An Introduction to Textile Coloration

Principles and Practice
 
 
John Wiley & Sons Inc (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 4. September 2017
  • |
  • 376 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-12157-2 (ISBN)
 
An Introduction to Textile Coloration: Principles and Practice
The Publications Committee of the Society of Dyers and Colourists (SDC) has been aware for some time of the need to produce a book at an introductory level aimed at personnel working in textile dyeing or printing companies as well as those interested in entering into the field. The SDC runs a course for dyehouse technicians leading to the award of its Textile Coloration Certificate and this book is intended to be helpful for candidates following the course. Additionally, it will be helpful for professionals in textile companies who do not have a strong scientific background, so that they may attain a better understanding of the chemical principles of colour application.
Starting with the basic science underlying dyeing and printing processes, this comprehensive book explains the fundamentals of dye and pigment chemistry and the various application techniques and processes. It offers chapter coverage of the general chemistry related to textiles, textile fibres, chemistry of dyes and pigments, industrial coloration methods, textile printing, theoretical aspects of dyeing, the measurement of colour and fastness testing. Reference is made to developments that have taken place in the coloration industry in recent years, not least of which have been the challenges imposed by the drive towards environmentally-friendly processes and restrictions on the use of certain chemicals.
An Introduction to Textile Coloration: Principles and Practice
* Covers atomic structure, chemical reactions, and acids, bases, and salts
* Explains the nature of fibre-forming polymers and the conversion of synthetic polymers into fibre filaments
* Educates on the classification of colorants and the commercial naming of dyes and pigments
* Introduces readers to the dye application processes and dyeing machinery
* Instructs on dye aggregation, factors affecting colour appearance, the principles of colour fastness testing, and more
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • 15,26 MB
978-1-119-12157-2 (9781119121572)
1119121574 (1119121574)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Roger H. Wardman was formerly Head of School of Textiles and Design, Heriot-Watt University, UK and is a Fellow of the Society of Dyers and Colourists.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Society of Dyers and Colourists
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 General Chemistry Related to Textiles
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Atomic Structure
  • 1.3 Periodic Table of the Elements
  • 1.4 Valency and Bonding
  • 1.4.1 Giving or Receiving of Electrons: Formation of Ionic Bonds
  • 1.4.2 Sharing of Electrons: Formation of Covalent Bonds
  • 1.4.3 Secondary Forces of Attraction
  • Dipolar Forces
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • p-H Bonding
