Large-Scale Wind Power Grid Integration

Technological and Regulatory Issues
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. November 2015
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803629-7 (ISBN)
 

Large Scale Wind Power Grid Integration: Technological and Regulatory Issues presents engineers with detailed solutions on the challenges of integrating and transmitting electricity generated from high power wind installations, covering all of the standard engineering issues associated with high power wind generation. The book includes detailed case studies from eight wind power bases in China, providing important insights for engineers in countries that are seeking to develop large-scale wind power farms. Also discussed is the emergence of 10 GW-level wind power bases that are now operational in China and those that are planned for offshore construction in Europe, the U.S., and other places in the world.

China's leadership in Large-scale wind power bases with capacities over 1 GW (which already account for approximately 70%-80% of the total installed capacity in China) means that globally, engineers who are challenged with developing large-scale wind power installations can gain access to the experiences of Chinese engineers in this important technology.

  • Presents the first book to extensively introduce the technique of 10-GW wind power base
  • Discusses the technology of large-scale wind power delivery and consumption, including the analysis, simulation and calculation of wind power delivery capacity, system stabilization and control, wind power prediction and forecasting, peak load and frequency regulation of power generation
  • Introduces the background policy related to large-scale wind power delivery and the consumption plan, investigation of the present wind power policies around the world and the executive plan for the Jiuquan 10-GW wind power base


Ningbo Wang is one of the leading researchers in the State Grid in large-scale new energy cluster control, new energy grid-connected technology, dispatching and operating control and power system planning. He is also the academic leader of Large-scale New Energy Cluster Control S&T Research Team of the State Grid, and the Vice Chairman of Equipment Standardization Technical Committee of Gansu Province.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 9,69 MB
978-0-12-803629-7 (9780128036297)
012803629X (012803629X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Large-Scale Wind Power Grid Integration Technological and Regulatory Issues
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Part 1 - Large-Scale Wind Power Transmission and Accommodation Technology
  • 1 - INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1 OVERVIEW OF WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT
  • 1.1.1 BASIC INFORMATION ON WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT
  • 1.1.1.1 Wind power development in foreign countries
  • 1.1.1.2 Wind power development in China
  • 1.1.2 BACKGROUND OF WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT
  • 1.1.3 CHOICE OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT MODE
  • 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT
  • 1.2.1 WIND POWER RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT CONDITIONS
  • 1.2.2 LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER BASE PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION
  • 1.2.3 LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER GRID CONNECTION AND TRANSMISSION
  • 1.2.4 ACTUAL OPERATION OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER
  • 1.3 CHALLENGES OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT
  • 1.3.1 POWER TRANSMISSION CAPACITY
  • 1.3.2 PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION AND FREQUENCY CONTROL
  • 1.3.3 POWER ACCOMMODATION
  • 1.3.4 SYSTEM STABILITY
  • 1.3.5 LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER OPERATION CONTROL
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 2 - ANALYSIS OF WIND POWER CHARACTERISTICS
  • 2.1 BASIC ATTRIBUTES OF WIND POWER
  • 2.1.1 BASIC ATTRIBUTES OF WIND POWER RESOURCES
  • 2.1.1.1 Wind speed probability distribution in Jiuquan wind power base
  • 2.1.1.2 Jiuquan wind power base extreme wind speed distribution
  • 2.1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.1.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF DAILY DISTRIBUTION OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.2 FLUCTUATION AND RANDOMNESS OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.2.1 FLUCTUATION OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.2.2 WIND POWER GENERATION RAMP RATE
  • 2.2.3 RANDOMNESS OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.2.3.1 Uneven wind power generation year-round
  • 2.2.3.2 Wind power generation output on adjacent days varies greatly
  • 2.2.4 WIND POWER GENERATION PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
  • 2.3 CORRELATION AND COMPLEMENTARITY OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.3.1 CORRELATION OF LONG TIMESCALE WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.3.1.1 Correlation between wind farms in one wind farm cluster and between wind farm clusters
  • 2.3.1.2 Correlation between wind farm cluster and Jiuquan wind power base
  • 2.3.2 COMPLEMENTARITY OF WIND POWER GENERATION IN SHORT TIMESCALE
  • 2.3.2.1 Analysis of complementarity of wind farm wind power generation
  • 2.3.2.2 Analysis of complementarity of wind power generation of wind farm clusters and Jiuquan wind power base
  • 2.3.2.3 Simulating wind power generation complementarity based on wind measurement data
  • 2.4 UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM EFFECT OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.4.1 UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP OF WIND POWER RESOURCES
