Food Safety for the 21st Century

Managing HACCP and Food Safety Throughout the Global Supply Chain
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. August 2018
  • |
  • 496 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-05358-3 (ISBN)
 
Revised to reflect the most recent developments in food safety, the second edition of Food Safety for the 21st Century offers practitioners an authoritative text that contains the essentials of food safety management in the global supply chain. The authors -- noted experts in the field -- reveal how to design, implement and maintain a stellar food safety programme. The book contains industry best-practices that can help businesses to improve their systems and accelerate the application of world-class food safety systems. The authors outline the key food safety considerations for individuals, businesses and organisations involved in today's complex global food supply chains. The text contains the information needed to recognise food safety hazards, design safe products and processes and identify and manage effectively the necessary control mechanisms within the food business. The authors also include a detailed discussion of current issues and key challenges in the global food supply chain. This important guide: * Offers a thorough review of the various aspects of food safety and considers how to put in place an excellent food safety system * Contains the information on HACCP appropriate for all practitioners in the world-wide food supply chain * Assists new and existing business to meet their food safety goals and responsibilities * Includes illustrative examples of current thinking and challenges to food safety management and recommendations for making improvements to systems and practices Written for food safety managers, researchers and regulators worldwide, this revised guide offers a comprehensive text and an excellent reference for developing, implementing and maintaining world-class food safety programmes and shows how to protect and defend the food supply chain from threats.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
CAROL A. WALLACE, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.

WILLIAM H. SPERBER, The Friendly Microbiologist LLC., Minnetonka, USA.

SARA E. MORTIMORE, Land O'Lakes Inc., St Paul, Minnesota, USA.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • About the Authors
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • Glossary of Terms and Acronyms
  • How to Use This Book
  • Part I Food Safety Challenges in the 21st Century
  • Chapter 1 Origin and Evolution of the Modern System of Food Safety Management: HACCP and Prerequisite Programmes
  • 1.1 Historical Perspectives
  • 1.2 Origin and Evolution of HACCP
  • 1.3 The Necessity of Prerequisite Programmes
  • 1.4 Recent Regulatory Developments in the United States
  • 1.5 The Future of HACCP
  • 1.6 Conclusions
  • Chapter 2 Lessons Learned from Food Safety Successes and Failures
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Benefits of Using HACCP: Lessons Learned from a Successful Implementation
  • 2.3 Misconceptions or 'Failure to Understand HACCP'
  • 2.4 Barriers to Effective HACCP Use
  • 2.5 Reasons for Failure
  • 2.5.1 Lessons Learned from Major Food Safety Events
  • 2.5.2 Commonly Observed Mistakes in the Implementation of HACCP and Management of Food Safety Programmes
  • 2.6 Difficulties with Applying HACCP through the Entire Food Supply Chain
  • 2.7 Roles and Responsibilities: Lessons Learned
  • 2.7.1 Industry
  • 2.7.2 Government
