Interference Mitigation in Device-to-Device Communications

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 17. März 2022
  • |
  • 240 Seiten
 
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978-1-119-78881-2 (ISBN)
 
Explore this insightful foundational resource for academics and industry professionals dealing with the move toward intelligent devices and networks

Interference Mitigation in Device-to-Device Communications delivers a thorough discussion of device-to-device (D2D) and machine-to-machine (M2M) communications as solutions to the proliferation of ever more data hungry devices being attached to wireless networks. The book explores the use of D2D and M2M technologies as a key enabling component of 5G networks. It brings together a multidisciplinary team of contributors in fields like wireless communications, signal processing, and antenna design.

The distinguished editors have compiled a collection of resources that practically and accessibly address issues in the development, integration, and enhancement of D2D systems to create an interference-free network. This book explores the complications posed by the restriction of device form-factors and the co-location of several electronic components in a small space, as well as the proximity of legacy systems operating in similar frequency bands.

Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:



A thorough introduction to device-to-device communication, including its history and development over the last decade, network architecture, standardization issues, and regulatory and licensing hurdles
An exploration of interference mitigation in device-to-device communication underlaying LTE-A networks
A rethinking of device-to-device interference mitigation, including discussions of the challenges posed by the proliferation of devices
An analysis of user pairing for energy efficient device-to-device content dissemination

Perfect for researchers, academics, and industry professionals working on 5G networks, Interference Mitigation in Device-to-Device Communications will also earn a place in the libraries of undergraduate, graduate, and PhD students conducting research into wireless communications and applications, as well as policy makers and communications industry regulators.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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978-1-119-78881-2 (9781119788812)

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Masood Ur Rehman, PhD, is a Lecturer in Electronic and Nanoscale Engineering at the University of Glasgow, UK. He is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy UK, Senior Member of the IEEE, and Associate Editor of the IEEE Access, IEEE Antennas & Wireless Propagation Letters, Microwave & Optical Technology Letters and IET Electronics Letters.

Ghazanfar Ali Safdar, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer in Computer Networking at the University of Bedfordshire, UK. He is Associate Fellow of Higher Education Academy, UK. He was an R&D Engineer with Carrier Telephone Industries and Schlumberger, France. Dr. Safdar is Editor-in-Chief of EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy Web and Information Technology, Area Editor of Springer Wireless Networks and Topic Editor of MDPI JSAN.

Mohammad Asad Rehman Chaudhry, PhD, MBA,is a thought-leader, innovator and entrepreneur leading multi-disciplinary projects in Digital Disruption and Future-Tech. He has developed strategy recommendations for Fortune 500. Dr. Chaudhry also leads IEEE Standards in Software-Defined and Virtualized Ecosystems.
Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Editors

List of Contributors

Chapter 1: Introduction to D2D Communications

1.1 Evolution of D2D Communication

1.2 D2D Communication in Cellular Spectrum

1.3 Classification of D2D Communication

1.3.1 In-band D2D Communication

1.3.2 Out-band D2D Communication

1.4 Challenges in D2D Implementation

1.5 Book Organization

1.6 Summary

Chapter 2: Interference Mitigation in D2D Communication Underlaying LTE-A Network

