In 1526 Carlos I of Spain granted Pánfilo de Narváez a license to claim what is now the Gulf Coast of the United States. Pánfilo de Narváez set sail in 1527 to conquer and settle present day Florida. Setting out with a crew of approximately 600 members ultimately only four members would survive the ill-fated expedition. The journey would take these four survivors from Spain to Hispaniola and Cuba and then onto Florida. Sailing through a hurricane and other storms the expedition would finally land near Tampa Bay. Suffering from Indian attacks and the effects of poor food and disease the crew, of which there was now only eighty, decided to sail from Florida to Mexico. In 1536, the four survivors-Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, and his enslaved Moor Estevanico-finally managed to rejoin Spanish countrymen in present-day Mexico City. Upon returning to Spain Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca would receive considerable notoriety for his published account of the ordeal.
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- Title page
- CHAPTER THE FIRST. Of the Commentaries of Alvar NuÃ±ez Cabeza de Vaca.
- CHAPTER THE SECOND. How we departed from the island of Cabo Verde.
- CHAPTER THE THIRD. Which treats of how the governor arrived with his armada at the island of Santa Catalina, in Brazil, and disembarked his troops there.
- CHAPTER THE FOURTH. How nine Christians came to the island.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTH. How the governor hastened his journey.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTH. How the governor and his people advanced into the interior.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTH. Which treats of what happened to the governor and his people in his journey, and of the nature of the land.
- CHAPTER THE EIGHTH. Of the troubles that the governor and his people underwent on their way, and of a kind of pine tree, and of the fruits of that land.
- CHAPTER THE NINTH. How the governor and his people found themselves starving, and appeased their hunger with worms from reeds.
- CHAPTER THE TENTH. Of the fear the Indians had of the horses.
- CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH. How the governor navigated the river YguazÃº in canoes, and how, in order to avoid a cataract of that river, he carried the canoes one league by hand.
- CHAPTER THE TWELFTH. Which treats of the rafts that were made to carry the sick.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTEENTH. How the governor arrived at the Ascension, where the Spaniards lived whom he had come to relieve.
- CHAPTER THE FOURTEENTH. How the Spaniards, left behind through sickness, on the river Pequiry, arrived at the town of Ascension.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTEENTH. How the governor, wishing to re-people Buenos Ayres, sent reinforcements to those who had come there in the ship 'Capitana'.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTEENTH. How the natives kill and eat their enemies.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTEENTH. Of the peace which the governor concluded with the Indian Agazes.
- CHAPTER THE EIGHTEENTH. Of the complaints addressed to the governor by the pobladores against the officers of His Majesty.
- CHAPTER THE NINETEENTH. How the governor received complaints against the Indian GuaycurÃºs.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTIETH. How the governor informed himself concerning the complaint.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-FIRST. How the governor and his people crossed the river, and how two Christians were drowned.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-SECOND. How the spies, by order of the governor, went in search of the GuaycurÃºs.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-THIRD. How the governor, pursuing the enemy, was informed that he was marching in front.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-FOURTH. Of a panic among the Spaniards and Indians, caused by a tiger.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-FIFTH. How the governor and his people overtook the enemy.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-SIXTH. How the governor pursued the enemy.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-SEVENTH. How the governor and all his people returned to the town of Ascension.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-EIGHTH. How the Indian Agazes broke the peace.
- CHAPTER THE TWENTY-NINTH. How the governor set at liberty one of the captive GuaycurÃºs, and sent him to summon his fellow tribesmen.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTIETH. How the GuaycurÃºs came and submitted to His Majesty.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-FIRST. How the governor, after making peace with the GuaycurÃºs, delivered the prisoners to them.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-SECOND. How the ApirÃºs came and made a treaty of peace and Submitted.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-THIRD. Of the judgment passed on the Agazes by the advice of the monks, captains, and other officers of His Majesty.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-FOURTH. How the governor sent relief to Buenos Ayres.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-FIFTH. How the three Spaniards and the Indians returned from their reconnaissance.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-SIXTH. How wood was prepared for the construction of two brigantines and one caravel.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-SEVENTH. How the Indians came again and offered their services.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-EIGHTH. How the settlement of Ascension was burned.
