Population Ecology

First Principles
Princeton University Press
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 25. August 2013
  • |
  • 288 Seiten
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-4008-4873-7 (ISBN)

Ecology is capturing the popular imagination like never before, with issues such as climate change, species extinctions, and habitat destruction becoming ever more prominent. At the same time, the science of ecology has advanced dramatically, growing in mathematical and theoretical sophistication. Here, two leading experts present the fundamental quantitative principles of ecology in an accessible yet rigorous way, introducing students to the most basic of all ecological subjects, the structure and dynamics of populations.

John Vandermeer and Deborah Goldberg show that populations are more than simply collections of individuals. Complex variables such as distribution and territory for expanding groups come into play when mathematical models are applied. Vandermeer and Goldberg build these models from the ground up, from first principles, using a broad range of empirical examples, from animals and viruses to plants and humans. They address a host of exciting topics along the way, including age-structured populations, spatially distributed populations, and metapopulations.

This second edition of Population Ecology is fully updated and expanded, with additional exercises in virtually every chapter, making it the most up-to-date and comprehensive textbook of its kind.

    • Provides an accessible mathematical foundation for the latest advances in ecology

    • Features numerous exercises and examples throughout

    • Introduces students to the key literature in the field

    • The essential textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students

    • An online illustration package is available to professors

    • Englisch
    • Princeton
    • |
    • USA
    • Für Beruf und Forschung
    • Digitale Ausgabe
    • 1 halftone. 129 line illus. 4 tables.
    • |
    • 1 halftone. 129 line illus. 4 tables.
    • 24,23 MB
    978-1-4008-4873-7 (9781400848737)
    1-4008-4873-3 (1400848733)
    weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
    John H. Vandermeer & Deborah E. Goldberg
    List of Figures xi
    List of Tables xvii
    Preface xix
    ONE Elementary Population Dynamics 1
    Density Independence: The Exponential Equation 2
    Density Dependence 9
    The Logistic Equation 13
    The Yield-Density Relationship 17
    Density Dependence and Mortality: Thinning Laws 22
    Density Dependence in Discrete Time Models 28
    TWO Projection Matrices: Structured Models 30
    Elementary Age-Structured Population Projection Matrices 30
    Non-Age Structure: Stage Projection Matrices 39
    Eigenvectors, Reproductive Value, Sensitivity, and Elasticity 45
    Density Dependence in Structured Populations 48
    Density Dependence in a Simple Age-Structured Model 48
    Density Dependence in Size-Distributed Populations 50
    Density Dependence in a Stage-Structured Model 56
    Appendix: Basic Matrix Manipulations 57
    Matrix Multiplication 57
    Matrix Addition and Subtraction 58
    The Identity Matrix 59
    The Determinant of a Matrix 59
    THREE Applications of Simple Population Models 62
    Life History Analysis 63
    Investment in Survivorship versus Reproduction: The r-K Continuum 64
    The Cost of Reproduction 66
    Optimal Reproductive Schedules 67
    Applications of Population Projection Matrices 73
    The Dall's Mountain Sheep: A Static Life Table 73
    Palo de Mayo: A Dynamic Life Table 74
    Population Viability Analysis 76
    Demography of Invasive and Native Plant Populations 78
    FOUR A Closer Look at the "Dynamics" in Population Dynamics 81
    Intuitive Ideas of Equilibrium and Stability 83
    Eigenvalues: A Key Concept in Dynamic Analysis 92
    Basic Concepts of Equilibrium and Stability in One-Dimensional Maps 97
    The One-Dimensional Map 98
    Stability and Equilibrium in the Logistic Map 106
    Basins of Attraction in the Logistic Map 108
    Structural Stability 110
    Bifurcation Diagrams 116
    Concluding Remarks 122
    FIVE Patterns and Dynamics in Space 126
    The Poisson Distribution 129
    Point Pattern Analysis and the Question of Scale 134
    Mechanisms of Spatial Pattern Formation: Principles of Reaction/Diffusion 137
    Mechanisms of Spatial Pattern Formation: Biological Causes 141
    Metapopulations 142
    Assumptions of Metapopulation Models 146
    The Rescue Effect and Propagule Rain 148
    Appendix: Data for Exercises 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4 150
    SIX Predator-Prey (Consumer-Resource) Interactions 152
    Predator-Prey Interactions: First Principles 153
    Density Dependence 158
    Functional Response 161
    Functional Response and Density Dependence Together 166
    Paradoxes in Applications of Predator-Prey Theory 168
    Predator-Prey Dynamics: A Graphical Approach 170
    Predator-Prey Interactions in Discrete Time 176
    SEVEN Disease Ecology 187
    Direct Disease Transmission 188
    Indirect Transmission 194
    EIGHT Competition 198
    Competition: First Principles 199
    Isocline Analysis of the Lotka-Volterra Competition Equations 203
    Niches and Competitive Coexistence and Exclusion 209
    The Competitive Production Principle: Applications of Competition Theory to Agriculture 211
    Resource Competition 212
    NINE Facilitation and Mutualism 225
    TEN What This Book Was About 239
    Glossary 243
    References 247
    Index 255

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