Environmental Biotechnology

A Biosystems Approach
 
 
Academic Press
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 11. September 2015
  • |
  • 746 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-407897-0 (ISBN)
 

Environmental Biotechnology: A Biosystems Approach, Second Edition presents valuable information on how biotechnology has acted as a vital buffer among people, pollution, and the environment. It answers the most important questions on the topic, including how, and why, a knowledge and understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological principles of the environment must be achieved in order to develop biotechnology applications.

Using a systems biology approach, the book provides a context for researchers and practitioners in environmental science, also serving as a complement to guidebooks on the necessary specifications and criteria for a wide range of environmental designs and applications. Users will find crucial information on the topics scientific researchers must evaluate in order to develop further technologies.


  • Provides a systems approach to biotechnologies which includes the physical, biological, and chemical processes in context
  • Presents relevant case studies on cutting-edge technologies, such as nanobiotechnologies and green engineering
  • Addresses both the applications and implications of biotechnologies by following the lifecycle of a variety of established and developing biotechnologies
  • Includes crucial information on the topics scientific researchers must evaluate in order to develop further technologies


Dr. Daniel A. Vallero is an internationally recognized expert in environmental science and engineering. His four decades of research, teaching and professional experience in hazardous waste engineering and management have addressed a wide range of human health risk and ecological issues, from global climate change to the release of hazardous wastes. His research has advanced the state-of-the-science of air and water pollution measurement, models of potential exposures to chemicals in consumer products, and environmental impact assessments.
He established the Engineering Ethics program and is a key collaborator in the Responsible Conduct of Research Program at Duke University. These programs introduce students, from first-year through PhD, to the complex relationships between science, technology and societal demands on the engineer. The lessons learned from the cases in this book are a fundamental part of Duke's preparation of its future engineers to address the ethical dilemmas likely to be encountered during the careers of the next generation engineers.
Dr. Vallero received a bachelor's degree from Southern Illinois University, a Master of Science in City & Regional Planning from SIU, a Masters in Civil & Environmental Engineering (Environmental Health Sciences) from the University of Kansas, and a PhD in Civil & Environmental Engineering from Duke.
  • Englisch
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  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 34,45 MB
978-0-12-407897-0 (9780124078970)
0124078974 (0124078974)
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  • Front Cover
  • Environmental Biotechnology: A Biosystems Approach
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY AT THE INTERSECTION OF DISCIPLINES
  • THE SYSTEMS APPROACH
  • SEMINAR DISCUSSIONS
  • REDUCTIONISM VERSUS THE SYSTEMS APPROACH
  • STRUCTURE AND PEDAGOGY
  • CHANGES FROM THE FIRST EDITION
  • THE CHALLENGE CONTINUES
  • REFERENCES
  • 1 - Environmental Biotechnology: An Overview
  • EMERGENCE AND BIOCHEMODYNAMICS
  • ASSESSING BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPACTS
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING
  • ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AS A DISCIPLINE
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY
  • RISKS AND RELIABILITY OF NEW BIOTECHNOLOGIES
  • BEYOND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS
  • Terminology
  • Eureka!
  • Oh No!
  • THE SCIENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • BOXES AND ENVELOPES: PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES, CONTAINING THE RISKS
  • RESPONSIBLE BIOENGINEERING
  • Acceptable Risk
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - A Question of Balance: Using versus Abusing Biological Systems
  • LESSONS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
  • ENVIRONMENTAL BIOMIMICRY
  • ENGINEERED SYSTEMS INSPIRED BY BIOLOGY
  • ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
  • ENVIRONMENTAL BIOCHEMODYNAMICS
  • BIOPHILE CYCLING
  • CARBON BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