- CHAPTER THE THIRTY-NINTH. How Domingo de Irala arrived.
- CHAPTER THE FORTIETH. What Gonzalo de Mendoza wrote.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-FIRST. How the governor helped those who were with Gonzalo de Mendoza.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-SECOND. How four Christians died of their wounds during this war.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-THIRD. How the friars took to flight.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-FOURTH. How the governor took four hundred men with him on his voyage of discovery.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-FIFTH. How the governor left part of the provisions he had brought with him.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-SIXTH. How he stopped to speak with the natives of another port and land.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-SEVENTH. How he sent for an interpreter to treat with the PayaguÃ¡s.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-EIGHTH. How the horses were embarked in the port.
- CHAPTER THE FORTY-NINTH. How Juan de Ayolas entered the port where he and his Christians were killed.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTIETH. How the interpreter and those who had promised to come failed to do so.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-FIRST. How the Guaxarapos spoke with the governor.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-SECOND. How the Indians come and establish themselves on the shore of the river.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-THIRD. How they erected three crosses at the mouth of the river YguatÃº.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-FOURTH. How the Indians of the port of Los Reyes cultivate the soil.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-FIFTH. How the Indians of Garcia settled in this place.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-SIXTH. How they spoke with the Chaneses.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-SEVENTH. How the governor sent to find out the Indians of Garcia.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-EIGHTH. How the governor held a council with his officers and informed them of what was passing.
- CHAPTER THE FIFTY-NINTH. How the governor sent an expedition to the Xarayes.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTIETH. How the interpreters came back from the Xarayes.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-FIRST. How the governor decided on entering the country.
- Ð¡Ð?Ð?PÐ¢Ð?R THE SIXTY-SECOND. How the governor arrived at the Rio Caliente.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-THIRD. How the governor sent to discover the house which was further on.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-FOURTH. How the interpreter returned from the Indian habitation.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-FIFTH. How the governor and his people returned to the Port of Los Reyes.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-SIXTH. How the Indians would have killed those who remained at the Port of Los Reyes.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-SEVENTH. How the governor sent Captain Mendoza in search of provisions.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-EIGHTH. How he sent a brigantine to discover the river of the Xarayes with Captain de Ribera.
- CHAPTER THE SIXTY-NINTH. How Captain Francisco de Ribera returned from his exploration.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTIETH. How Captain Francisco de Ribera reported of his discovery.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-FIRST. How the governor sent for Gonzalo de Mendoza.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-SECOND. How Hernando de Ribera returned from his exploration along the river.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-THIRD. What befell the governor and his people in the port of Los Reyes.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-FOURTH. How the governor, having arrived with his people at the town of Ascension, was made a prisoner.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-FIFTH. How the population assembled before the house of Domingo de Irala.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-SIXTH. Of the tumults and disturbances that took place in the country.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. How the governor was kept in prison.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-EIGHTH. How the insurgents ravaged the land and took possession of the property of the inhabitants.
- CHAPTER THE SEVENTY-NINTH. How the monks left the country.
- CHAPTER THE EIGHTIETH. How they tortured those who were not on their side.
- CHAPTER THE EIGHTY-FIRST. How they wished to kill a sheriff who had made them a requisition.
- CHAPTER THE EIGHTY-SECOND. How the insurgents gave the Indians permission to eat human flesh.
- CHAPTER THE EIGHTY-THIRD. How the insurgents had to write to His Majesty and send him a report.
- CHAPTER THE EIGHTY-FOURTH. How they gave arsenic three times to the governor during the voyage.
- NARRATIVE OF HERNANDO DE RIBERA.