Ask the Experts

How Ford, Rockefeller, and the NEA Changed American Music
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 14. September 2020
  • |
  • 240 Seiten
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-751045-2 (ISBN)
From the end of the Second World War through the U.S. Bicentennial, the National Endowment for the Arts, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Ford Foundation granted close to $300 million (approximately $2.3 billion in 2017 dollars) in the field of music alone. In deciding what to fund, these three grantmaking institutions decided to "ask the experts," adopting seemingly objective, scientific models of peer review and specialist evaluation. They recruited music composers at elite institutions, professors from prestigious universities, and leaders of performing arts organizations. Among the most influential expert-consultants were Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Lukas Foss, and Milton Babbitt. The significance was two-fold: not only were male, Western art composers put in charge of directing large and unprecedented channels of public and private funds, but in doing so they also determined and defined what was meant by artistic excellence. They decided the fate of their peers and shaped the direction of music-making in this country. By asking the experts, the grantmaking institutions produced a concentrated and interconnected field of artists and musicians. Officers and directors utilized ostensibly objective financial tools like matching grants and endowments in an attempt to diversify and stabilize applicants' sources of funding, as well as the number of applicants they funded. Such economics-based strategies, however, relied more on personal connections among the wealthy and elite, rather than local community citizens. Ultimately, this history demonstrates how "expertise" served as an exclusionary form of cultural and social capital that prevented racial minorities and non-dominant groups from fully participating.
  • Englisch
17 figures and charts
  • 14,41 MB
978-0-19-751045-2 (9780197510452)
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Michael Sy Uy,Allston Burr Resident Dean, Harvard College Michael Sy Uy is the Allston Burr Resident Dean of Dunster House, Assistant Dean of Harvard College, and a Lecturer in the Harvard University Department of Music. His main areas of scholarly research focus on philanthropy, arts education, cultural policy, and connoisseurship. In 2018, he was awarded the Distinguished Faculty Award by the Harvard Foundation.
Introduction Part I: Who Were the Experts? Chapter 1: Defining Excellence, Quality, and Style: Consultants as Contributory Experts Chapter 2: Gatekeeping from Within: Grantmaking Officers as Interactional Experts Chapter 3: Pluralism and Public-Private Relationships in the Field of Cultural Production Part II: Experts in Action Chapter 4: The Rockefeller Foundation, the University New Music Center, and "Foundation Music" Chapter 5: The Ford Foundation, Matching Grants, and Endowment Building Chapter 6: The National Endowment for the Arts, the United States Bicentennial, and the Expansion Arts and Jazz-Folk-Ethnic Programs Epilogue Appendix Bibliography
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