  • 2.4.2 UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP OF WIND POWER GENERATION
  • 2.4.2.1 Upstream and downstream relationship of wind power generation of different wind farms in the same wind farm cluster
  • 2.4.2.2 Upstream and downstream relationship of generation between wind farm clusters
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 3 - SIMULATION CALCULATIONS FOR WIND POWER TRANSMISSION CAPABILITY
  • 3.1 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS ON INTEGRATION OPERATION OF WIND TURBINE GENERATORS (WTGS)
  • 3.1.1 REQUIREMENTS ON VOLTAGE AND POWER FACTOR OF WTG INTEGRATION
  • 3.1.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR GRID VOLTAGE
  • 3.1.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY
  • 3.1.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR RELAY PROTECTION AND SECURITY AUTOMATION DEVICES
  • 3.1.5 LOW VOLTAGE RIDE-THROUGH (LVRT) CAPABILITY
  • 3.2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF WTGS AND WIND FARMS
  • 3.2.1 MODELING OF FSIGS
  • 3.2.1.1 Wind turbines
  • 3.2.1.2 Asynchronous generators
  • 3.2.1.3 Pitch control systems
  • 3.2.2 MODELING OF DFIG
  • 3.2.2.1 Wind turbines
  • 3.2.2.2 Generators and converters
  • 3.2.2.3 Excitation control systems
  • 3.2.2.4 Pitch control system models
  • 3.2.3 MODELING OF D-PMSG
  • 3.2.3.1 Permanent-magnet synchronous generators
  • 3.2.3.2 Frequency converters
  • 3.2.4 MODEL OF WIND FARMS
  • 3.2.4.1 Combined method of the single WTG and the pad-mounted transformer
  • 3.2.4.2 Wiring method of HV side of the pad-mounted transformer
  • 3.2.4.3 Wiring method of one group of WTGs with the step-up substation at PCC
  • 3.3 SECURITY AND STABILITY ANALYSIS ON WIND POWER INTEGRATION OF SIMPLE SYSTEMS
  • 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION TO SIMPLE SYSTEMS
  • 3.3.2 WIND POWER INTEGRATION CAPABILITY ANALYSIS BY MULTIPLE AND DETAILED MODELS
  • 3.4 SECURITY AND STABILITY ANALYSIS ON INTEGRATION OF JIUQUAN WIND POWER BASE, GANSU, 2010
  • 3.4.1 TRANSMISSION PLAN
  • 3.4.1.1 Serial compensating capacitor plan
  • 3.4.1.2 Controllable HV reactor plan
  • 3.4.2 INTEGRATION CAPABILITY OF JIUQUAN WIND POWER SYSTEM INSTALLED WITH SERIAL COMPENSATING CAPACITORS/CONTROLLABLE HV REACTORS
  • 3.4.2.1 Xinjiang integrated with Northwest Grid, WTGs in constant voltage control mode
  • 3.4.2.2 Xinjiang integrated with Northwest Grid, WTGs in constant power factor control mode
  • 3.4.3 INTEGRATION CAPACITY OF JIUQUAN WIND POWER SYSTEM NOT PROVIDED WITH SERIAL COMPENSATING CAPACITORS/CONTROLLABLE HV REACTORS
  • 3.4.3.1 Xinjiang integrated with Northwest Grid, WTGs in constant voltage control mode
  • 3.4.3.2 Xinjiang integrated with Northwest Grid, WTGs in constant power factor control mode
  • 3.4.4 EFFECT OF VARIOUS INTEGRATION PLANS BETWEEN XINJIANG AND THE NORTHWEST GRID ON THE WIND POWER INTEGRATION CAPACITY
  • 3.4.4.1 WTGs not provided with serial compensating capacitors/controllable HV reactors and operated in constant voltage control mode
  • 3.4.4.2 WTGs not provided with serial compensating capacitors/controllable HV reactors and operated in constant power factor contro ...
  • 3.4.5 EFFECT OF WTG LVRT CAPABILITY ON INTEGRATION CAPACITY OF JIUQUAN WIND POWER SYSTEM
  • 3.4.5.1 WTGs in constant power factor control mode
  • 3.4.6 WTGS IN CONSTANT VOLTAGE CONTROL MODE
  • 3.5 ANALYSIS ON REACTIVE VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS WITH CONSIDERATION TO INTERNAL ELECTRICAL WIRING OF WIND FARMS
  • 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION TO SIMPLE SYSTEMS
  • 3.5.2 IMPACT OF INTERNAL ELECTRICAL WIRING OF THE WIND FARM ON THE REACTIVE VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS
  • 3.5.3 REACTIVE VOLTAGE CONTROL CONSIDERING THE ELECTRICAL WIRING OF THE WIND FARM
  • 3.6 EVALUATION SOFTWARE FOR WIND POWER ACCOMMODATION CAPABILITY
  • 3.6.1 SOFTWARE DESIGN PROCESS
  • 3.6.1.1 Quantitative evaluation of single section
  • 3.6.1.2 Conclusions of quantitative evaluation
  • 3.6.1.3 Relations with the large power system simulation platform PSD-BPA
  • 3.6.2 CORE ALGORITHM OF SOFTWARE
  • 3.6.3 FUNCTIONS OF SOFTWARE
  • 3.6.4 PERFORMANCE OF SOFTWARE
  • 3.6.4.1 Calculation accuracy
  • 3.6.4.2 Calculation efficiency
  • 3.6.4.3 Flexibility of software
  • 3.6.5 USE OF SOFTWARE
  • 3.6.5.1 Integrated environment
  • 3.6.5.2 Brief introduction of menu and toolbars
  • 3.6.5.3 Work steps
  • 3.6.6 CASE ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF EVALUATION SOFTWARE
  • 3.6.6.1 Setting mode of transmission limit section
  • 3.6.6.2 Comparisons of auto/manual calculation results
  • 4 - SYSTEM STABILITY AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AFTER LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER INTEGRATION
  • 4.1 IMPACT OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER INTEGRATION ON GRID PROTECTION
  • 4.1.1 ANALYSIS OF SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS OF WTGS
  • 4.1.1.1 Short-circuit current characteristics of FSIGs
  • 4.1.1.2 Short-circuit current characteristics of double-fed induction generators
  • 4.1.1.2.1 Rotor overcurrent protection crowbar of DFIGs
  • 4.1.1.2.2 Crowbar enabled
  • 4.1.1.2.3 Crowbar not enabled
  • 4.1.1.3 Short-circuit current characteristics of DDPMSG
  • 4.1.2 CALCULATIONS OF SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AFTER THE WTGS ARE INTEGRATED TO THE GANSU GRID
  • 4.1.2.1 Impact of the wind farms in Jiuquan on the grid short-circuit current when the Northwest Grid is integrated to Xinjiang
  • 4.1.2.2 Impact of the wind farms in Jiuquan Region on the grid short-circuit current when the Northwest Grid is not integrated to X ...