  • 2.7.3 Retailers/Foodservice Establishments
  • 2.7.4 Trade and Professional Associations
  • 2.7.5 Academia
  • 2.7.6 Consumers
  • 2.7.7 The Media
  • 2.7.8 Advocacy and Pressure Groups
  • 2.7.9 Influencers and Experts
  • 2.8 Conclusions
  • Chapter 3 Food Safety Challenges in the Global Supply Chain
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Increased Complexity of the Global Supply Chain
  • 3.2.1 Economic Factors
  • 3.2.2 Environmental Factors
  • 3.2.3 Social Factors
  • 3.3 Food Safety Issues in Global Trade
  • 3.3.1 Lack of Uniformity in Regulations and Requirements
  • 3.3.2 Lack of Uniformity in Standards and Audit Requirements
  • 3.4 Strategic Level Responses
  • 3.4.1 Government Communications Systems
  • 3.4.2 Global Food Safety Private Audit Standards and Schemes
  • 3.4.3 Verification and Auditor Competency
  • 3.4.4 Global Food Traceability Systems
  • 3.4.5 Public-Private Partnerships
  • 3.4.6 Food Waste Reduction through Labelling Improvements
  • 3.5 Tactical Level Responses
  • 3.5.1 Supplier Audits and Approvals
  • 3.5.2 Business Continuity Planning
  • 3.5.3 Sharing Technology
  • 3.5.4 Shared Training and Education Resources
  • 3.5.5 Increased Awareness of Emerging Issues
  • 3.6 Conclusions
  • Chapter 4 The Future of Food Safety and HACCP in a Changing World
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Food Safety Issues
  • 4.2.1 Emerging Pathogens
  • 4.2.2 Changes in Distribution of Pathogens
  • 4.2.3 Additional Control Measures
  • 4.2.4 Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens
  • 4.2.5 Allergens
  • 4.2.6 Other Chemical Hazards
  • 4.2.7 Physical Hazards
  • 4.2.8 Economically Motivated Contamination
  • 4.3 Technology Advancements: Processing and Laboratories
  • 4.4 Food Safety Management
  • 4.4.1 HACCP Preliminary Steps and Principles
  • 4.4.2 Additions to Current Prerequisite Programmes (Codex Principles of Food Hygiene)
  • 4.4.3 The Human Factor
  • 4.4.4 Global Food Safety Assurance
  • 4.5 Changes in Thinking/Policy Making
  • 4.5.1 Food Safety Objectives
  • 4.5.2 End Product Testing
  • 4.5.3 Hazard Analysis versus Risk Assessment
  • 4.6 Conclusions
  • Part II Foodborne Hazards and Their Control
  • Chapter 5 Recognising Food Safety Hazards
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.1.1 What is a Food Safety Hazard?
  • 5.1.2 What is not a Food Safety Hazard?
  • 5.2 Biological Hazards
  • 5.2.1 Epidemiology and Morbidity Statistics
  • 5.2.2 Characteristics of Foodborne Illnesses
  • 5.2.3 Bacterial Pathogens: Special Considerations and Features
  • 5.2.4 Viral Pathogens
  • 5.2.5 Prions
  • 5.2.6 Protozoan Parasites
  • 5.2.7 Parasitic Worms
  • 5.2.8 Biological Hazards, Zoonoses, and Food Chain Biosecurity Issues
  • 5.3 Chemical Hazards
  • 5.3.1 Allergens
  • 5.3.2 Mycotoxins
  • 5.3.3 Marine Foodborne Toxins
  • 5.3.4 Genetically Modified (GM) Foods
  • 5.3.5 Antibiotics
  • 5.3.6 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP)
  • 5.3.7 Heavy Metals
  • 5.3.8 Chemicals Used in Food Processing Environments
  • 5.3.9 Chemicals Used in Food Packaging Materials
  • 5.3.10 Unanticipated Potential Chemical Hazards
  • 5.4 Physical Hazards
  • 5.4.1 Sources of Foreign Material
  • 5.4.2 Injuries Associated with Physical Hazards
  • 5.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter 6 Designing Safety into a Food Product
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Formulation Intrinsic Control Factors
  • 6.2.1 Water Activity
  • 6.2.2 pH
  • 6.2.3 Chemical Food Preservatives
