Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 34: A Review of the Effects of Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) and Its Flavonoids, Naringin, and Naringenin in Metabo ...
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Methodology
  • 3. Effect on Hyperglycemia
  • 3.1. In Vivo Studies
  • 3.2. In Vitro Studies
  • 3.3. Clinical Studies
  • 4. Effect on Dyslipidemia
  • 4.1. In Vivo Studies
  • 4.2. In Vitro Studies
  • 4.3. Clinical Studies
  • 5. Effect on Obesity
  • 5.1. In Vivo Studies
  • 5.2. In Vitro Studies
  • 5.3. Clinical Studies
  • 6. Effect on Hypertension
  • 6.1. In Vivo Studies
  • 6.2. Ex Vivo Studies
  • 6.3. Clinical Studies
  • 7. Effect on Atherosclerosis
  • 7.1. In Vivo Studies
  • 7.2. In Vitro Studies
  • 7.3. Ex Vivo Studies
  • 7.4. Clinical Studies
  • 8. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Diabetes Care and Wound Healing Using Nauclea latifolia, Manihot esculenta, and Other Natural Products
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Diabetes Mellitus
  • 3. Diabetes and Wound Healing
  • 4. Burden and Impact of Diabetes
  • 5. Management of Diabetes
  • 5.1. M. esculenta (Euphorbiaceae)
  • 5.1.1. Medicinal Importance of M. esculenta
  • 5.2. N. latifolia (Rubiaceae)
  • 5.2.1. Hypoglycaemic Activity of N. latifolia
  • 5.2.2. Antidiabetic Effect
  • 5.2.3. Wound Healing Effects
  • 6. Antidiabetic, Hypoglycemic, and Wound Healing Properties of Other Medicinal Plants
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Intervention of Prediabetes by Flavonoids From Oroxylum indicum
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Intervention of Prediabetes by Flavonoids From O. indicum In Vivo
  • 3. The Mechanism of Prediabetes Prevention by the Flavonoids From O. indicum
  • 3.1. The Effects on a-Glucosidase
  • 3.2. The Effects on Insulin Resistance
  • 3.3. The Effect on Oxidative Stress
  • 3.4. Other Possible Mechanisms for T2DM Prevention
  • 4. Prospect of Flavonoids of O. indicum in T2DM Prevention
  • References
  • Chapter 37: The Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Herb Tangluoning in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Body of the Chapter
  • 2.1. Basic Research
  • 2.1.1. Diabetic Model and Treatment
  • 2.2. Determination of Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Glucose Level
  • 2.3. Determination of Reaction Time to Heat and Cold Stimulation
  • 2.4. Determination of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) of Sciatic Nerve
  • 2.5. Protein Digestion and Peptide Labeling
  • 2.6. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
  • 2.7. Statistical Analyses
  • 2.8. Results
  • 2.8.1. TLN Alleviated STZ-induced Diabetic Symptoms
  • 2.8.2. Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteins
  • 2.8.3. Qualitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteins
  • 3. Discussion
  • 4. Clinical Trial
  • 4.1. Data and Methods
  • 4.1.1. General Data
  • 4.1.2. Clinical Diagnostic Criteria
  • 4.1.3. Standard for TCM Syndrome Differentiation
  • 4.1.4. Inclusion Criteria
  • 4.1.5. Exclusion Criteria
  • 4.2. Method
  • 4.2.1. Adjustment Phase
  • 4.2.2. Treatment Phase
  • 4.3. Observe Indicators
  • 4.3.1. Safety Indicators
  • 4.3.2. General Indicators
  • 4.3.3. Curative Effect Indictors
  • 4.3.4. Efficacy Criteria
  • 4.3.5. Statistical Method
  • 5. Result
  • 5.1. Comparison on General Conditions of Two Groups
  • 5.1.1. Comparison on Curative Effect of Two Groups
  • 5.1.2. Comparison on Clinical Symptoms Improvement of Two Groups
  • 5.1.3. Comparison on Diabetic Neuropathy Score of Two Groups
  • 5.1.4. Comparison on Neurological Symptoms of Two
  • 5.1.5. Comparison on EMG Before and After Treatment of Two Groups