  • 4.1.3 ANALYSIS OF PROTECTION DEVICES OF WTGS
  • 4.1.4 ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF WIND POWER INTEGRATION ON GRID PROTECTION
  • 4.1.4.1 Impact of short-circuit current of wind farms on the grid
  • 4.1.4.2 Impact of harmonic generated by the wind farm on the grid protection
  • 4.2 IMPACT OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER INTEGRATION ON STABILITY OF POWER SYSTEM
  • 4.2.1 IMPACT OF WIND POWER INTEGRATION ON GRID VOLTAGE STABILITY
  • 4.2.2 IMPACT OF WIND POWER INTEGRATION ON STABILITY OF SYNCHRONOUS GRID POWER ANGLE
  • 4.2.2.1 Mechanical torque characteristics of DFIGs
  • 4.2.2.2 Control of the rotor field current
  • 4.2.2.3 Flywheel effect
  • 4.2.3 IMPACT OF WIND POWER INTEGRATION ON GRID FREQUENCY STABILITY
  • 4.2.4 ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF WIND FARM INTEGRATION ON THE SYSTEM SMALL DISTURBANCE STABILITY IN JIUQUAN REGION
  • 4.2.5 SMALL DISTURBANCE STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DAMPING JUDGMENT CRITERIA
  • 4.2.5.1 Analysis of characteristic values
  • 4.2.5.2 Analysis of characteristic vectors
  • 4.2.5.3 Analysis of participation factors
  • 4.2.5.4 Damping judgment criteria
  • 4.2.6 ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM SMALL DISTURBANCE STABILITY AND DAMPING CHARACTERISTICS IN VARIOUS CASES
  • 4.2.6.1 Not provided with serial compensating capacitors/controllable HV reactors, and not integrated with Xinjiang
  • 4.2.6.2 Not provided with serial compensating capacitors/controllable HV reactors, and integrated with Xinjiang to transmit out 100 ...
  • 4.2.6.3 Provided with serial compensating capacitors/controllable HV reactors, and integrated with Xinjiang to transmit out 1000MW ...
  • 4.3 IMPACT OF LARGE-SCALE WTG DISINTEGRATIONS ON GRID STABILITY AND PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES
  • 4.3.1 IMPACT OF LARGE-SCALE WTG DISINTEGRATIONS ON GRID STABILITY
  • 4.3.1.1 Analysis on grid voltage characteristics after large-scale disintegrations of WTGs
  • 4.3.1.2 Analysis of grid frequency characteristics after large-scale disintegrations of WTGs
  • 4.3.2 MEASURES TO SUPPRESS THE IMPACT OF LARGE-SCALE WTG DISINTEGRATION ON THE GRID
  • 4.3.2.1 Prevention and control measures on system voltage stability after large-scale WTGs are disintegrated from the grid
  • The controllable HV reactor on the bus of Dunhuang Substation is enabled
  • 4.3.2.1.1 Disintegration of the 750kV line
  • 4.3.2.1.2 Regulation and control via the SVC in the wind farm
  • 4.3.2.2 Prevention and control measures for system frequency stability after large-scale WTG disintegrations
  • 4.4 FACTS-BASED AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE CONTROL OF HEXI TRANSMISSION CHANNEL
  • 4.4.1 APPLICATION OF AUTOMATIC REACTIVE VOLTAGE CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
  • 4.4.2 PRIMARY FRAMEWORK OF AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HEXI TRANSMISSION CHANNEL
  • 4.4.3 COORDINATION CONTROL OF FACTS EQUIPMENT IN HEXI TRANSMISSION CHANNEL IN STABLE STATUS
  • 4.4.3.1 Coordination and control factors of FACTS in stable status
  • 4.4.3.1.1 Coordination and control principles of FACTS equipment
  • 4.4.3.1.2 Function positioning of FACTS equipment in stable voltage regulation
  • 4.4.3.2 Long-time robustness control strategy of FACTS equipment
  • 4.4.3.3 Short-time fine-control strategy of FACTS equipment
  • 4.4.3.4 Comparisons and analysis on control effect of the two strategies
  • 4.4.3.4.1 Parameter setting for long-time robust control strategy
  • 4.4.3.4.2 Parameter setting for short-time fine-control strategy
  • 4.4.3.4.3 Simulation of control effect of the two strategies
  • 4.4.4 COORDINATION CONTROL OF FACTS EQUIPMENT OF THE HEXI TRANSMISSION CHANNEL IN THE TRANSIENT STATUS
  • 4.4.4.1 Impact of dynamic reactive power compensation parameter variation on system stability in transient status
  • 4.4.4.1.1 Dynamic reactive power compensator model
  • 4.4.4.1.2 Impact of SVC action delay variation on system stability
  • 4.4.4.1.3 Impact of SVC gain variation on system stability
  • 4.4.4.2 Impact of controllable HV reactor parameter variation on system stability in transient status