  • 6.2.4 Oxidation-Reduction Potential
  • 6.2.5 Interactions between Preservative Factors
  • 6.3 Use of Experimental Design and Analysis
  • 6.3.1 Challenge Testing
  • 6.3.2 Accelerated Shelf Life Testing
  • 6.3.3 Predictive Microbiology and Mathematical Modelling
  • 6.3.4 Theory versus Reality
  • 6.4 Ingredient Considerations
  • 6.4.1 High-Risk Ingredients
  • 6.4.2 Novel Ingredients
  • 6.5 Considering the 'Unintended' Use
  • 6.6 Conclusions
  • Chapter 7 Designing a Safe Food Process
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Process Control of Microbiological Hazards
  • 7.2.1 Destruction of Microorganisms
  • 7.2.2 Prevention of Microbial Growth
  • 7.2.3 Prevention of Contamination
  • 7.3 Process Control of Chemical Hazards
  • 7.3.1 Allergen Control
  • 7.3.2 White Powder Control
  • 7.3.3 Cleaning and Maintenance Chemicals
  • 7.4 Process Control of Physical Hazards
  • 7.4.1 Exclusion Techniques
  • 7.4.2 Removal Techniques
  • 7.4.3 Detection Techniques
  • 7.5 Conclusion
  • Part III Systematic Food Safety Management in Practice
  • Chapter 8 Overview of a World-Class Food Safety Programme
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Preliminary Concepts and Definitions
  • 8.2.1 The Evolving World-Class Food Safety Programme
  • 8.2.2 Key Definitions of Relevance to World-Class Food Safety Programmes
  • 8.3 World-Class Food Safety Programmes: System Elements
  • 8.3.1 Safe Product/Process Design
  • 8.3.2 Prerequisite Programmes
  • 8.3.3 HACCP
  • 8.3.4 Food Fraud and Food Defence
  • 8.4 World-Class Food Safety Programmes: Fundamental Supporting Elements
  • 8.4.1 Essential Management Practices
  • 8.4.2 Food Safety Culture
  • 8.5 World-Class Food Safety Programmes: Further Supporting Elements
  • 8.6 World-Class Food Safety Programmes in the Global Food Supply Chain
  • 8.7 Continuous Improvement of the World-Class Food Safety Programme
  • 8.8 Conclusions
  • Chapter 9 Building the Foundations of a World-Class Food Safety Management Programme: Essential Steps and Practices
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Essential Management Practices
  • 9.2.1 Management Commitment and its Role in Food Safety Culture
  • 9.2.2 Assignment of Roles and Responsibilities
  • 9.2.3 Training and Education
  • 9.2.4 Resource Management
  • 9.2.5 Documentation
  • 9.2.6 Supplier/Customer Partnerships
  • 9.2.7 Continuous Improvement
  • 9.3 Food Safety Culture
  • 9.4 Preparation Activities for Food Safety Programmes
  • 9.4.1 Preparing a Project Plan
  • 9.4.2 Structure the HACCP Programme
  • 9.4.3 Carry out a Gap Assessment
  • 9.5 Prioritisation of Corrective Actions
  • 9.6 Conclusions
  • Chapter 10 Formalised Prerequisite Programmes in Practice
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Prerequisite Definitions and Standards
  • 10.3 Prerequisite Programmes: The Essentials
  • 10.3.1 Primary Production
  • 10.3.2 Establishment: Design and Facilities
  • 10.3.3 Control of Operation
  • 10.3.4 Establishment: Maintenance and Sanitation
  • 10.3.5 Establishment: Personal Hygiene
  • 10.3.6 Transportation
  • 10.3.7 Product Information and Consumer Awareness
  • 10.3.8 Training
  • 10.4 Prerequisite Programmes and Operational Prerequisites
  • 10.5 Validation and Verification of Prerequisite Programmes
  • 10.6 Further Reading on Prerequisite Programmes
  • 10.7 Conclusions
  • Chapter 11 Conducting a Product Safety Assessment
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.1.1 Who Is Involved in Product Safety Assessments?