  • Greenhouse Gases
  • Sequestration
  • Carbon Sequestration in Soil
  • Active Sequestration
  • NITROGEN AND SULFUR BIOCHEMODYNAMICS
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Environmental Biochemodynamic Processes
  • CELLULAR THERMODYNAMICS
  • Importance of Free Energy in Microbial Metabolism
  • Dissolution
  • Polarity
  • Phase Partitioning
  • THERMODYNAMICS IN ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC SYSTEMS
  • Volatility/Solubility/Density Relationships
  • Environmental Balances
  • Fugacity
  • Sorption
  • Volatilization
  • Bioavailability
  • Persistent Bioaccumulating Toxic Substances
  • Biochemodynamic Persistence and Half-Life
  • Kinetics versus Equilibrium
  • Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry's Law
  • BIOCHEMODYNAMIC TRANSPORT
  • Models
  • Loading
  • Total Maximum Daily Loading
  • Advection
  • Dispersion
  • Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Dispersion
  • Diffusion
  • Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks, and Sources
  • Biochemodynamic Transport Models
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Systems
  • GWAS MEET EWAS
  • BIOTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
  • PUTTING BIOLOGY TO WORK
  • TRANSFORMING DATA INTO INFORMATION: INDICES
  • TRANSFORMING DATA INTO INFORMATION: TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE
  • CONCENTRATION-BASED MASS BALANCE MODELING [13]
  • Contaminant Input
  • Partitioning Between Compartments
  • Outflow
  • Reaction
  • Sedimentation
  • Vaporization
  • Combined Process Rates
  • FUGACITY, Z VALUES, AND HENRY'S LAW
  • FUGACITY-BASED MASS BALANCE MODELING [17]
  • Sedimentation
  • Vaporization
  • Overall Mass Balance
  • BIOLOGY MEETS CHEMISTRY
  • IMPORTANCE OF SCALE IN BIOSYSTEMS
  • SYSTEMS SYNERGIES: BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
  • USING BIOINDICATORS
  • BIOSENSORS
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GREEN ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies
  • ESTIMATING BIOTECHNOLOGICAL RISKS
  • Biotechnological Hazard Identification
  • Dose-Response
  • EXPOSURE ESTIMATION
  • DIRECT BIOENGINEERING RISK CALCULATIONS
  • RISK-BASED CLEANUP STANDARDS
  • System Risks
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES AND NOTES
  • 6 - Reducing Biotechnological Risks
  • RISK QUOTIENT METHOD AND LEVELS OF CONCERN [5]
  • Biosystematic Intervention
  • CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
  • RISK AND CAUSALITY
  • FAILURE: HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING
  • Utility as a Measure of Success
  • Failure Type 1: Mistakes and Miscalculations
  • Failure Type 2: Extraordinary Natural Circumstances
  • Failure Type 3: Critical Path
  • Failure Type 4: Negligence
  • Failure Type 5: Lack of Imagination
  • BIOTERRORISM: BAD BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES AND NOTES
  • 7 - Applied Ecology
  • BIOREMEDIATION
  • READY BIODEGRADABILITY TESTING
  • SYSTEMATIC VIEW OF OXYGEN
  • APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS
  • BIODEGRADATION AND BIOREMEDIATION
  • BIOCHEMODYNAMICS OF BIOREMEDIATION
  • OFF-SITE TREATMENT
  • DIGESTION
  • BIOSORPTION
  • AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION
  • TRICKLING FILTER
  • ACTIVATED SLUDGE
  • AERATION PONDS AND LAGOONS
  • TREATMENT OPTIMIZATION
  • ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION
  • MULTIMEDIA-MULTIPHASE BIOREMEDIATION
  • PHYTOREMEDIATION
  • BIOMARKERS
  • GENETIC ENGINEERING BASICS
  • CONVENTIONAL BREEDING APPROACHES
  • MODIFICATION OF ORGANISMS WITHOUT INTRODUCING FOREIGN DNA
  • MODIFICATION OF ORGANISMS BY INTRODUCING FOREIGN DNA
  • Transfected DNA
  • Vector-Borne DNA
  • ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF CISGENIC AND TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS
  • BIOENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
  • WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES AND NOTES
  • 8 - Biotechnological Implications: A Systems Approach
  • ENVIRONMENTAL HARM WITH PURSUING OTHER SOCIAL OBJECTIVES
  • SYSTEMATIC VIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL RISKS
  • PREDICTING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING ORGANISMS
  • CHEMINFORMATICS AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
  • INTERPOLATION SPACE AND DESCRIPTOR SELECTION
  • RISKS POSED BY FOREIGN DNA IN PLANTS
  • MUTAGENICITY AND CANCER
  • BIOCHEMODYNAMIC FLOW OF MODIFIED GENETIC MATERIAL
  • MODELING BIOLOGICAL AGENT TRANSPORT: EXAMPLES
  • RISK RECOMMENDATIONS
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES AND NOTES
  • 9 - Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies: Economic Sector Perspectives