  • 5.1.6. Comparison on Serum Oxidative Stress of Two Groups
  • 5.1.7. Adverse Reactions
  • 6. Discussion
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 38: The Antidiabetes Effect and Efficacy of Rosa rugosa Thunb
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ethnopharmacological Function
  • 3. Phytochemicals Present in R. rugosa Thunb
  • 4. Biological Effect of R. rugosa Thunb
  • 4.1. R. rugosa Thunb in the Treatment of Diabetes
  • 4.2. The Effects of R. rugosa Thunb on Diabetic Complication-Related Diseases
  • 4.2.1. Lipid Lowing Effects
  • 4.2.2. Antihepatotoxic
  • 4.2.3. Cardioprotective
  • 4.2.4. Antihypertensive
  • 4.2.5. Antiinflammatory
  • 4.2.6. Antioxidant
  • 4.3. Other Biological Effect of R. rugosa Thunb
  • 4.3.1. Antihyperplasia
  • 4.3.2. Antistress
  • 4.3.3. Antibacterial
  • 4.3.4. Antiallergic
  • 4.3.5. Antihistone Acetyltransferase Prostate Cancer
  • 4.3.6. Anti-HIV
  • 5. Safety and Toxicity Evaluation
  • 6. Clinical Application
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Beneficial Role of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Functional Factors in the Intervention of Metabolic Syndrome
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Phytochemicals, the Secondary Metabolites Isolated From Chickpea
  • 2.1. The Content of Total Saponins and Its Structures
  • 2.2. Isoflavones, Increased in Germination and Its Structures
  • 3. Chemical Compositions From Chickpeas
  • 3.1. Total Protein and Peptides
  • 3.2. Dietary Fiber and Oligosaccharides
  • 4. Preventing Metabolic Syndrome and Management of Diabetes
  • 4.1. Modulating the Glycemic Response
  • 4.2. Regulate Dyslipidemia
  • 4.3. Antioxidant Activity
  • 4.4. Improving Insulin Resistance
  • 5. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 40: Nigella sativa: A Medicinal and Edible Plant That Ameliorates Diabetes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. N. sativa in Folk Medicine and in Diet
  • 3. Description and Chemical Composition of N. sativa
  • 4. The Beneficial Effect of N. sativa on Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome
  • 4.1. Hypoglycemic and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of N. sativa
  • 4.2. The Antihyperlipidemia Effect of N. sativa
  • 4.3. Antiobesity Effect of N. sativa
  • 4.4. Antiinflammatory Effect of N. sativa
  • 4.5. Antioxidant Effect of N. sativa
  • 4.6. Anticardiovascular Effect of N. sativa
  • 4.7. PTP1B Inhibitory Activity of N. sativa
  • 4.8. Other Biological Activities of N. sativa
  • 5. Toxicological Studies and Safety of N. sativa
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 41: Application of Pomegranate Flower in Diabetes Mellitus
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Preventive and Therapeutic Effect on Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2.1. Hypoglycemic Effects
  • 2.2. Lipid Effects
  • 2.3. Hepatoprotective Effects
  • 2.4. Protective Effect on Vascular Endothelium of Diabetic Rats
  • 2.5. Antioxidant
  • References
  • Chapter 42: Traditional Herbal Products Used for the Management of Diabetes in Croatia: Linking Traditional Use With a-Glu ...
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Materials and Methods
  • 2.1. Study Area and Its Climate
  • 2.2. Data Collection
  • 3. Results and Discussion
  • 3.1. Collection of Ethnobotanical Data
  • 3.2. Plant Species Recommended for Treatment of Diabetes
  • 3.3. Relevant Ethnobotanical Use and Pharmacological Activity of the Reported Medicinal Plants
  • 3.4. Inhibition of a-Glucosidase Activity by the Medicinal Plants Used for Diabetes
  • 4. Conclusions
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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