Reactive Species Detection in Biology

From Fluorescence to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 23. Oktober 2016
  • |
  • 340 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-420080-7 (ISBN)
 

Reactive Species Detection in Biology: From Fluorescence to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy discusses the reactive oxygen species that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, presenting theories, chemistries, methodologies, and various applications for the detection of reactive species in biological systems, both in-vitro and in-vivo.

Techniques covered include fluorescence, high performance chromatography, mass spectrometry, immunochemistry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Probe design and development are also reviewed in order to advance new approaches in radical detection through synthesis, computations, or experimental applications.


  • Reviews all current advances in radical detection
  • Emphasizes chemical structures and reaction schemes fundamental to radical detection and identification
  • Describes the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of various probe designs
  • Examines new approaches to radical probe development


Prof. Villamena received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Georgetown University and joined Ohio State in 2001. He has held a number of positions there, including several years as a research scientist/principal investigator in the Center for EPR Spectroscopy and Imaging (electron paramagnetic resonance). His current research interest is in the advancement of free radical detection and identification by EPR spectroscopy focusing mainly on the development of new spin traps and probes for chemical, biological, and biomedical imaging applications. Prof. Villamena publishes and lectures widely on this subject and has chaired the Free Radicals Session at the Rocky Mountain Conference on Analytical Chemistry for the past three years. He is an ad hoc grant reviewer for NIH and international funding agencies for the development of radical probes, and regularly reviews manuscripts on radical-related topics.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 12,86 MB
978-0-12-420080-7 (9780124200807)
012420080X (012420080X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Reactive Species Detection in Biology
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • 1 Introduction
  • References
  • 2 Chemistry of Reactive Species
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Redox Chemistry
  • 2.3 Properties of Reactive Species
  • 2.3.1 Reactive Oxygen Species
  • 2.3.1.1 Oxygen (O2)
  • 2.3.1.2 Superoxide Radical (O2-)
  • 2.3.1.3 Hydroperoxyl/Peroxyl Radical (HO2/RO2)
  • 2.3.1.4 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
  • 2.3.1.5 Hydroxyl Radical (HO)
  • 2.3.1.6 Singlet Oxygen (1O2)
  • 2.3.2 Reactive Nitrogen Species
  • 2.3.2.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)
  • 2.3.2.2 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
  • 2.3.2.3 Peroxynitrite (ONOO-)
  • 2.3.3 Reactive Sulfur Species
  • 2.3.3.1 Thiyl Radical (RS)
  • 2.3.3.2 Sulfenic Acid (RSOH)
  • 2.3.3.3 Disulfide (RSSR')
  • 2.3.4 Reactive Halogen Species
  • References
  • 3 Reactive Species in Biological Systems
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Extracellular Milieu
  • 3.2.1 Exogenous agents
  • 3.2.2 Photochemical and ionizing radiation
  • 3.2.3 Metal ions or heme metals
  • 3.3 Membrane-Bound Enzymes
  • 3.3.1 NADPH oxidases (NOXs)
  • 3.3.2 Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3)
  • 3.4 Cytosolic Enzymes
  • 3.4.1 Xanthine oxidase (XO, XAO)
  • 3.4.2 Aldehyde oxidase (AO, AOX)
  • 3.4.3 Inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2, and nNOS, NOS1)
  • 3.4.4 Cyclooxygenases or prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (COX, PTGS)
  • 3.5 Organelle Enzymes
  • 3.5.1 Mitochondria
  • 3.5.2 Lysosomes
  • 3.5.3 Endoplasmic reticulum
  • 3.5.4 Peroxisomes
  • 3.5.5 Golgi apparatus