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • PRODUCTION OF ENZYMES [18]
  • The Organism
  • Health and Safety Regulations
  • Environmental Implications
  • MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Biouptake and Bioaccumulation
  • Environmental Implications
  • ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Gene Flow
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Addressing Biotechnological Pollutants
  • CLEANING UP BIOTECHNOLOGICAL OPERATIONS
  • INTERVENTION AT THE SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION
  • INTERVENTION AT THE POINT OF RELEASE
  • INTERVENTION DURING TRANSPORT
  • INTERVENTION TO CONTROL THE EXPOSURE
  • INTERVENTION AT THE POINT OF RESPONSE
  • Thermal Treatment of Biotechnological Wastes
  • Calculating Destruction Removal
  • Other Thermal Strategies
  • Nitrogen and Sulfur Problems
  • SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Siting an Environmental Monitoring Study: An Example
  • Sampling Approaches
  • Laboratory Analysis
  • Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH): An Environmental Monitoring Biotechnology
  • SOURCES OF UNCERTAINTY
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Nanotechnology and Emerging Sciences
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY AT THE NANOSCALE
  • Engineered Nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticles in the Environment
  • Environmental Impacts of Nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticle Exposure
  • Toxicokinetics
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 12 - Mechanisms and Outcomes
  • BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
  • EXOGENOUS AOPS
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY IMPLICATIONS
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 13 - Analyzing the Environmental Implications of Emerging Technologies
  • PREDICTING AND MANAGING OUTCOMES
  • Cumulative Environmental Impacts
  • Assessment Uncertainties and Complexities
  • Risk Tradeoffs
  • REVISITING FAILURE AND BLAME
  • APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND GAINING WISDOM
  • ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
  • SCIENCE AS A SOCIAL ENTERPRISE
  • ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTABILITY
  • LIFE CYCLE AS AN ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY
  • LIFE CYCLE APPLICATIONS [12]
  • UTILITY AND THE BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS
  • PREDICTING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE
  • Analysis of Biotechnological Implications
  • Step 1: Scenario Description
  • Step 2: Deductive Arguments
  • Step 3: Problem-Solving Analysis
  • Step 3a: Application of Hill's Criteria
  • Step 3b: Force Fields
  • Step 3c: Net Goodness Analysis
  • Step 3d: Line Drawing
  • Step 3e: Flow Charting
  • Step 3f: Event Trees
  • Step 4: Synthesis
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES AND NOTES
  • 14 - Responsible Management of Biotechnologies
  • BIOENGINEERING PERSPECTIVES
  • CODES OF CONDUCT
  • ETHICS AND DECISIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
  • SYSTEMATIC BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE STATUS QUO
  • A FEW WORDS ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY DECISION TOOLS
  • CHARACTERIZING SUCCESS AND FAILURE
  • Accountability
  • Value
  • Informing Decisions
  • Biotechnological Net Goodness Analysis
  • GREEN ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • BIOENGINEERING SAFETY
  • RELIABILITY OF BIOTECHNOLOGIES
  • APPLYING RELIABILITY ENGINEERING TO BIOTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
  • RISK HOMEOSTASIS AND THE THEORY OF OFFSETTING BEHAVIOR
  • CHAOS AND ARTIFACTS
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 1 - Background Information on Environmental Impact Statements
  • COMMON CATEGORIES OF FEDERAL ACTIONS SUBJECT TO NEPA COMPLIANCE
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Cancer Potency Factors
  • EXTRAPOLATION METHODS
  • CANCER SLOPE FACTORS
  • Unit Risks
  • Drinking Water Unit Risks
  • Inhalation Unit Risks
  • Dermal Risks
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Verification Method for Rapid Polymerase Chain Reaction Systems to Detect Biological Agents
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Summary of Persistent and Toxic Organic Compounds in North America, Identified by the United Nations as Highes ...
  • 5 - Sample Retrieval from ECOTOX Database for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Exposed to DDT and its Metabolit ...
  • Glossary
  • SOURCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • Back Cover
Chapter 1

