Managing Water on China's Farms

Institutions, Policies and the Transformation of Irrigation under Scarcity
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 23. März 2016
  • |
  • 354 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-805294-5 (ISBN)
 

Managing Water on China's Farms: Institutions, Policies and the Transformation of Irrigation under Scarcity is a comprehensive and current look at the water shortage problems in China. While China has emerged as a major player in the world economy, water is the most critical factor that limits the country's further growth. China's growing water problems also have a large impact worldwide, with public health as well as economic impacts. If China were to rely heavily on food produced outside of China, the massive volume of food imports would raise food prices internationally. This book examines a series of water issues, beginning with a description of the water shortage problems in China, particularly in the northern part of the country. It then looks at the government and farmers' responses and whether past policies have been effective in resolving the water problems.

Managing Water on China's Farms documents the change of existing and new water management institutional forms over time and across provinces throughout northern China, and then assesses the impacts of these changes in the rural sector. Finally, it examines potential solutions that the research has uncovered, answering the question: Who can build the bridge over China's troubled waters? Using analyses from information collected firsthand in China's rural villages, the series of surveys covers diverse geographic regions that are representative of north China and includes perspectives from multiple stakeholders such as village leaders, water managers, and farmers. The policy-oriented research and rich analysis in this book make it of interest to both policy makers and researchers with a focus on China water problems. This book can also be used in a Master or Ph.D. level resource economics course.


  • Uses case studies including problem, factors, proposed solutions, and pros and cons of each to facilitate translational learning and application
  • Uses analyses of firsthand data collected from sources of irrigation water, irrigation systems, and water users
  • Covers governance and operation and maintenance (O and M) practices
  • Provides an informative, quantitative, and rigorous analysis of survey results
  • Provides practical and valuable data, including the detailed micro-level data that enables estimating strategies