2.1 Applicability of D2D Communication

2.2 Interference - The Compelling Issue in D2D

2.3 Types of D2D Communication

2.3.1 In-Band D2D Communication

2.3.1.1Underlay In-Band

2.3.1.2 Overlay In-Band

2.3.2 Out-Band D2D Communication

2.3.2.1 Network-Assisted D2D Communication

2.3.2.2Autonomous D2D Communication

2.4 D2D Communication Underlaying Cellular Network - The Challenges

2.4.1 Device Discovery

2.4.2 Mode Selection

2.4.3 Radio Resource Management

2.4.4 Modification to LTE-A Architecture

2.4.5 Security in D2D

2.4.6 Mobility Management

2.5 Interference Management Techniques in D2D

2.5.1 Power Control Techniques

2.5.2 Radio Resource Allocation Techniques

2.5.3 Joint Power Control and Radio Resource Allocation Techniques

2.5.4 Spectrum Splitting Techniques

2.5.5 Other Interference Mitigation Techniques

2.5.6 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Techniques

2.5.7 Comparative Analysis of D2D Interference Mitigation Techniques

2.6 Summary

Chapter 3: Rethinking D2D Interference: Beyond the Past

3.1 Interference Manipulation

3.1.1 Example

3.2 Formulation of Interference Manipulation Problem

3.3 Matrix Rank Minimization: A Way to Manipulate Interference

3.3.1 Reduction of Interference Manipulation to Matrix Rank Minimization

3.3.2 Minimum Rank Matrix to Transmission Scheme

3.3.3 Does the Field Size Matter?

3.4 Interference Manipulation: A Boolean Satisfiability Approach

3.5 Interference Manipulation: Index Coding Perspective

3.5.1 Interference Manipulation is NP-hard

3.5.2: An Efficient Solution for Interference Manipulation

3.4 Summary

Chapter 4: User Pairing Scheme for Efficient D2D Content Delivery in Cellular Networks

4.1 D2D Content Delivery

4.2 D2D Content Delivery Architecture

4.2.1 Network Model

4.2.2 Channel Model

4.2.3 Content Delivery Model

4.3 D2D Content Delivery Strategies

4.3.1 Pairing Range

4.3.2 Energy Efficiency for Multicast and Unicast

4.3.3 Caching and Delivery

4.4 D2D Delivery Mode Selection

4.5 Performance Evaluation

4.6 Summary

Chapter 5: Resource Allocation for NOMA-based D2D Systems Coexisting with Cellular Networks

5.1 NOMA-based D2D Systems

5.2 System Model and Performance Analysis

5.2.1 System Model and Assumptions

5.2.2 Capacity Analysis of D2D and Cellular Networks

5.2.2.1 Uplink Cellular Networks Transmission

5.2.2.2 Downlink NOMA-D2D Transmission

5.3 Joint Subchannel Assignment and Power Control for D2D Communication

5.3.1 Subchannel Assignment Scheme

5.3.2 Power Control Scheme

5.4 Optimization of D2D Device Pairing

5.5 Results and Discussion

5.5.1 Channel Model

5.5.2 Performance Evaluation

5.6 Summary

Chapter 6: Distributed Multi-Agent RL-Based Autonomous Spectrum Allocation in D2D Enabled Multi-Tier HetNets

6.1 D2D Resource Allocation Methods

6.2 Reinforcement Q-Learning

6.3 System Model

6.4 Resource Allocation in Multi-tier D2D Communication

6.4.1 Autonomous Spectrum Allocation Scheme

6.5 Performance Evaluation

6.5.1 Performance of D2D Users

6.5.2 Performance of Cellular Users

6.5.3 Coverage Analysis

6.5.4 Computational Time Analysis

6.5.5 Memory Requirements

6.5.6 Effect of Base Stations Density

6.5.7 Effect of Network Tiers

6.6 Summary

Chapter 7: Adaptive Interference Aware Device-to-Device Enabled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communications

7.1 Key Elements in D2D Communication

7.1.1 D2D Network Discovery

7.1.2 SWIPT for D2D

7.1.3 Resource Allocation

7.1.4 3GPP Standardization

7.2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in D2D

7.2.1 Key Challenges in UAV-based D2D

7.2.2 Transmission over PC5 Interface for UAV-based D2D Discovery

7.2.3 Interference in UAV-based D2D

7.3 Summary

Chapter 8: Emergency Device-to-Device Communication: Applicability, Case Studies and Interference Mitigation

8.1 Emergency D2D Communication

8.2 Approaches for Efficient Emergency D2D Communication

8.3 Emergency D2D Communication: Case Studies

8.4 Interference Mitigation in Emergency D2D Communication

8.4.1 Radiated Power Management

8.4.2 Frequency Allocation

8.4.2.1 Hybrid Schemes for Power Control and Intelligent Frequency Allocation

8.4.3 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

8.4.4 Adjacent Channel Interference Cancellation in DSRC

8.4.5 Use of MIMO Antennas

8.4.5.1 Beam Steering in 3GPP 5G NR Supported Vehicular Systems

8.5 Summary

Chapter 9: Disaster Management Using D2D Communication With Power Transfer and Clustering Techniques