  • 11.1.2 Timing of the Product Safety Assessment Process
  • 11.1.3 Product Safety Assessment Process
  • 11.2 Training for Research and Development Personnel
  • 11.3 Example of a Product Safety Assessment
  • 11.3.1 Process Flow Diagram
  • 11.4 Conclusions and Principles for Effective Product Safety Assessment
  • Chapter 12 Developing and Implementing a HACCP Plan
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Preliminary Concepts
  • 12.2.1 HACCP Principles
  • 12.2.2 The HACCP Plan and Documentation Approaches
  • 12.2.3 HACCP Application Process
  • 12.2.4 Codex Logic Sequence
  • 12.3 Applying the Codex Logic Sequence to Develop a HACCP Plan
  • 12.3.1 HACCP Study Terms of Reference and Scope
  • 12.3.2 Codex Logic Sequence Step 1: HACCP Teams
  • 12.3.3 Codex Logic Sequence Step 2: Product/Process Descriptions
  • 12.3.4 Codex Logic Sequence Step 3: Identify Intended Use
  • 12.3.5 Codex Logic Sequence Step 4: Construct Process Flow Diagram(s)
  • 12.3.6 Codex Logic Sequence Step 5: On-Site Confirmation of Flow Diagram
  • 12.3.7 Codex Logic Sequence Step 6: List All Potential Hazards, Conduct a Hazard Analysis, and Consider Control Measures (Apply HACCP Principle 1)
  • 12.3.8 Codex Logic Sequence Step 7: Determine CCPs (HACCP Principle 2)
  • 12.3.9 Codex Logic Sequence Step 8: Establish Critical Limits for each CCP (HACCP Principle 3)
  • 12.3.10 Codex Logic Sequence Step 9: Establish a Monitoring System for each CCP (HACCP Principle 4)
  • 12.3.11 Codex Logic Sequence Step 10: Establish Corrective Actions (HACCP Principle 5)
  • 12.3.12 Codex Logic Sequence Step 11: Establish Verification Procedures (HACCP Principle 6)
  • 12.3.13 Codex Logic Sequence Step 12: Establish Documentation and Record Keeping (HACCP Principle 7)
  • 12.4 Implementing a HACCP Plan
  • 12.4.1 Activities for Implementation of a HACCP Plan
  • 12.4.2 The Validated HACCP Plan
  • 12.4.3 Implementation Action Planning
  • 12.4.4 Training
  • 12.4.5 CCP Management Systems
  • 12.4.6 HACCP Required Activities
  • 12.4.7 Verification of Implementation
  • 12.4.8 Handover to Operations Staff
  • 12.4.9 Considerations for Implementing Updates and Changes to an Existing HACCP System
  • 12.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter 13 Food Fraud and Food Defence
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Essential Definitions
  • 13.2.1 Food Fraud
  • 13.2.2 Food Terrorism
  • 13.2.3 Food Defence
  • 13.2.4 Food Protection
  • 13.3 Food Fraud
  • 13.3.1 The Food Fraud Problem
  • 13.3.2 Learning from Examples of Food Fraud
  • 13.4 Food Terrorism
  • 13.4.1 Food Terrorism Examples
  • 13.5 Food Defence
  • 13.5.1 Food Fraud Prediction
  • 13.5.2 Practical Food Defence Strategies
  • 13.6 Conclusion
  • Chapter 14 Maintaining and Improving a Food Safety Programme
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 What Is Food Safety Programme Maintenance?
  • 14.3 Responsibility for Food Safety Programme Maintenance
  • 14.4 Maintenance of Prerequisite Programme Elements
  • 14.5 Maintenance of HACCP System Elements
  • 14.5.1 HACCP Verification Activities
  • 14.5.2 HACCP Maintenance Activities
  • 14.6 Maintenance of Food Fraud and Food Defence Systems
  • 14.7 Use of Audit for Successful Food Safety System Maintenance
  • 14.7.1 Audit Definitions
  • 14.7.2 The Auditor and Audit Skills
  • 14.7.3 Audit Checklists
  • 14.7.4 Use of External Audit and Certification Schemes as Part of Food Safety Programme Maintenance
  • 14.8 Incident Management
  • 14.9 Conclusions
  • Chapter 15 Food Safety Culture: Evaluate, Map, and Mature
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.1.1 Food Safety Culture: Accepted Assumptions, Not Malicious Intent
  • 15.1.2 Essential Definitions
  • 15.2 Supply Chain and Critical Food Safety Behaviours
  • 15.2.1 Dimensions of Food Safety Culture
  • 15.2.2 Follow the Leafy Greens .