Jinxia Wang is the Deputy Director and Professor at Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (CCAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). She is also a Professor, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), CAS. Her research focuses on water management, institution and policy, climate change (impact evaluation and adaptation strategies), and rural environmental policy. She received her Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics (2000) at Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. She has published more than 150 papers (more than 60 are in English) and four books. In 2009, she received the Outstanding Young Scientist Award from the National Natural Science Foundation in China.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 3,95 MB
978-0-12-805294-5 (9780128052945)
0128052945 (0128052945)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Managing Water on China's Farms
  • Managing Water on China's Farms: Institutions, Policies and the Transformation of Irrigation Under Scarcity
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • About the Authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction and Conclusions
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • I - Setting the Stage
  • 1 - Water Scarcity in Northern China
  • CHINA'S GROUNDWATER RESOURCES
  • THE RISE OF TUBEWELLS
  • GROUNDWATER RESOURCES FROM FARMERS' PERSPECTIVE
  • GROUNDWATER PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES
  • OVERDRAFTING CHINA'S GROUNDWATER RESOURCES
  • SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS OF OVERDRAFT
  • OTHER PROBLEMS WITH GROUNDWATER
  • GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
  • SOIL SALINIZATION
  • PERCEPTION OF VILLAGE LEADERS AND FARMERS ABOUT WATER SCARCITY
  • CHANGES IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER SUPPLY RELIABILITY
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Irrigation, Agricultural Production, and Rural Income
  • IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
  • DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
  • MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION RESULTS
  • IRRIGATION AND INCOME
  • REGRESSION RESULTS
  • IRRIGATION AND INEQUALITY
  • DECOMPOSITION RESULTS
  • NEW IRRIGATION PROJECTS: BENEFITS VERSUS COSTS
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - China's Agricultural Water Policy Reforms: Increasing Investment, Resolving Conflicts, and Revising Incentives
  • CHINA'S WATER MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONS
  • RESPONSIBILITIES OF CHINA'S LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS
  • FINANCING WATER MANAGEMENT AT THE SUBPROVINCIAL LEVEL
  • INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT AND POLICY REFORM
  • GROUNDWATER POLICIES AND REFORMS
  • Role of the Private Sector
  • Role of Government
  • SURFACE WATER POLICIES AND REFORM
  • FARMERS' INCENTIVES TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMPTION
  • WATER PRICING IN CHINA
  • DEBATE OVER WATER PRICE
  • PROMOTION OF WATER-SAVING IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY
  • SUCCESSES
  • IRRIGATION DISTRICT MANAGEMENT REFORM
  • EFFECTS OF FARMERS' CROPPING DECISIONS ON WATER USAGE
  • WATER ALLOCATION DECISIONS
  • INTERREGIONAL CONFLICTS
  • AGRICULTURE-INDUSTRY CONFLICTS
  • RESOLVING INTERREGIONAL CONFLICTS
  • RESOLVING AGRICULTURE-INDUSTRY CONFLICTS
  • Options for Future Reform
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Water Survey Data
  • CHINA WATER INSTITUTIONS AND MANAGEMENT (CWIM) SURVEY
  • NORTH CHINA WATER RESOURCE SURVEY (NCWRS)
  • CHINA NATIONAL RURAL SURVEY (CNRS)
  • BANK SURVEY
  • REFERENCES
  • II - Groundwater Management
  • 5 - Evolution, Determinants, and Impacts of Tubewell Ownership/Management
  • THE EVOLUTION OF TUBEWELL OWNERSHIP
  • DETERMINANTS OF PRIVATIZATION
  • FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECT OF PRIVATIZATION ON THE RURAL ECONOMY
  • PRIVATIZATION AND THE WATER TABLE
  • PRIVATIZATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
  • ESTIMATION RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODELS
  • DETERMINANTS OF TUBEWELL OWNERSHIP
  • OWNERSHIP IMPACTS ON THE LEVEL OF THE GROUNDWATER TABLE
  • OWNERSHIP IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
  • OWNERSHIP IMPACTS ON RURAL INCOME
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Development of Groundwater Markets in China
  • GROUNDWATER MARKETS WITH CHINESE CHARACTERISTICS
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDWATER MARKETS IN NORTHERN CHINA
  • GROUNDWATER MARKETS, TUBEWELL OWNERSHIP, AND RESOURCE SCARCITY
  • ESTIMATION RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODELS
  • DETERMINANTS OF THE BREADTH OF GROUNDWATER MARKETS
  • DETERMINANTS OF THE DEPTH OF GROUNDWATER MARKETS
  • DO GROUNDWATER MARKETS HELP THE POOR?
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Impacts of Groundwater Markets on Agricultural Production in China
  • ACCESS TO GROUNDWATER AND WATER USE, YIELDS, AND INCOME
  • IMPACT ON CROP WATER USE AND YIELDS
  • IMPACT ON FARMER INCOME
  • ESTIMATION RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODEL
  • IMPACT ON CROP WATER USE AND YIELDS
  • IMPACT ON INCOME
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • III - Surface Water Management
  • 8 - Water User Associations and Contracts: Evolution and Determinants
  • TRENDS IN NORTHERN CHINA'S WATER MANAGEMENT REFORM, 1995 TO 2004
  • CHANGES OVER TIME
  • DIFFERENCES ACROSS SPACE
  • DIFFERENCES IN GOVERNANCE AMONG WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS
  • OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE RESPONSIBILITIES
  • INCENTIVES
  • PRACTICE AND PRINCIPLE: PARTICIPATION
  • WHY ARE WUAS AND CONTRACTING USED IN SOME AREAS BUT NOT OTHERS?
  • DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
  • MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Determinants of Contractual Form
  • THREE FORMS OF CONTRACTS IN MANAGING THE CANAL SYSTEM
  • MODELING MANAGERIAL CHOICE IN RURAL CHINA
  • VARIABLES
  • CONTRACTUAL CHOICES AND THE NATURE OF THE IRRIGATION SYSTEM
  • EXPLAINING CONTRACTUAL CHOICE IN CANAL MANAGEMENT: MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Impacts of Surface Water Management Reforms
  • REFORM AND THE EVOLUTION OF WATER MANAGEMENT
  • VARIATIONS IN REFORM MECHANISMS
  • Change in Manager Incentives
  • Changes in Farmer Participation
  • Accountability
  • WATER MANAGEMENT AND CROP WATER USE
  • ESTIMATION RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODELS
  • WATER MANAGEMENT, PRODUCTION, INCOME, AND POVERTY
  • ESTIMATION RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODELS
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Evaluation of Water User Associations
  • ORGANIZING CHINA'S WUAS: THE FIVE PRINCIPLES?
  • THE UNDERLYING LOGIC OF THE WORLD BANK PRINCIPLES
  • PRINCIPLE 1: ADEQUATE AND RELIABLE WATER SUPPLY
  • PRINCIPLE 2: LEGAL STATUS AND PARTICIPATION
  • PRINCIPLE 3: WUAS ORGANIZED WITHIN HYDRAULIC BOUNDARIES
  • PRINCIPLE 4: WATER DELIVERIES CAN BE MEASURED VOLUMETRICALLY
  • PRINCIPLE 5: NATURE OF WAY IN WHICH WUA COLLECTS WATER CHARGES FROM MEMBERS
  • A SUMMARY: THE FIVE PRINCIPLES AND BEST PRACTICE
  • PERFORMANCE
  • IMPACT ON MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND OUTCOMES
  • WATER USE AND YIELDS IN WUA AND NON-WUA VILLAGES
  • ESTIMATION RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODELS
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • IV - Future Options
  • 12 - Irrigation Water-Pricing Policy
  • NATURE OF IRRIGATION WATER DEMAND IN NORTHERN CHINA
  • EFFECTIVENESS AND IMPACTS OF WATER-PRICING POLICIES IN RURAL CHINA
  • EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER-PRICING POLICY: INFORMED POLICY AND UNINFORMED POLICY
  • IMPACTS OF WATER-PRICING POLICY ON CROP PRODUCTION
  • WELFARE IMPACTS OF WATER-PRICING POLICY
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 13 - Water Allocation Through Water Rights Institution
  • THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN (YRB)
  • INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR WATER ALLOCATION
  • WATER ALLOCATION AMONG PROVINCES ALONG THE YRB
  • WATER ALLOCATION WITHIN PROVINCES
  • Allocation Among and Within the Main and Branch Canals: Case of Ningxia
  • Allocation Among and Within the Tertiary Canals (Within the Village)
  • EFFECTS OF WATER REALLOCATION IN THE YRB
  • ONGOING WATER RIGHT TRANSFER PROJECT IN THE YRB
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATION
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 - Adoption of Water-Saving Technology
  • WATER-SAVING TECHNOLOGY
  • TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
  • HOUSEHOLD-BASED TECHNOLOGIES
  • COMMUNITY-BASED TECHNOLOGIES
  • FARMER PERCEPTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY TRAITS
  • PERCEIVED WATER SAVINGS
  • OTHER BENEFICIAL TRAITS
  • WATER-SAVING TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION
  • VILLAGE ADOPTION
  • SOWN AREA EXTENT OF ADOPTION MEASURES
  • WATER-SAVING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS: SUMMARY
  • THE DETERMINANTS OF WATER-SAVING TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION
  • ADOPTION AND WATER SCARCITY
  • ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT
  • Adoption and Investment
  • Adoption and Extension Efforts
  • ESTIMATION RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODEL
  • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Methodological Appendices
  • Methodological Appendix to Chapter 2
  • Methodological Appendix to Chapter 5
  • A.5.1 ECONOMETRIC MODEL ON THE DETERMINANTS OF TUBEWELL OWNERSHIP AND ITS EFFECTS ON GROUNDWATER TABLE, CROPPING PATTERN, AND INCOME
  • A.6.1 ECONOMETRIC MODEL ON THE DETERMINANTS OF GROUNDWATER MARKETS
  • A.7.1 ECONOMETRIC MODEL ON THE EFFECTS OF GROUNDWATER MARKETS ON CROP WATER USE, CROP YIELDS, AND FARMER INCOME
  • A.9.1 TECHNICAL DETAILS OF THE MODEL OF CONTRACTUAL CHOICES
  • A.9.1.1 MODEL
  • A.9.1.2 OPERATIONALIZING THE MODEL
  • A.9.1.3 PREDICTIONS
  • A.9.2 MULTINOMIAL LOGIT REGRESSION TO EXPLAIN CONTRACTUAL CHOICE
  • A.9.2.1 ESTIMATION ISSUES
  • REFERENCES
  • A.10.1 ECONOMETRIC MODEL ON THE EFFECTS OF WATER MANAGEMENT ON CROP WATER USE
  • A.10.2 ECONOMETRIC MODEL ON THE EFFECTS OF WATER MANAGEMENT ON PRODUCTION, INCOME, AND POVERTY
  • A.11.1 ECONOMETRIC MODEL ON THE EFFECTS OF WATER USER ASSOCIATIONS ON CROP WATER USE AND CROP YIELDS
  • A.12.1 HOUSEHOLD WATER DEMAND FRAMEWORK AND ESTIMATION APPROACH
  • A.12.1.1 HOUSEHOLD WATER DEMAND FRAMEWORK
  • A.12.1.2 PRODUCTION FRONTIER AND GENERALIZED MAXIMUM ENTROPY
  • A.12.1.3 THEORETICAL CONSTRAINTS
  • A.12.1.4 NUMERIC ESTIMATION CONSTRAINTS
  • A.12.1.5 TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY PARAMETERS
  • A.12.1.6 SUMMARY OF ESTIMATING DEMAND PARAMETERS WITH GENERALIZED MAXIMUM ENTROPY AND DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS
  • REFERENCES
  • A.13.1 ESTIMATING THE BENEFITS OF WATER REALLOCATION IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN
  • A.13.1.1 MODEL SPECIFICATION
  • A.13.1.2 ESTIMATING PARAMETERS OF CROP PRODUCTION AND IMPLICIT LAND COST FUNCTIONS
  • A.13.1.2.1 Assembling a Minimum Data Set
  • A.13.1.2.2 Crop Production Functions
  • A.13.1.2.3 Implicit Land Cost Functions
  • A.13.1.3 REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PROBLEM
  • A.13.1.4 ESTIMATION OF WATER DEMAND ELASTICITIES
  • A.13.1.5 REGIONAL WATER MARKET MODEL
  • A.13.1.5.1 Interregional Water Trade
  • A.13.1.5.2 Trade Flows
  • A.13.1.5.3 Price Arbitrage Conditions
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • L
  • M
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Y
  • Back Cover

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