  • 4.4.4.2.1 Basic principle and model of controllable HV reactors
  • 4.4.4.2.2 WTGs in constant voltage control
  • 4.4.4.2.3 WTGs in constant power factor control
  • 4.4.5 SELECTION OF FACTS CONTROL STRATEGIES
  • 4.4.5.1 Voltage-reactive power optimization algorithm
  • 4.4.5.2 Realization of real-time reactive power optimization control strategy
  • 4.4.5.2.1 Neural network control system
  • 4.4.5.2.2 Control system at the plant/substation level
  • 4.5 POWER DISPATCH TECHNOLOGY AFTER LARGE-SCALE WTG INTEGRATION
  • 4.5.1 DISPATCH MECHANISM AND CONTROL STRATEGY OF WIND POWER
  • 4.5.1.1 Wind power dispatch plan modes
  • 4.5.1.2 Wind power maximum active power output mode
  • 4.5.1.3 Global dispatch mechanism and control strategy of wind power
  • 4.5.1.4 The integration management and operation management of WTGs to be strengthened
  • 4.5.2 COORDINATION BETWEEN THE WIND FARM AND THE GRID
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 5 - PREDICTION AND FORECAST OF WIND POWER
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION TO PREDICTION AND FORECAST OF WIND POWER
  • 5.1.1 OBJECTIVES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF WIND POWER PREDICTION
  • 5.1.2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF WIND POWER PREDICTION SYSTEM
  • 5.2 STUDY OF WIND POWER PREDICTION MODELS
  • 5.2.1 OVERVIEW OF WIND POWER PREDICTION METHODS
  • 5.2.2 SELECTION OF PREDICTION METHODS
  • 5.2.3 INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL WEATHER FORECAST
  • 5.3 BUILDING OF SHORT-TERM PREDICTION MODELS FOR WIND FARMS
  • 5.3.1 ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING OF WIND FARM POWER DATA
  • 5.3.2 DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING FOR NUMERICAL WEATHER FORECAST
  • 5.3.3 BUILDING OF PHYSICAL PREDICTION MODEL
  • 5.3.3.1 Roughness variation model
  • 5.3.3.2 Landform variation model
  • 5.3.4 BUILDING OF STATISTICAL PREDICTION MODEL
  • 5.3.4.1 Model identification
  • 5.3.4.2 Model order determination
  • 5.3.4.3 Parameter estimation
  • 5.3.4.4 Check and modification of models
  • 5.4 EXTRA-SHORT-TERM WIND POWER PREDICTION AND FORECAST
  • 5.4.1 OVERALL COMPOSITION OF EXTRA-SHORT-TERM WIND POWER PREDICTION SYSTEM
  • 5.4.2 THEORIES AND APPLICATION BASIS OF EXTRA-SHORT-TERM WIND POWER PREDICTION
  • 5.4.3 DEVELOPMENT OF WIND NETWORK
  • 5.4.4 INTRODUCTION TO ALGORITHM
  • 5.4.4.1 Time series algorithm
  • 5.4.4.2 Neural network algorithm
  • 5.4.5 PILOT APPLICATIONS OF PREDICTION AND FORECAST SYSTEM
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 6 - WIND POWER PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION AND FREQUENCY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
  • 6.1 PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION AND FREQUENCY CONTROL MEASURES ADOPTED BY LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER BASES
  • 6.1.1 REDUCING PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION AND FREQUENCY CONTROL DEMAND OF WIND POWER
  • 6.1.1.1 Improve the performance of wind turbines and strengthening wind farm monitoring and management
  • 6.1.1.2 Strengthen forecasting system construction and improve forecasting accuracy
  • 6.1.1.3 Encourage wind farm to prepare peak-valley regulation and frequency control power sources
  • 6.1.2 CONSTRUCT OR STRENGTHEN THE USE OF PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION AND FREQUENCY CONTROL POWER SOURCES
  • 6.1.2.1 Construct on-site supporting peak-valley regulation and frequency control power sources
  • 6.1.2.1.1 Pumped storage
  • 6.1.2.1.2 Coal-fired thermal power generator system
  • 6.1.2.1.3 Gas turbine
  • 6.1.2.2 Make full use of peak-valley regulation and frequency control power sources in Gansu Power Grid
  • Strengthen the management of thermal power generator systems
  • 6.1.2.2.1 Give full play to hydropower peak-valley regulation capability
  • 6.1.2.2.2 Strengthen the management of direct supply generator systems and captive power plants
  • 6.1.2.2.3 Improve wind power dispatching technical level
  • 6.1.2.3 Make full use of the peak-valley regulation and frequency control power sources in the Northwest China grid