  • Dispersion Forces
  • 1.5 Chemical Reactions
  • 1.5.1 Types of Chemical Reaction
  • 1.5.2 Rates of Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equilibria
  • 1.5.3 Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction
  • 1.5.4 Catalysts
  • 1.5.5 Thermodynamics of Reactions
  • 1.5.5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • 1.5.5.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • 1.5.5.3 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
  • 1.5.5.4 Free Energy
  • 1.5.5.5 Interpreting Thermodynamic Data
  • 1.6 Acids, Bases and Salts
  • 1.6.1 Acids and Bases
  • 1.6.2 The pH Scale
  • 1.6.3 Salts and Salt Hydrolysis
  • 1.6.4 Buffer Solutions
  • 1.7 Redox Reactions
  • 1.8 Organic Chemistry
  • 1.8.1 The Hydrocarbons
  • 1.8.1.1 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
  • 1.8.1.2 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • 1.8.2 Functional Groups
  • 1.8.3 Important Functional Groups of Aliphatic Compounds
  • 1.8.3.1 Halides
  • 1.8.3.2 Alcohols
  • 1.8.3.3 Carboxylic Acids
  • 1.8.3.4 Esters
  • 1.8.3.5 Aldehydes and Ketones
  • 1.8.3.6 Ethers
  • 1.8.3.7 Amines
  • 1.8.3.8 Cyano and Nitro Groups
  • 1.8.4 Important Functional Groups of Aromatic Compounds
  • 1.8.5 Important Compounds in Textile Dyeing
  • 1.8.5.1 Sequestering Agents
  • 1.8.5.2 Surface-Active Agents (Surfactants)
  • 1.8.5.3 Carriers
  • 1.9 The Use of Chemicals by Industry
  • 1.9.1 REACH
  • 1.9.2 Effluent Disposal
  • Chapter 2 Textile Fibres
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Nature of Fibre-Forming Polymers
  • 2.3 Properties of Textile Fibres
  • 2.4 Mechanical Properties of Textile Fibres
  • 2.4.1 Fibre Length
  • 2.4.2 Fibre Fineness
  • 2.4.3 Fibre Strength
  • 2.5 Chemistry of the Main Fibre Types
  • 2.5.1 Cellulosic Fibres
  • 2.5.1.1 Cotton
  • 2.5.1.2 Chemistry of Cotton
  • 2.5.1.3 Morphology of Cotton
  • 2.5.1.4 Properties of Cotton
  • 2.5.1.5 Organic Cotton
  • 2.5.2 Other Cellulosic Fibres
  • 2.6 Protein Fibres
  • 2.6.1 Wool
  • 2.6.1.1 Chemistry of Wool
  • 2.6.1.2 Morphology of Wool
  • 2.6.1.3 Properties of Wool Fibres
  • 2.6.1.4 Ecological Aspects
  • 2.6.2 Hair Fibres
  • 2.6.3 Silk
  • 2.7 Regenerated Fibres
  • 2.7.1 Early Developments
  • 2.7.2 Viscose
  • 2.7.3 Lyocell Fibres
  • 2.7.4 Cellulose Acetate Fibres
  • 2.7.5 Polylactic Acid Fibres
  • 2.8 Synthetic Fibres
  • 2.8.1 Condensation Polymers
  • 2.8.1.1 Polyamide (Nylon) Fibres
  • 2.8.1.2 Aramid Fibres
  • 2.8.1.3 Polyester Fibres
  • 2.8.1.4 Elastomeric Fibres
  • 2.8.2 Addition Polymers
  • 2.8.2.1 Polyolefin Fibres
  • 2.8.2.2 Acrylic Fibres
  • 2.9 Conversion of Synthetic Polymers into Fibre Filaments
  • 2.10 Fibre Cross-Sectional Shapes
  • 2.11 Microfibres
  • 2.12 Absorbent Fibres
  • 2.13 Drawing of Synthetic Fibre Filaments
  • 2.14 Conversion of Man-Made Fibre Filaments to Staple
  • 2.15 Imparting Texture to Synthetic Fibres
  • 2.16 Fibre Blends
  • 2.17 Textile Manufacturing
  • 2.17.1 Yarns
  • 2.17.2 Fabrics
  • 2.17.2.1 Woven Fabrics
  • 2.17.2.2 Knitted Fabrics