Environmental Biotechnology


An Overview


Abstract


This chapter is an introduction to environmental biotechnology, beginning with a discussion of systems theory. The systematic approach is applied to environmental science and engineering, especially environmental risk assessment and management, including lessons learned from environmental impact statements and life cycle analyses (LCAs). Important tools and concepts are introduced, including biomarkers, the exposome, dosimetry, toxicokinetics modeling, bioremediation, risk trade-offs, and ethics. The chapter introduces both the applications of biotechnology for environmental purposes and the possible adverse environmental implications of biotechnologies.

Keywords


Aerosol; Antibiotic resistance; Benefit/cost ratio; Bioengineering; Bioremediation; Biotechnology; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); Dual use; Engineering ethics; Environmental assessment (EA); Environmental ethics; Environmental impact statement (EIS); Exposome; Exposure assessment; Genetically engineered (GE); Genetically modified organism (GMO); "Gray goo"scenario; Life cycle analysis (LCA); National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); Particulate matter (PM); Phytoremediation; Precautionary principle; Reliability engineering; Risk analysis; Risk assessment; Risk management; Risk trade-off; Superfund; Systems theory; Toxicokinetics

As industrial biotechnology continues to expand in many sectors around the world, it has the potential to be both disruptive and transformative, offering opportunities for industries to reap unprecedented benefits through pollution prevention.

Brent Erickson (2005) [1]

Two of the important topics at the threshold of the twenty-first century have been the environment and biotechnology. Erickson succinctly yet optimistically characterizes the marriage of potential simultaneous advances in biotechnology and looming environmental problems. Considered together, they present some of the greatest opportunities and challenges to the scientific community. Biotechnologies offer glimpses into ways to address some very difficult environmental problems, such as improved energy sources (e.g., literally "green" sources like genetically modified algae), elimination and treatment of toxic wastes (e.g., genetically modified bacteria to break down persistent organic compounds in sediments and oil spills), and better ways to detect pollution (e.g., transgenic fish used as rapid and real-time indicators by changing different colors in the presence of specific pollutants in a drinking water plant) [2]. Tethered to these arrays of opportunities are environmental challenges that remain unresolved and perplexing. Many would say that advances in medical, industrial, agricultural, aquatic, and environmental biotechnologies have been worth the risks. Others may agree, only with the addition of the caveat, "so far." Still others would completely disagree, given the uncertainty and potential for severe and irreversible damage to the environment and public health. This text does not argue whether biotechnologies are necessary. Indeed, humans have been manipulating genetic material for centuries. The main objective here is that, given the possible, often unexpected, adverse environmental outcomes from even well-meaning, important, and even necessary biotechnologies, decisions should be systematic in terms of potential risks and benefits. Environmental biotechnology, then, is all about the balance between the applications that provide for a cleaner environment and the implications of manipulating genetic material. The systems approach to biotechnology should indeed be applied to any environmental assessment. An assessment is only as good as the assumptions and information from which it draws. Sound science must underpin environmental decisions. The various scientific disciplines differ in their expectations and applications of environmental biotechnology, including most disciplines of physics, chemistry, and biology. Although each may be correct, they are not solely sufficient to inform environmental decisions. Thus, characterizing properly the risks and opportunities of environmental biotechnology requires the expertise of engineers, microbiologists, botanists, zoologists, geneticists, medical researchers, geologists, geographers, land use planners, hydrologists, meteorologists, computational experts, systems biologists, and ecologists; not to mention the ethicists, theologians, and experts from the social sciences and humanities to consider aspects outside of the typical realms of the physical and biological sciences.

