Bonded Joints and Repairs to Composite Airframe Structures

Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 10. Oktober 2015
  • |
  • 306 Seiten
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978-0-12-417172-5 (ISBN)

Bonded Joints and Repairs to Composite Airframe Structures is a single-source reference on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly growing area. It provides a thorough analysis of both internal and external joints and repairs, as well as discussions on damage tolerance, non-destructive inspection, self-healing repairs, and other essential information not only on the joints and repairs themselves, but critically, on how they differ from bonds and repairs to metallic aircraft.

Authors Wang and Duong bring a valuable combination of academic research and industry expertise to the book, drawing on their cutting-edge composite technology experience, including analytic and computational leadership of damage and repair planning for the Boeing 787.

Intended for graduate students, engineers, and scientists working on the subject in aerospace industry, government agencies, research labs, and academia, the book is an important addition to the limited literature in the field.

  • Offers rare coverage of composite joints and repairs to composite structures, focusing on the state of the art in analysis
  • Combines the academic, government, and industry expertise of the authors, providing research findings in the context of current and future applications
  • Covers internal and external joints and repairs, as well as damage tolerance, non-destructive inspection, and self-healing repairs
  • Ideal for graduate students, engineers, and scientists working in the aerospace industry, government agencies, research labs, and academia

Dr. Chun Wang is a Principal Research Scientist and the Head of Composite and Low-Observable Structures in the Air Vehicles Division, DSTO, Australia. He has a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Sheffield, UK. Prior to joining DSTO in 1995, he held academic positions at the University of Sheffield (UK), the University of Sydney (Australia) and Deakin University (Australia). His main research expertises are in the areas of fatigue and fracture mechanics, composite structures, bonded structural repairs, and scattering of acoustic and electromagnetic waves. He has published over eighty journal articles and book chapters, and over eighty conference papers.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 20,13 MB
978-0-12-417172-5 (9780124171725)
0-12-417172-9 (0124171729)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Bonded Joints and Repairs to Composite Airframe Structures
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • References
  • Part 1: Analysis and design
  • Chapter 1: Introduction and overview
  • 1.1. Aim of Book
  • 1.2. Criticality of Structure and Damage
  • 1.3. Types of Composite Repairs and Certification Criteria
  • 1.4. Overview of Repair Design and Analysis Process
  • 1.5. Effect of Load Attraction in Patch Design
  • 1.6. Effect of Taper and Scarf Ratios on Joint Design
  • 1.6.1. Safe-Life Approach
  • 1.6.2. Damage Tolerance Approach
  • 1.6.3. Stepped Repairs
  • 1.7. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Failure criteria
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Adhesive Failure Criteria
  • 2.2.1. Failure Criteria for Brittle Adhesives
  • 2.2.2. Failure Criteria for Ductile Adhesives
  • 2.3. Composite Failure Criteria
  • 2.3.1. Intralamina Failure Criteria
  • Maximum stress or strain failure criteria
  • Tsai-Hill and Tsai-Wu failure criteria
  • Hashin failure criteria
  • Larc03 criteria
  • 2.3.2. Interlaminar Failure Criteria
  • 2.4. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Doubler joint analysis
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Untapered doublers and joints
  • 3.2.1. Two-Sided Doublers and Double Strap Joints
  • Elastic Analysis for Adhesive Shear
  • Elastic-Plastic Analysis for Adhesive Shear
  • Uncoupled Analysis of Adhesive Peel
  • 3.2.2. One-Sided Doublers and Single Strap Joints
  • 3.3. Tapered doublers and joints
  • 3.3.1. Solution for Nonlinear Moment Distribution Along the Joint
  • 3.3.2. Elastic Solution for Adhesive Peel and Shear
  • Multisegment Method of Integration
  • 3.3.3. Elastic-Plastic Solution for Adhesive Peel and Shear
  • 3.3.4. Effect of Adherent Shear Deformation
  • 3.3.5. Numerical Examples
  • 3.4. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Design of scarf and doubler-scarf joints
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Scarf joint of homogeneous adherends
  • 4.2.1. Constant-Angle Scarf
  • 4.2.2. Optimum Angle of Scarf Between Dissimilar Materials
  • 4.3. Composite scarf joint
  • 4.3.1. Identical Adherends with Constant-Angle Scarf
  • 4.3.2. Elasto-Plastic Stress Analysis of Scarf Joints
  • 4.4. Experiments and validation
  • 4.4.1. Room Temperature Dry Condition
  • 4.4.2. Hot Wet Condition
  • 4.5. Doubler-scarf joints
  • 4.6. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Disbond and damage tolerance analysis of doubler repairs
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Analytical methods for delamination analysis
  • 5.2.1. VCCT by FE Method
  • 5.2.2. Crack Tip Element Approach
  • Davidson's crack tip element approach
  • Wang and Qiao crack tip element approach
  • 5.2.3. Cohesive Zone Model
  • 1D cohesive zone model
  • 2D cohesive zone model
  • 5.3. Analytical methods for disbond analysis
  • 5.4. Fatigue damage accumulation model for predicting interlaminar failure and disbond
  • 5.5. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Damage tolerance and fatigue durability of scarf joints
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Impact Damage of Scarf Joints and Repairs
  • 6.3. Effects of Disbond on Joint Strength
  • 6.4. Design Methods
  • 6.4.1. Average Stress
  • 6.4.2. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
  • 6.4.3. Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT)
  • 6.4.4. Cohesive Zone Model (CZM)
  • 6.5. Verifications
  • 6.5.1. Finite Element Model (FEM)
  • 6.5.2. Strength Prediction of Scarf Joints
  • Average stress criterion
  • Linear elastic fracture mechanics
  • VCCT method
  • Cohesive zone model
  • 6.6. Fatigue Disbond Growth Life
  • 6.6.1. Method
  • 6.6.2. Experimental Validation
  • 6.6.3. Comparison between Analysis and Experiments
  • 6.7. Discussion
  • 6.8. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Design and analysis of doubler repairs
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Repair analysis for elliptical damages
  • 7.2.1. Elastic Solution for an Elliptical Hole in an Anisotropic Plate
  • 7.2.2. Elastic Solution for an Elliptical Inhomogeneity in a 2D Anisotropic Plate
  • 7.2.3. Two-Stage Analysis Procedure for Determining Load Attraction and Stress Concentration
  • Stage I analysis
  • Stage II analysis
  • Results for a special case of isotropic patch and isotropic skin with the same Poisson's ratio
  • Numerical examples
  • 7.2.4. Strength Assessment for an After Repair Damaged Skin Laminate
  • 7.2.5. Bond Line Analysis by Bonded Joint or Bonded Doubler Methods
  • 7.3. Repair analysis for crack-like damages
  • 7.3.1. Wang and Rose's Crack Bridging Model
  • 7.3.2. Two-Stage Analysis Procedure for Crack Patching
  • 7.4. Patch design for an elliptical damage
  • 7.4.1. Design Criteria and Guidelines
  • Design criteria for damaged skin plate
  • Design criteria for patch
  • Design criteria for adhesive
  • 7.4.2. Patch Design Algorithm
  • 7.5. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Design and optimization of scarf repairs
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Residual strength of scarfed laminates
  • 8.2.1. Tension and Compression Loading
  • 8.2.2. Predictive Modeling
  • 8.3. Shape optimization of scarf repairs
  • 8.3.1. Assessment of Existing Shaping Methods
  • 8.3.2. Optimum Solution
  • 8.3.3. Case Studies
  • 8.4. Structural doublers
  • References
  • Part 2: Manufacturing and inspection
  • Chapter 9: Repair manufacturing processes
  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Scarfing Operation
  • 9.3. Repair Patch Manufacturing
  • 9.3.1. Soft Patch
  • 9.3.2. Molded Patch
  • 9.4. Surface Treatment
  • 9.5. Adhesive Bonding
  • 9.6. Repair of Thick Laminates
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Non-destructive evaluation of bond quality
  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Detection of Disbonds
  • 10.3. Detection of Weak Adhesion Bonds
  • 10.4. Local Bond Proof Testing
  • 10.5. Satellite Coupon Proof Test
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover
Chapter 1