  • References
  • 4 Fluorescence Technique
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Microscopy
  • 4.3 Chemistry of Redox Detection by Fluorescence
  • 4.4 Classification of Fluorescent RS Probes by Specificity
  • 4.4.1 Global redox state or total ROS detection
  • 4.4.1.1 Dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH2) and derivatives
  • 4.4.1.2 Dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) and reduced MitoTracker probe derivatives
  • 4.4.1.3 3´-(p-Aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyphenyl fluorescein (HPF)
  • 4.4.1.4 Dihydrocalcein acetoxymethylester (AM)
  • 4.4.2 Selective RS detection
  • Superoxide radical (O2-)
  • 4.4.2.2 Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
  • 4.4.2.3 Hypochlorous acid (HOCl)
  • 4.4.2.4 Nitric oxide (NO)
  • 4.4.2.5 Nitroxyl (HNO)
  • 4.4.2.6 Peroxynitrite (ONOO-)
  • 4.4.2.7 Singlet oxygen (1O2)
  • 4.4.2.8 Hydroperoxides (ROOH)
  • 4.4.2.9 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  • 4.4.2.10 Thiols (RSH)
  • 4.4.2.11 Mixed ROS probes
  • 4.5 Considerations in Fluorescence Probe Application
  • References
  • 5 EPR Spin Trapping
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • 5.3 Chemistry of Spin Trapping
  • 5.4 Classification of Spin Traps
  • 5.5 Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Spin Trapping and ph effect
  • 5.6 Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Adduct Decay
  • 5.7 Biostability and Cytotoxicity of Spin Traps
  • 5.8 Synthesis of Spin Traps
  • 5.9 Interpretation of EPR Spectra
  • 5.10 Applications of Spin Trapping
  • References
  • 6 UV-Vis Absorption and Chemiluminescence Techniques
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Superoxide Radical Probes
  • 6.2.1 Nitro blue tetrazolium
  • 6.2.2 Cytochrome c
  • 6.2.3 Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • 6.2.4 Free radical-based probes
  • 6.3 Hydroxyl Radical Probes
  • 6.3.1 Salicylic acid
  • 6.3.2 Phenylalanine
  • 6.4 Antioxidant Capacity Assays
  • 6.4.1 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay
  • 6.4.2 2,2´-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) or TAEC assay
  • 6.4.3 Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay
  • 6.5 Nitric Oxide and Metabolites Probes
  • 6.5.1 Hemoglobin
  • 6.5.2 Triiodide method
  • 6.5.3 Griess assay
  • 6.6 Thiols Probes
  • 6.7 Peroxides Probes
  • 6.7.1 Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance-malondialdehyde assay
  • 6.7.2 Ferrous oxidation with xylenol orange assay
  • 6.7.3 Iodometric assay
  • 6.8 Chemiluminescence
  • 6.8.1 Lucigenin (10,10´-dimethyl-9,9´-biacridinium dinitrate, DNB2+)
  • 6.8.2 Cyprodina luciferin analogue and methoxy-CLA
  • 6.8.3 Luminol
  • References
  • 7 Electrochemical, Mass Spectroscopic, Immunochemical, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Techniques
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Electrochemical Techniques
  • 7.2.1 Superoxide detection
  • 7.2.2 Hydrogen peroxide detection
  • 7.2.3 Nitric oxide detection
  • 7.2.4 Hydrogen sulfide detection
  • 7.2.5 Oxygen detection
  • 7.3 Mass Spectroscopy
  • 7.3.1 Proteins system
  • 7.3.1.1 Reversible thiol oxidation, SSG, SNO, and S-OH
  • 7.3.1.2 Protein carbonylation
  • 7.3.1.3 Protein nitration
  • 7.3.2 Lipids system
  • 7.3.2.1 Lipid hydroperoxides
  • 7.3.2.2 Lipid hydroxides
  • 7.3.2.3 Isoprostanes and neuroprostanes
  • 7.3.2.4 Electrophilic aldehydes
  • 7.3.3 Nucleotides
  • 7.4 Immunochemical Technique
  • 7.4.1 DNA damage antibodies
  • 7.4.2 Protein oxidation antibodies
  • 7.4.3 Lipid peroxidation antibodies
  • 7.4.4 Anti-DMPO antibody (immuno-spin trapping)
  • 7.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging
  • 7.5.1 Gadolinium-based contrast agent
  • 7.5.2 Iron-MGD-based contrast agent
  • 7.5.3 Trityl- and nitroxide-based contrast agents
  • 7.5.4 Solution NMR spectroscopy
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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