  • 6.1.2.4 Consider making use of transregional peak-valley regulation power sources
  • 6.1.3 REDUCE PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION AND FREQUENCY CONTROL DEMAND OR USE LOAD TO REGULATE PEAK LOAD AND CONTROL FREQUENCY
  • 6.1.3.1 Locally construct load that can bear fluctuating power supply
  • 6.1.3.2 Demand-side management
  • 6.2 THERMAL POWER GENERATOR SYSTEM IN-DEPTH AND RAPID PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION TECHNOLOGY
  • 6.2.1 THERMAL POWER GENERATOR SYSTEM IN-DEPTH PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION
  • 6.2.2 RAPID PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION TECHNOLOGY OF THERMAL POWER GENERATOR SYSTEMS
  • 6.3 ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
  • 6.3.1 INTRODUCTION OF VARIOUS ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
  • 6.3.1.1 Pumped storage
  • 6.3.1.2 Compressed air energy storage
  • 6.3.1.3 Flywheel energy storage
  • 6.3.1.4 Sodium-sulfur cell
  • 6.3.1.5 Liquid flow battery
  • 6.3.1.6 Lithium-ion battery
  • 6.3.1.7 Lead-acid cell
  • 6.3.1.8 Nickel-cadmium cell
  • 6.3.1.9 Supercapacitor
  • 6.3.1.10 Superconducting energy storage
  • 6.3.2 THE ROLE OF ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES IN IMPROVING THE POWER GRID PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION AND POWER QUALITY
  • 6.3.2.1 The role of energy storage technologies in improving power grid peak-valley regulation
  • 6.3.2.2 The role of energy storage technologies in improving power grid power quality
  • 6.4 DEMAND RESPONSE
  • 6.4.1 CONCEPT AND MAIN CONTENT OF DEMAND RESPONSE
  • 6.4.1.1 Demand response operation
  • 6.4.1.2 Demand response operators
  • 6.4.1.3 Demand response implementation principles
  • 6.4.2 PRESENT DEVELOPMENT SITUATION OF DEMAND-SIDE RESPONSE AT HOME AND ABROAD
  • 6.4.3 PROBLEMS NEEDED TO BE SOLVED IN IMPLEMENTING DEMAND SIDE RESPONSE MECHANISM
  • 6.4.3.1 Consumer idea as an obstacle
  • 6.4.3.2 Handling of benefits obtained by consumers who do not participate in demand response
  • 6.4.3.3 Evaluation of the effect of demand response measures
  • 6.4.3.4 Demand response measurement and information support system
  • Part 2 - Large-Scale Wind Power Transmission and Accommodation Policy Research
  • 7 - ANALYSIS AND DEMONSTRATION OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER TRANSMISSION AND ACCOMMODATION PLAN
  • 7.1 APPROACHES FOR LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER ACCOMMODATION
  • 7.1.1 GANSU POWER GRID'S WIND POWER ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY
  • 7.1.1.1 Estimation based on Gansu Power Grid's internal balance
  • 7.1.1.2 Estimation based on transprovincial and transregional optimized configuration
  • 7.1.1.2.1 Boundary conditions
  • 7.1.1.2.2 Wind power accommodation capacity
  • 7.1.2 NORTHWEST CHINA GRID'S WIND POWER ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY
  • 7.1.2.1 Estimation based on Northwest China Grid's internal balance
  • 7.1.2.2 Estimation based on transprovincial and transregional optimized configuration
  • 7.2 LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER TRANSMISSION SCALE AND MODE
  • 7.2.1 GANSU POWER TRANSMISSION SCALE
  • 7.2.2 GANSU POWER TRANSMISSION MODE
  • 7.2.2.1 Technical barriers to wind power transmission with direct current (DC) transmission lines
  • 7.2.2.2 Bundled transmission of large-scale wind power, photovoltaic power, thermal power, and hydropower
  • 7.2.3 ANCILLARY SERVICE CAPACITY DEMAND ESTIMATION
  • 7.2.3.1 Automatic generation control service estimation
  • 7.2.3.2 Spinning reserve estimation
  • 7.2.3.3 Peak-valley regulation service estimation
  • 7.3 LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER TRANSMISSION MARKET AND COST
  • 7.3.1 TARGET MARKET DEMAND ANALYSIS
  • 7.3.1.1 Distribution of power generation resources in Central China Grid
  • 7.3.1.2 Future power demand in Central China Grid
  • 7.3.1.3 Efficiency of power transmission from Gansu to Central China Grid
  • 7.3.2 LOAD CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS
  • 7.3.2.1 Load characteristics of Gansu Power Grid
  • 7.3.2.1.1 Annual load characteristics
  • 7.3.2.1.2 Daily load characteristics