  • Suggested Further Reading
  • Chapter 3 Chemistry of Dyes and Pigments
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Classification of Colorants
  • 3.3 Colour in Organic Molecules
  • 3.4 Classification of Dyes According to Chemical Structure
  • 3.4.1 Azo Dyes
  • 3.4.2 Anthraquinone Dyes
  • 3.4.3 Methine and Polymethine Dyes
  • 3.4.4 Nitro Dyes
  • 3.4.5 Triarylmethane Dyes
  • 3.5 Classification of Dyes According to Application Class
  • 3.5.1 Dyes for Protein Fibres
  • 3.5.1.1 Acid Dyes
  • 3.5.1.2 Mordant Dyes
  • 3.5.1.3 Pre-metallised (or Metal-Complex) Dyes
  • 3.5.1.4 Reactive Dyes
  • 3.5.1.5 Summary
  • 3.5.2 Dyes for Cellulosic Fibres
  • 3.5.2.1 Direct Dyes
  • 3.5.2.2 Vat Dyes
  • 3.5.2.3 Solubilised Vat Dyes
  • 3.5.2.4 Reactive Dyes
  • 3.5.2.5 Sulphur Dyes
  • 3.5.2.6 Azoic Dyes
  • 3.5.3 Dyes for Synthetic Fibres
  • 3.5.3.1 Disperse Dyes
  • 3.5.3.2 Basic Dyes
  • 3.5.4 Pigments
  • 3.6 Commercial Naming of Dyes and Pigments
  • 3.7 Strength and Physical Form of Colorants
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Industrial Coloration Methods
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Dye Application Processes
  • 4.2.1 Wool Dyeing
  • 4.2.1.1 Acid Dyes
  • 4.2.1.2 Chrome Dyes
  • 4.2.1.3 Pre-metallised Dyes
  • 4.2.1.4 Reactive Dyes
  • 4.2.1.5 Summary
  • 4.2.2 Cellulosic Fibre Dyeing
  • 4.2.2.1 Introduction
  • 4.2.2.2 Direct Dyes
  • 4.2.2.3 Vat Dyes
  • 4.2.2.4 Reactive Dyes
  • 4.2.2.5 Sulphur Dyes
  • 4.2.2.6 Azoic Dyes
  • 4.2.3 Polyester Fibre Dyeing
  • 4.2.4 Nylon Fibre Dyeing
  • 4.2.4.1 Disperse Dyes
  • 4.2.4.2 Acid Dyes
  • 4.2.4.3 Reactive Dyes
  • 4.2.5 Acrylic Fibre Dyeing
  • 4.2.5.1 Basic (Cationic) Dyes
  • 4.2.5.2 Disperse Dyes
  • 4.2.6 Polypropylene Fibre Dyeing
  • 4.2.7 Dyeing Fibre Blends
  • 4.2.7.1 Wool Fibre Blends
  • 4.2.7.2 Cotton Fibre Blends
  • 4.3 Dyeing Machinery
  • 4.3.1 Introduction
  • 4.3.2 Dyeing Loose Fibre
  • 4.3.3 Top Dyeing
  • 4.3.4 Yarn Dyeing
  • 4.3.4.1 Package Dyeing
  • 4.3.4.2 Beam Dyeing for Yarns
  • 4.3.4.3 Hank Dyeing
  • 4.3.5 Fabric Dyeing
  • 4.3.5.1 Winch Dyeing
  • 4.3.5.2 Jig Dyeing
  • 4.3.5.3 Beam Dyeing of Fabric
  • 4.3.5.4 Jet Dyeing
  • 4.3.6 Garment Dyeing
  • 4.3.6.1 Side-Paddle Machines
  • 4.3.6.2 Rotating Drum Machines
  • 4.3.7 Continuous Dyeing
  • 4.4 Supercritical Fluid Dyeing
  • References
  • Suggested Further Reading
  • Chapter 5 Textile Printing
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Print Paste Formulation
  • 5.3 Thickeners
  • 5.3.1 Natural Products
  • 5.3.1.1 Starch-Based Thickeners
  • 5.3.1.2 Alginates
  • 5.3.1.3 Xanthans
  • 5.3.2 Modified Natural Products
  • 5.3.2.1 Carboxymethyl Cellulose
  • 5.3.3 Synthetic Products
  • 5.3.3.1 Emulsions
  • 5.4 Binders
  • 5.5 Pigments and Dyes
  • 5.5.1 Pigments
  • 5.5.2 Dyes
  • 5.6 Printing Screens
  • 5.6.1 Flat Screens
  • 5.6.2 Rotary Screens
  • 5.6.3 Engraved Rollers
  • 5.7 Stages of Printing
  • 5.7.1 Transport
  • 5.7.2 Fixation (Dye-Based Prints)
  • 5.7.3 Wash-Off (Dye-Based Prints)
  • 5.7.4 Pigment Prints
  • 5.8 Printing Styles