This chapter provides a summary of minerals and rocks that are associated with subsurface gas, water, and oil. The surface properties of the fluids and rocks establish preferential wetting characteristics that govern the pattern of production of hydrocarbons and hence are of immense economic value. The origins of porous sedimentary rocks and particles (sand, carbonate shell, clay, etc.) are explained along with the general chemical compositions and principal testing methods. A glossary and list of the minerals with their chemical composition and brief descriptions of their characteristics is provided for reference and definitions of the minerals.

Key words


Emission spectroscopy/X-ray analysis

Properties of geologic materials

Rock/fluid interactions

Rock: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary

Clay, shale and siltstone

Carbonate and evaporate basins

Phi-size classification

Ocean margins

Applications of petrophysics

Introduction to Mineralogy

Petrophysics is the study of rock properties and their interactions with fluids (gases, liquid hydrocarbons, and aqueous solutions). The geologic material forming a reservoir for the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface must contain a three-dimensional network of interconnected pores in order to store the fluids and allow for their movement within the reservoir. Thus, the porosity of the reservoir rocks and their permeability are the most fundamental physical properties with respect to the storage and transmission of fluids. Accurate knowledge of these two properties for any hydrocarbon reservoir, together with the fluid properties, is required for efficient development, management and prediction of future performance of the oilfield.

The purpose of this text is to provide a basic understanding of the physical properties of porous geologic materials, and the interactions of various fluids with the interstitial surfaces and the distribution of pores of various sizes within the porous medium. Procedures for the measurement of petrophysical properties are included as a necessary part of this text. Applications of the fundamental properties to subsurface geologic strata must be made by analyses of the variations of petrophysical properties in the subsurface reservoir.