  • 7.3.2.2 Characteristics of transmission load
  • 7.3.2.3 Characteristics of load transmitted directly from energy base to receiving end area
  • 7.3.2.3.1 Load characteristics in the receiving end area
  • 7.3.2.3.2 Characteristics of output in wind power bases
  • 7.3.2.3.3 Characteristics of transmission load in wind power bases
  • 7.3.2.3.4 Decision-making about transmission load characteristics
  • 7.3.3 ENERGY BASE DIRECT TRANSMISSION COST ANALYSIS
  • 7.3.3.1 Wind power transmission cost
  • 7.3.3.2 Transmission cost sensitivity analysis
  • 7.3.4 ENERGY BASE NONDIRECT TRANSMISSION COST ANALYSIS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 8 - PRESENT SITUATION AND PROBLEMS OF LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER TRANSMISSION AND ACCOMMODATION POLICY
  • 8.1 INTERNATIONAL POLICY AND EXPERIENCE
  • 8.1.1 CURRENT SITUATION OF WIND POWER ACCOMMODATION IN SOME MAJOR COUNTRIES
  • 8.1.1.1 United States of America
  • 8.1.1.2 Germany
  • 8.1.1.3 Denmark
  • 8.1.1.4 Spain
  • 8.1.2 WIND POWER INTEGRATION, ACQUISITION, AND MARKET ACCOMMODATION POLICY
  • 8.1.2.1 Wind power integration policy
  • 8.1.2.2 Wind power acquisition policy
  • 8.1.2.3 Wind power market accommodation policy
  • 8.1.3 WIND POWER PRICE AND COST ALLOCATION POLICY
  • 8.1.3.1 Wind power feed-in tariff policy
  • 8.1.3.1.1 Fixed electricity price policy
  • 8.1.3.1.2 Premium policy
  • 8.1.3.1.3 Electricity price subsidy policy
  • 8.1.3.1.4 Quota price policy (Renewable Portfolio Standard)
  • 8.1.3.1.5 Negative electricity price policy
  • 8.1.3.2 Wind power integration cost payment policy
  • 8.1.3.2.1 European Union
  • 8.1.3.2.2 Germany
  • 8.1.3.2.3 Denmark
  • 8.1.3.2.4 Spain
  • 8.1.3.2.5 United States of America
  • 8.1.3.3 Wind power cost allocation policy
  • 8.1.4 WIND POWER FORECASTING AND ANCILLARY SERVICE COST ALLOCATION POLICY
  • 8.1.4.1 Wind power forecasting and ancillary service cost allocation policy in Canada
  • 8.1.4.2 Wind power output forecasting-related feed-in tariff policy
  • 8.1.5 INTERNATIONAL POLICIES AND THEIR REFERENCE VALUE TO CHINA
  • 8.1.5.1 Economic incentive policies ensure the rapid development of wind power
  • 8.1.5.2 Making and strictly implementing plans is an important condition for the healthy development of the wind power industry
  • 8.1.5.3 Strict wind power integration management, testing, and certification system ensure the secure and stable operation of the p ...
  • 8.1.5.4 The structure and characteristics of power sources is the key factor in improving the power system's capability to accommod ...
  • 8.1.5.5 Strengthening power grid construction provides the basis support for large-scale wind power integration and accommodation
  • 8.1.5.6 Market-based dispatching management is conducive to improving wind power accommodation capability
  • 8.2 SUPPORTING POLICIES AND IMPLEMENTATION IN CHINA
  • 8.2.1 WIND POWER INTEGRATION AND MARKET ACCOMMODATION POLICIES
  • 8.2.1.1 Wind power integration policy
  • 8.2.1.2 Wind power market accommodation policy
  • 8.2.2 WIND POWER PRICE AND COST ALLOCATION POLICY
  • 8.2.2.1 Wind power feed-in tariff policy
  • 8.2.2.2 Wind power integration subsidy policy
  • 8.2.2.3 Cost allocation policy
  • 8.2.3 POWER MARKET ANCILLARY SERVICE POLICY
  • 8.2.3.1 Present situation of power market ancillary service policy
  • 8.2.3.2 Implementation of the power market ancillary service policy
  • 8.2.3.2.1 Applicable scope of the Detailed Rules for Implementation
  • 8.2.3.2.2 Ancillary service capability standard
  • 8.2.3.2.3 Ancillary service compensation principle
  • 8.2.3.2.4 Source of compensation funds
  • 8.3 DOMESTIC SUPPORTING POLICY DEMAND
  • 8.3.1 WIND POWER INTEGRATION, ACQUISITION, AND ACCOMMODATION POLICY DEMAND
  • 8.3.2 WIND POWER PRICE AND COST ALLOCATION POLICY DEMAND
  • 8.3.3 POWER MARKET ANCILLARY SERVICE POLICY DEMAND
  • 9 - PROPOSAL ON LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER TRANSMISSION AND ACCOMMODATION SUPPORTING POLICY
  • 9.1 ESTABLISH RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD
  • 9.1.1 SYSTEM FOUNDATION FOR ESTABLISHING RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD
  • 9.1.2 SOME ROUGH IDEAS ABOUT RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD
  • 9.1.3 IMPACT OF RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD ON LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER TRANSMISSION
  • 9.2 IMPROVE WIND POWER CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM AND POLICY
  • 9.2.1 IMPROVE WIND POWER PROJECT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
  • 9.2.2 IMPROVE WIND POWER INTEGRATION TECHNICAL STANDARD SYSTEM
  • 9.3 IMPROVE POWER SYSTEM DISPATCHING ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY
  • 9.3.1 STICK TO THE POWER SYSTEM DISPATCHING POLICY OF PROMOTING WIND POWER ACCOMMODATION
  • 9.3.2 IMPROVE WIND POWER FORECASTING SYSTEM
  • 9.3.3 IMPROVE PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION-ORIENTED ANCILLARY SERVICES OF THE POWER SYSTEM
  • 9.3.3.1 Integrate wind power into the power grid ancillary service assessment and compensation system
  • 9.3.3.2 Promote transprovincial and transregional ancillary services
  • 9.3.3.3 Improve ancillary service trading mechanism
  • 9.3.4 STRENGTHEN ADJUSTABLE POWER SOURCES AND TRANSREGIONAL POWER GRID CONSTRUCTION
  • 9.3.5 REASONABLY CURTAIL MARGINAL WIND POWER IN EXTREME CONDITIONS
  • 9.3.6 MAKE REWARDING AND PUNISHMENT POLICY BASED ON WIND POWER INTEGRATION TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE
  • 9.4 REASONABLY GUIDE LOCAL HIGH ENERGY POWER LOAD
  • 9.4.1 APPLICATION OF WIND POWER IN THE HIGH ENERGY LOAD FIELD AND ITS OPERATION MODE
  • 9.4.2 APPLICATION OF WIND POWER TO HIGH ENERGY LOAD IN THE NONINTEGRATION MODE
  • 9.4.3 APPLICATION OF WIND POWER TO HIGH ENERGY LOAD IN THE INTEGRATION MODE
  • 9.4.4 APPLICATION OF WIND POWER IN THE HIGH ENERGY LOAD IN THE DIRECT POWER PURCHASE MODE
  • 9.5 ENCOURAGE GREEN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
  • 9.5.1 ESTABLISH GREEN ELECTRICITY MARKET BASED ON VOLUNTARY PURCHASE
  • 9.5.2 MAIN CONTENT OF GREEN ELECTRICITY MARKET
  • 9.5.2.1 Green electricity market positioning
  • 9.5.2.2 Green electricity product design
  • 9.5.2.3 Green electricity price
  • 9.5.2.4 Green electricity product marketing
  • 9.5.3 SUPPORTING POLICIES OF PROMOTING GREEN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
  • 10 - PLAN FOR APPLYING SUPPORTING POLICY IN GANSU JIUQUAN WIND POWER BASE
  • 10.1 IMPROVE ANCILLARY SERVICE SYSTEM FOCUSING ON PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION
  • 10.1.1 INTEGRATE WIND POWER INTO THE POWER GRID ANCILLARY SERVICE ASSESSMENT AND COMPENSATION SYSTEM
  • 10.1.2 OPTIMIZE PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION OF HYDROPOWER AND THERMAL POWER IN NORTHWEST CHINA
  • 10.1.3 STRENGTHEN DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT
  • 10.1.4 IMPLEMENTING TRANSREGIONAL PEAK-VALLEY REGULATION BOTH AT THE TRANSMITTING END AND THE RECEIVING END
  • 10.1.5 ESTABLISH BILATERAL (MULTILATERAL) COGENERATION AND CENTRALIZED COMPETITIVE ANCILLARY SERVICE MARKET
  • 10.2 TAP INTERNAL CONSUMPTION POTENTIALS
  • 10.2.1 LOAD IN STOCK
  • 10.2.2 SUPPORTING NEW LOADS
  • 10.3 OPTIMIZE POWER SOURCE STRUCTURE AND LAYOUT
  • 10.3.1 REASONABLY ARRANGE WIND POWER CONSTRUCTION SPEED AND LAYOUT
  • 10.3.2 ACCELERATE HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHWEST CHINA
  • 10.3.3 PROPERLY CONSTRUCT PUMPED-STORAGE POWER STATIONS AND GAS POWER PLANTS
  • 10.3.4 STABLY PROMOTE THERMAL POWER BASE CONSTRUCTION IN WEST CHINA
  • 10.4 SYNCHRONOUSLY PROMOTE POWER GRID TRANSMISSION CHANNEL CONSTRUCTION IN GANSU AND NORTHWEST CHINA
  • 10.4.1 OPTIMIZE AND CONSTRUCT SYNCHRONOUS WIND FARM INTEGRATION AND COLLECTION PROJECTS
  • 10.4.2 PLAN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAIN GRID FRAME IN GANSU AND NORTHWEST CHINA IN ADVANCE TO IMPROVE WIND POWER RECEIVING CAPACITY
  • 10.4.3 MAKE OVERALL PLANS AND START CONSTRUCTING UHV DC TRANSREGIONAL POWER TRANSMISSION CHANNELS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
  • 10.5 IMPLEMENT WIND POWER TRANSPROVINCIAL AND TRANSREGIONAL TRANSMISSION AND MARKET ACCOMMODATION APPROACHES AND SECURITY MECHANISMS
  • 10.5.1 IMPLEMENT MARKET ACCOMMODATION AND POWER TRANSMISSION IN THE WAY OF "TRANSMITTING POWER MAINLY TO QINGHAI AND CENTRAL CHINA ...