  • 5.8.1 Direct Printing
  • 5.8.2 Discharge Printing
  • 5.8.3 Resist Printing
  • 5.9 Printing Methods
  • 5.9.1 Flat Screen Printing
  • 5.9.2 Rotary Screen Printing
  • 5.9.3 Copper Roller Printing
  • 5.9.4 Heat Transfer Printing
  • 5.9.5 Ink Jet Printing
  • 5.9.5.1 Continuous Ink Jet Technology
  • 5.9.5.2 Thermal Ink Jet Printing
  • 5.9.5.3 Piezo Ink Jet Printing
  • 5.9.6 Comparisons between Ink Jet Printing and Screen Printing
  • Suggested Further Reading
  • Chapter 6 Theoretical Aspects of Dyeing
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Kinetic Aspects of Dyeing
  • 6.3 Dye Aggregation
  • 6.4 Diffusion
  • 6.4.1 Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Dyes
  • 6.4.2 Activation Energy of Diffusion
  • 6.5 Rate of Dyeing
  • 6.6 Adsorption
  • 6.6.1 Physical Adsorption
  • 6.6.2 Chemical Adsorption (Chemisorption)
  • 6.6.3 Adsorption Isotherms
  • 6.7 Thermodynamic Information Derived from Equilibrium Studies of Dyeing Systems
  • 6.7.1 Standard Affinity, Standard Enthalpy and Standard Entropy of Dyeing
  • 6.7.2 Determination of Thermodynamic Values for the Three Dye/Fibre System Types
  • The Solution Phase
  • The Fibre Phase
  • References
  • Suggested Further Reading
  • Chapter 7 The Measurement of Colour
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Describing Colour
  • 7.3 Additive and Subtractive Colour Mixing
  • 7.3.1 Additive Colour Mixing
  • 7.3.2 Subtractive Colour Mixing
  • 7.4 The Colour Solid
  • 7.5 Factors Affecting Colour Appearance
  • 7.5.1 Light Sources
  • 7.5.1.1 Colour Temperature of Light Sources
  • 7.5.1.2 Standard Illuminants
  • 7.5.2 Reflection
  • 7.5.3 The Eye
  • 7.6 The CIE System of Colour Specification
  • 7.6.1 The Standard Observer
  • 7.6.2 Specification of Surface Colours in the CIE XYZ System
  • 7.6.3 Interpretation of Tristimulus Values
  • 7.7 Applications of the CIE System
  • 7.7.1 Colorant Formulation
  • 7.7.2 Colour-Difference Formulae
  • 7.7.3 Assessment of Metamerism
  • 7.7.4 Assessment of Colour Constancy
  • 7.7.5 Colour Sorting
  • 7.7.6 Measurement of Whiteness
  • 7.8 Solution Colour Measurement
  • Suggested Further Reading
  • Chapter 8 Fastness Testing
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Standards Related to Coloration
  • 8.3 Resistance of Coloured Fabric to Harmful Agencies
  • 8.4 Principles of Colour Fastness Testing
  • 8.4.1 The ISO Standards Outlining the General Principles
  • 8.4.2 Grey Scales
  • 8.4.3 Standard Depths
  • 8.5 Fastness Tests
  • 8.5.1 Light Fastness Tests
  • 8.5.2 Washing Fastness Tests
  • 8.5.3 Rubbing Fastness
  • 8.5.4 Other Fastness Tests
  • 8.5.4.1 Fastness to Water
  • 8.5.4.2 Fastness to Seawater
  • 8.5.4.3 Fastness to Chlorinated Water (Swimming Pool Water)
  • 8.5.4.4 Fastness to Perspiration
  • 8.5.4.5 Fastness to Dry Cleaning Using Perchloroethylene Solvent
  • 8.5.5 Miscellaneous Fastness Tests
  • 8.6 Test Organisations for Sustainable Textile Manufacture
  • References
  • Appendix: Some Textile Terms and Definitions
  • Index
  • EULA

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