Henley's Formulas, Recipes and Processes

Applied Chemistry: Methods and Formulas for Everyday Practical Use
e-artnow (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 16. Mai 2020
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  • 1415 Seiten
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4064066058210 (EAN)
'Henley's Formulas, Recipes and Processes' is a compilation of ten thousand selected household and workshop formulas, recipes, processes and money-saving methods for the practical use of manufacturers, mechanics, housekeepers and home workers. Each recipe from this book is to be regarded as a basis of experiment, to be modified to suit the particular purpose in hand, or the peculiar conditions which may affect the experimenter. Chemicals are not always of uniform relative purity and strength; heat or cold may markedly influence the result obtained, and lack of skill in the handling of utensils and instruments may sometimes cause failure. In some instances a series of formulas is given which apparently differ but slightly in their ingredients. This has been done on the principle that one or more may be chosen for the purpose in hand. Apart from the modern methods and formulas, old recipes and so-called trade secrets which have proven their value by long use are also included in this useful edition.


Table of Contents

ABRASION REMEDY: See Cosmetics and Ointments.

ABSINTHE: See Wines and Liquors.


Table of Contents

An Acid-proof Table Top.-

1. Copper sulphate ?1 part Potassium chlorate ?1 part Water ?8 parts Boil until salts are dissolved. 2. Aniline hydrochlorate ?3 parts Water 20 parts Or, if more readily procurable: Aniline ?6 parts Hydrochloric acid ?9 parts Water 50 parts

By the use of a brush two coats of solution No. 1 are applied while hot; the second coat as soon as the first is dry. Then two coats of solution No. 2, and the wood allowed to dry thoroughly. Later, a coat of raw linseed oil is to be applied, using a cloth instead of a brush, in order to get a thinner coat of the oil.

A writer in the Journal of Applied Microscopy states that he has used this method upon some old laboratory tables which had been finished in the usual way, the wood having been filled oiled, and varnished. After scraping off the varnish down to the wood, the solutions were applied, and the result was very satisfactory.

After some experimentations the formula was modified without materially affecting the cost, and apparently increasing the resistance of the wood to the action of strong acids and alkalies. The modified formula follows:

1. Iron sulphate ??4 parts Copper sulphate ??4 parts Potassium permanganate ??8 parts Water, q. s. 100 parts 2. Aniline ?12 parts Hydrochloric acid ?18 parts Water, q. s. 100 parts Or: Aniline hydrochlorate ?15 parts Water, q. s. 100 parts

Solution No. 2 has not been changed, except to arrange the parts per hundred.

The method of application is the same, except that after solution No. 1 has dried the excess of the solution which has dried upon the surface of the wood is thoroughly rubbed off before the application of solution No. 2. The black color does not appear at once, but usually requires a few hours before becoming ebony black. The linseed oil may be diluted with turpentine without disadvantage, and after a few applications the surface will take on a dull and not displeasing polish. The table tops are easily cleaned by washing with water or suds after a course of work is completed, and the application of another coat of oil puts them in excellent order for another course of work. Strong acids or alkalies when spilled, if soon wiped off, have scarcely a perceptible effect.

A slate or tile top is expensive not only in its original cost, but also as a destroyer of glassware. Wood tops when painted, oiled, or paraffined have objectionable features, the latter especially in warm weather. Old table tops, after the paint or oil is scraped off down to the wood, take the above finish nearly as well as the new wood.

To Make Wood Acid- and Chlorine-proof.

-Take 6 pounds of wood tar and 12 pounds rosin, and melt them together in an iron kettle, after which stir in 8 pounds finely powdered brick dust. The damaged parts must be cleaned perfectly and dried, whereupon they may be painted over with the warm preparation or filled up and drawn off, leaving the film on the inside.

Protecting Cement Against Acid.