  • 10.5.2 TEMPORARILY ADOPT THE SHORT-TERM POWER TRANSMISSION MODE OF COMPLYING WITH NATIONAL GUIDELINES COMBINED WITH INTERPROVINCIA ...
  • 10.5.3 IMPLEMENT RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD
  • 10.5.4 STRIVE TO BE INTEGRATED INTO THE REGIONAL POWER MARKET AUTONOMOUS TRADING SYSTEM
  • 10.6 IMPROVE WIND POWER LONG-DISTANCE TRANSMISSION AND ACCOMMODATION PRICE POLICY
  • 10.6.1 INVESTMENT DEMAND OF INTEGRATING GANSU WIND POWER INTO THE POWER GRID
  • 10.6.1.1 New transmission lines covering the distance from wind farms to power grids
  • 10.6.1.2 Investment in constructing special supporting power transmission channels for integrating large-scale wind power bases into ...
  • 10.6.1.3 Investment in constructing grids for transmitting wind power between regional power grids
  • 10.6.2 SUGGESTIONS ON PRICE POLICY FOR GANSU WIND POWER INTEGRATION
  • 10.6.3 SUGGESTIONS ON PRICE POLICY FOR INTEGRATING GANSU WIND POWER INTO GRIDS IN NORTHWEST CHINA
  • 10.6.4 PRICE POLICY SUGGESTIONS ON TRANSMITTING WIND POWER GENERATED IN GANSU TO POWER GRIDS IN "EAST CHINA, CENTRAL CHINA AND NOR ...
  • 11 - DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECT
  • 11.1 LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER BASES LEAD THE FUTURE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT
  • 11.1.1 SELECTION AND EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT MODES
  • 11.1.2 WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT TREND IN THE FUTURE
  • 11.2 STUDY AND IMPROVE RELEVANT SUPPORTING POLICIES
  • 11.2.1 IMPROVE NATIONAL NEW ENERGY DEVELOPMENT POLICY SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION
  • 11.2.2 STRENGTHEN AND UNIFY THE PLANNING FUNCTION AND PROMOTE THE OPTIMIZATION OF WIND POWER RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION
  • 11.2.3 IMPROVE WIND POWER TRANSMISSION MECHANISM TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WIND POWER
  • 11.2.4 ESTABLISH TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS TO PROMOTE STANDARDIZED DEVELOPMENT OF WIND POWER
  • 11.2.5 STRENGTHEN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TO PROMOTE THE SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT OF WIND POWER
  • 11.3 IMPORTANT RESEARCH SUBJECTS ON FUTURE NEW ENERGY
  • 11.3.1 WIND FARM AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT CLUSTER CONTROL SYSTEM
  • 11.3.2 KEY TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH ON GRID-FRIENDLY NEW ENERGY POWER GENERATION AND APPLICATION
  • 11.3.3 COORDINATED CONTROL AND SECURITY DEFENSE SYSTEM OF WIND-THERMAL-BUNDLED POWER TRANSMITTED BY AC/DC SYSTEM IN THE ENERGY BASE
  • A - CHINA'S 10 GW WIND POWER BASE PLANNING
  • B - STATISTICS OF CHINA'S AND WORLD WIND POWER DATA
  • B.1 WORLD INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY GROWTH STATISTICS (2001-2011) (SEE FIGURE B.1)
  • B.2 WORLD INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY STATISTICS (2006-2011) (SEE TABLE B.1)
  • B.3 INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY OF THE CONTINENTS (2006-2011) (SEE FIGURE B.2)
  • B.4 THE WORLD'S TOP 10 COUNTRIES IN NEW INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY (BY THE END OF 2011) (SEE FIGURE B.3)
  • B.5 THE WORLD'S TOP 10 COUNTRIES IN INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY (BY THE END OF 2011) (SEE FIGURE B.4)
  • B.6 CHINA'S INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY GROWTH STATISTICS (2000-2011) (SEE FIGURE B.5)
  • B.7 2011 CHINA'S NEW AND CUMULATIVE INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY STATISTICS BY PROVINCE (SEE TABLE B.2)
  • B.8 GANSU'S INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY GROWTH STATISTICS (2001-2011) (SEE FIGURE B.6)
  • C - DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN WIND POWER TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
  • C.1 CHINESE AND INTERNATIONAL WIND POWER INTEGRATION TECHNICAL STANDARDS (SEE TABLE C.1)
  • C.2 WIND POWER INTEGRATION TECHNICAL STANDARDS ISSUED BY CHINA (SEE TABLE C.2)
  • C.3 INTERNATIONAL WIND POWER TECHNICAL STANDARDS (SEE TABLE C.3)
  • C.4 CHINA'S WIND POWER TECHNICAL STANDARDS (SEE TABLE C.4)
  • C.5 IMPORTANT WIND POWER STANDARDS NEWLY APPROVED AND ISSUED BY NATIONAL ENERGY ADMINISTRATION (SEE TABLE C.5)
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Index
  • A
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • L
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • W
  • Back Cover

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