  • 15.3 Organisational Culture and Food Safety
  • 15.4 Evaluate and Map Food Safety Maturity
  • 15.4.1 Map to Food Safety Maturity
  • 15.4.2 Walking the Food Safety Talk
  • 15.4.3 Importance of Using Multiple Methods to Evaluate Food Safety Culture
  • 15.5 Tactics to Mature Food Safety Culture
  • 15.6 Conclusions
  • Part IV Food Safety Management in Practice: Current Issues and Challenges in Areas of the Global Food Supply Chain
  • Chapter 16 Food Safety in Agriculture: Determining Farm-Derived Food Safety Risk
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Notions of Food Quality and Food Safety
  • 16.3 Value as a Food Attribute in Primary Agriculture
  • 16.3.1 Case Study 1: BSE and the United Kingdom
  • 16.4 Uncertainty and Ambiguity Affecting Risk Perceptions and Decisions
  • 16.4.1 Case Study 2: Red Tractor Standards
  • 16.5 Risks Inherent to Farmers' Context Characteristics
  • 16.5.1 Case Study 3: Quality Egg
  • 16.6 Supply Chain Governance and Food Safety
  • 16.7 Risk Mitigation at Farm Level
  • 16.8 Conclusion
  • Chapter 17 Helping to Overcome Food Safety Challenges in Developing Markets
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Sri Lanka Hygiene and Management Systems Development Projects
  • 17.2.1 Context
  • 17.2.2 Support for the Development and Implementation of Environmental Management Plans
  • 17.2.3 A Manufacturer of Dairy-Based Curd and Popsicles
  • 17.2.4 A Small Packaging Manufacturer in Sri Lanka
  • 17.2.5 A Small Dairy (Ice-Cream) Processor
  • 17.2.6 A Coconut Processor in Sri Lanka
  • 17.2.7 Quality and GMP Training in Sri Lanka
  • 17.3 Rwanda Dairy Development Projects
  • 17.3.1 Context
  • 17.3.2 A Growing Dairy Company in Northern Rwanda
  • 17.3.3 Yogurt and Fermented Milk Processor
  • 17.4 Bangladesh Milk Supply Chain Development Project
  • 17.4.1 Context
  • 17.4.2 Project
  • 17.4.3 Insights and Lessons Learned
  • 17.5 Key Points Learned as Assignees to a Less-Developed Country
  • 17.6 Kenya Development Project: International Water and Health Alliance (IWHA)
  • 17.6.1 Context
  • 17.6.2 Challenges in Low-Income Countries
  • 17.6.3 Addressing the Water-Testing Challenge in Low-Income Countries
  • 17.6.4 Accomplishments
  • 17.7 Conclusions
  • Chapter 18 Consumer Food Safety
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Potential Hazards
  • 18.3 Potential Control Measures
  • 18.3.1 Safe Water and Raw Materials
  • 18.3.2 Refrigeration
  • 18.3.3 Heating (Cooking)
  • 18.3.4 Separation, Cleaning, Sanitation, and Personal Hygiene
  • 18.4 Potential CCPs and Preventive Controls (PCs) in the Home
  • 18.5 Consumer Education
  • 18.6 Good Consumer Practices (GCPs)
  • 18.7 Case Studies
  • 18.7.1 Fictional Case Study: Microbiological Food Safety
  • 18.7.2 Real Life Case Study: Allergen Food Safety
  • 18.8 Conclusion
  • Chapter 19 Food Safety in Foodservice Operations
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Mapping the Foodservice Landscape
  • 19.3 Quick-Service Restaurants
  • 19.3.1 Challenges in Quick-Service Chain Restaurants
  • 19.3.2 Ongoing Control of Food Safety in Quick-Serve Restaurants
  • 19.4 Institutional Catering
  • 19.5 Foodservice SMEs: Owner-led Restaurants, Cafés, and Snack Bars
  • 19.6 Fine Dining, Star Ratings, and Celebrity Chefs
  • 19.7 Mobile Foodservice: Market Stalls, Food Vans/Trucks, Festivals, and Pop-Up Facilities
  • 19.8 Conclusions
  • Epilogue
  • References
  • Appendix 1 Manufacturing HACCP Case Study
  • Appendix 2 Global Food Safety Resources
  • Index
  • EULA

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