-A paint to protect cement against acid is obtained by mixing pure asbestos, very finely powdered, with a thick solution of {10} sodium silicate. The sodium silicate must be as alkaline as possible. The asbestos is first rubbed with a small quantity of the silicate, until a cake is obtained and then kept in well-closed vessels. For use this cake is simply thinned with a solution of the silicate, which furnishes a paint two or three applications of which protect the walls of reservoirs, etc., against any acid solid or liquid. This mass may also be employed for making a coating of sandstone.

To Make Corks Impermeable And Acid-proof.

-Choose your corks carefully. Then plunge them into a solution of gelatin or common glue, 15 parts, in 24 parts of glycerine and 500 parts of water, heated to 44° or 48° C. (112°-120° F.), and keep them there for several hours. On removing the corks, which should be weighted down in the solution, dry them in the shade until they are free from all surplus moisture. They are now perfectly tight, retaining at the same time the greater portion of their elasticity and suppleness. To render them acid-proof, they should be treated with a mixture of vaseline, 2 parts, and paraffine 7 parts, heated to about 105° F. This second operation may be avoided by adding to the gelatin solution a little ammonium dichromate and afterwards exposing the corks to the light.

Lining For Acid Receptacles.

-Plates are formed of 1 part of brown slate, 2 of powdered glass, and 1 of Portland cement, the whole worked up with silicate of soda, molded and dried. Make a cement composed of ground slate and silicate of soda and smear the surface for the lining; then, while it is still plastic, apply the plates prepared as above described. Instead of these plates, slabs of glass or porcelain or similar substances may be employed with the same cement.

ACACIA, MUCILAGE OF: See Adhesives under Mucilages.




ACID STAINS FROM THE SKIN, TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



Table of Contents


Manufacture Of Glue.

-I.-The usual process of removing the phosphate of lime from bones for glue-making purposes by means of dilute hydrochloric acid has the disadvantage that the acid cannot be regenerated. Attempts to use sulphurous acid instead have so far proved unsuccessful, as, even with the large quantities used, the process is very slow. According to a German invention this difficulty with sulphurous acid can be avoided by using it in aqueous solution under pressure. The solution of the lime goes on very rapidly, it is claimed, and no troublesome precipitation of calcium sulphite takes place. Both phosphate of lime and sulphurous acid are regenerated from the lyes by simple distillation.

II.-Bones may be treated with successive quantities of combined sulphurous acid and water, from which the heat of combination has been previously dissipated, the solution being removed after each treatment, before the bone salts dissolved therein precipitate, and before the temperature rises above 74° F.-U. S. Pat. 783,784.

III.-A patent relating to the process for treating animal sinews, preparatory for the glue factory, has been granted to Florsheim, Chicago, and consists in immersing animal sinews successively in petroleum or benzine to remove the outer fleshy animal skin; in a hardening or preserving bath, as boric acid, or alum or copper sulphate; and in an alkaline bath to remove fatty matter from the fibrous part of the sinews. The sinews are afterwards tanned and disintegrated.

Test For Glue.

-The more water the glue takes up, swelling it, the better it is. Four ounces of the glue to be examined are soaked for about 12 hours in a cool place in 4 pounds of cold water. If the glue has dissolved after this time, it is of bad quality and of little value; but if it is coherent, gelatinous, and weighing double, it is good; if it weighs up to 16 ounces, it is very good; if as much as 20 ounces, it may be called excellent.

To Prevent Glue From Cracking.

-To prevent glue from cracking, which frequently occurs when glued articles are {11} exposed to the heat of a stove, a little chloride of potassium is added. This prevents the glue from becoming dry enough to crack. Glue thus treated will adhere to glass, metals, etc., and may also be used for pasting on labels.

Preventing The Putrefaction Of Strong Glues.

-The fatty matter always existing in small quantity in sheets of ordinary glue affects the adhesive properties and facilitates the development of bacteria, and consequently putrefaction and decomposition. These inconveniences are remedied by adding a small quantity of caustic soda to the dissolved glue. The soda prevents decomposition absolutely; with the fatty matter it forms a hard soap which renders it harmless.

Liquid Glues.-
I.- Glue ??3 ounces Gelatin ??3 ounces Acetic acid ??4...

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