Emphasis is placed on the testing of small samples of rocks to uncover their physical properties and their interactions with various fluids. A considerable body of knowledge of rocks and their fluid flow properties has been obtained from studies of artificial systems such as networks of pores etched on glass plates, packed columns of glass beads, and from outcrop samples of unconsolidated sands, sandstones, and limestones. These studies have been used to develop an understanding of the petrophysical and fluid transport properties of the more complex subsurface samples of rocks associated with petroleum reservoirs. This body of experimental data and production analyses of artificial systems, surface and subsurface rocks make up the accumulated knowledge of petrophysics. Although the emphasis of this text is placed on the analyses of small samples, the data are correlated to the macroscopic performance of the petroleum reservoirs whenever applicable. In considering a reservoir as a whole, one is confronted with the problem of the distribution of these properties within the reservoir and its stratigraphy. The directional distribution of thickness, porosity, permeability, and geologic features that contribute to heterogeneity governs the natural patter of fluid flow. Knowledge of this natural pattern is sought to design the most efficient injection-production system for economy of energy and maximization of hydrocarbon production [1].

Petrophysics is intrinsically bound to mineralogy and geology because the majority of the world's petroleum occurs in porous sedimentary rocks. The sedimentary rocks are composed of fragments of other rocks derived from mechanical and chemical deterioration of igneous, metamorphic and other sedimentary rocks, which is constantly occurring. The particles of erosion are frequently transported to other locations by winds and surface streams and deposited to form new sedimentary rock structures. The petrophysical properties of the rocks depend largely on the depositional environmental conditions that controlled the mineral composition, grain size, orientation or packing, and amount of cementation and compaction.

Mineral Constituents of Rocks: A Review

The physical properties of rocks are the consequence of their mineral composition. Minerals are defined here as naturally occurring chemical elements or compounds formed as a result of inorganic processes. The chemical analysis of six sandstones by emission spectrograph and X-ray dispersive scanning electron microscopy [2] showed that the rocks are composed of just a few chemical elements. Analysis of the rocks by emission spectroscopy yielded the matrix chemical composition since the rocks were fused with lithium to make all of the elements soluble in water and then the total emission spectrograph was analyzed. The scanning electron microscope X-ray, however, could only analyze microscopic spots on the broken surface of the rocks. The difference between the chemical analysis of the total sample and the spot surface analysis is significant for consideration of the rock-fluid interactions. The presence of the transition metals on the surface of the rocks induces preferential wetting of the surface by oil through Lewis acid-base-type reactions between the polar organic compounds in crude oils and the transition metals exposed in the pores [3]. The high surface concentration of aluminum reported in Table 1.1 is probably due to the ubiquitous presence of clay minerals in sandstones.

Table 1.1

Average of the Compositions of Six Sandstone Rocks (Reported as Oxides of Cations) Obtained by Emission Spectroscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscope

Total Analysis (Emission Spectrograph) Surface Analysis (Scanning Electron Microscope) Silicon oxide (SiO2) 84.1 69.6 Aluminum oxide (A12)3  5.8 13.6 Sodium oxide (NaO)  2.0  0.00 Iron oxide (Fe2O3)  1.9 10.9 Potassium oxide (K2O)  1.1  3.0 Calcium oxide (CaO)  0.70  2.1 Magnesium oxide (MgO)  0.50  0.00 Titanium oxide (TiO)  0.43  1.9 Stroutium oxide (SrO)  0.15  0.00 Manganese oxide (MnO)  0.08  2.0

The list of elements that are the major constituents of sedimentary rocks (Table 1.1) is confirmed by the averages of thousands of samples of the crust reported by Foster [4] (Table 1.2). Just eight elements make up 99% (by weight) of the minerals that form the solid crust of the Earth; these are the elements including oxygen, listed in the first seven rows of Table 1.1 from analysis of six sandstones. Although the crust appears to be very heterogeneous with respect to minerals and types of rocks, most of the rock-forming minerals are composed of silicon and oxygen together with aluminum and one or more of the other elements listed in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2

Weight and Volume of the Principal Elements in the Earth's Crust

Element Weight Percent Volume Percent Oxygen 46.40 94.05 Silicon 28.15  0.88 Aluminum  8.23  0.48 Iron  5.63  0.48 Calcium  4.15  1.19 Sodium  2.36  1.11 Magnesium  2.33  0.32 Potassium  2.09  1.49

Permission to use this table requested from C.E. Merrill Publishing Co., Columbus, OH.

The chemical compositions and quantitative descriptions of some minerals are listed in Tables 1.3 and 1.4. Some of the minerals are very complex and their chemical formulas differ in various publications; in such cases the most common formula reported in the list of references was selected.

Table 1.3

List of the Principal Sedimentary Rocks

Mechanical weathering Sandstone Quartzose-Quartz grains-deltaic origin
Arlkosic-20% + feldspar grains
Graywacke-Poorly sorted grains of other rocks with feldspar and clay
Calcareous-Fragments of limestone Friable sand Clastics-Loosely cemented grains of other rocks Unconsolidated sand Clastics-Loose sand-grains from other...

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