Emergence and Biochemodynamics


Even the simplest biosystem involves myriad physical motions, chemical reactions, and biological processes. These processes occur simultaneously in space and time, and may interrelate. They occur at every level of biological organization. Mass and energy exchanges are taking place constantly within and between cells and at every scale of an ecosystem or a human population. Thus, biochemodynamics addresses energy and matter as they move (dynamics), change (chemical transformation), and cycle through organisms (biology). A single chemical or organism changes chemically and biologically, from its release to its environmental fate. The flow in Figure 1.1 applies to ecosystem condition and human health. For example, if the metal and its compounds enter the food chain, they may alter ecosystem functions and structures, e.g., the metals are included in nutrient cycling (function), which may change the growth and survival of certain species, even changing the types of plants in the ecosystem (structure). Although these are ecosystem processes, the metallic compounds in the plants may enter the diet of human populations when these plants are harvested and consumed.
Figure 1.1 Biochemodynamic pathways for a substance (in this case a metal [M] and its compounds). The fate is mammalian tissue. Various modeling tools are available to characterize the movement, transformation, uptake, and fate of the compound. Similar biochemodynamic paradigms can be constructed for multiple chemicals (e.g., mixtures) and microorganismsSource: Adapted from discussions with Mangis D, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2007. Systematically applying the principles of the physical, chemical, and biological sciences is biochemodynamics. Although this term is relatively new, the phenomenon has been observed since ancient times. For example, even before photosynthesis was understood as a biological process, farmers knew that a plant would grow if exposed to water and sunlight; but also if manure were worked into the soil, the growth would increase beyond what could be attributed to the soil nutrients. As evidence, van Helmont's seventeenth century experiments correctly observed an increase in biomass of a potted willow (Salix spp.) with only rainwater added over a five-year period. He incorrectly attributed the increase solely to water nutrients, not to those in air [3]. This was later corrected by Priestly's eighteenth century oxygen experiments [4,5] and by Ingen-Housz's light experiments [6], which set the stage for Van Niel's work finally documenting the correct reactions known as photosynthesis [7]. Thus, scientists can be aware of biochemodynamics even if they are wrong about the specifics. Indeed, much of the biochemodynamics at work in complex systems resides in the metaphorical "black box." In keeping with Aristotle's observation that the whole can be greater than the sum of its parts, farmers must have observed that a plant would indeed grow beyond what could be explained by physics and chemistry alone. This seems antithetical to the first law of thermodynamics, i.e., that there must be a balance of mass and energy. I would like to think that Aristotle and Newton would not be at odds, but are expressing nature from two perspectives, both correct. Aristotle's "greater than" is actually an expression of synergy. Aristotle's Metaphysics puts in this way:

To return to the difficulty which has been stated with respect both to definitions and to numbers, what is the cause of their unity? In the case of all things which have several parts and in which the totality is not, as it were, a mere heap, but the whole is something beside the parts, there is a cause; for even in bodies contact is the cause of unity in some cases, and in others viscosity or some other such quality [8].

The foregoing discussion introduces the concept of "emergence," a central theme of systems theory. In systems theory, Aristotle's concept of parts are often referred to as "agents" or "components." The "whole" requires all of the agents, but is more. Life requires chemistry and physics, but is more. For example, the water molecule depends on the properties of hydrogen and oxygen, but is more. It depends on these atoms, but also the interaction among the atoms. In turn, living things...

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