9.1 D2D Communication in Disaster Management

9.2 D2D Communication in Disaster Management: Key Considerations

9.3 D2D Disaster Management System Architecture

9.3.1 Time Switching Based Protocol

9.3.2 Network Configuration

9.3.3 Outage Probability for Mode Selection

9.4 Power Transfer Using Relaying and Clustering in D2D Disaster Management

9.4.1 System Model

9.4.2 Performance Evaluation

9.5 Results and Discussion

9.6 Summary

Chapter 10: Road Ahead for D2D Communications

10.1 Future Prospects and Challenges

10.1.1 Spectrum Sharing and Coexistence

10.1.2 Standardization

10.1.3 Secure Communication

10.1.4 Energy Consumption and Energy Harvesting

10.1.5 Interreference Management

10.1.6 Resource Allocation

10.1.7 Device Discovery

10.1.8 Handover

10.1.9 D2D in Vehicular Communications

10.1.10 D2D in Disaster Management

10.1.11 D2D at Millimeter Wave Frequencies

10.1.12 D2D and Social Networks

10.1.13 D2D and Visible Light Communication

Index

1
Introduction to D2D Communications


Ghazanfar Ali Safdar1, Masood Ur Rehman2, and Mohammad Asad Rehman Chaudhry3

1 School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, United Kingdom

2 James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

3 Soptimizer, Canada

A perceptible upsurge has been discerned in wireless data traffic in recent years due to the occurrence of numerous new applications, thereby imposing an abrupt requirement for a large capacity network. Among them, multimedia applications such as high definition (HD) video streaming, HD video conferencing, and online gaming are most common [1]. Another factor impacting wireless data traffic is the primer of smart wearable technology such as watches, air pods and wrist band. In the near future, these devices would increase tenfold or even more, and their presence ensures more and more usage of smart wireless devices. For majority of the users, the wireless cellular network is the main access system for the internet due to its universal availability. According to Cisco white paper [2], there will be 12.3?billion mobile-connected devices by 2022 and mobile will represent 20 percent of total IP traffic, and global mobile data traffic will increase sevenfold between 2017 and 2022, reaching 77.5 exabytes per month by 2022. This pretense new contest to those working in the field of cellular communication and operators is deploying more and more wireless links between terminals with radio networking to meet the required demand.

1.1 D2D Communication


Existing device-to-device (D2D) technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi direct are available for thorough communication between two devices in close contiguity. They can associate different types of devices since the level of compatibility between modern devices is very high. The pairing procedure is considerably easy and both technologies simplify the entire pairing process by making enabled devices readily discoverable to one another [3]. Devices can communicate over a reliable communication channel with a moderate date rate and latency. Since the communication range is limited in these technologies, mobile device benefits from low power consumption that improves the battery life of the devices. In addition, it allows different devices to connect and communicate with each other without the need of an additional infrastructure.

Despite all the above benefits, both technologies have some limitations like single hop communication, limited range, latency, and moderate data. Both technologies are operated in the unlicensed band; hence, interference is eminent due to the number of devices already operated in that band [4]. Also, on an unlicensed band, the maximum transmit power constraint confines communication to a limited range. Both technologies have asynchronous nature, and the device receiver is supposed to continuously monitor the channel. The reason for this channel monitoring (idle listening) is not to miss the discovery signal from other devices, but this can drain the device battery significantly. Finally, to establish a reliable communication, the users are responsible for the discovery and initiation mechanism, and there is no centralized control. All of the above factors are the main obstacles in the integration of both technologies with next generation of mobile networks and they fail to act as a D2D on large scale. Another most common technology operated in the unlicensed band is Wi-Fi that has already assisted cellular networks in offloading local traffic and easing congestion. But its implementation requires a setup of access points connected to the internet and performance degrades as the number of user increases.

The diversity of radio accessing in mobile users provides lots of flexibility for D2D communication in terms of link establishment, resource allocation, energy efficiency, as well as applications and services. D2D communication enables researchers to merge together the achievements of long-term development in previously two disjoint networking techniques, i.e. ad-hoc networking and centralized networking. D2D users can form clusters or multihop routes, operates autonomously or under partial or full control of the operator. On the other hand, with the assistance of the operator, it is possible to achieve network-wide performance optimization after properly allocating frequency bands to D2D pairs and managing the interference there. D2D communication in cellular band is a very flexible communication technique with unique advantages over existing D2D techniques. D2D in cellular band can significantly enhance the cellular communication in terms of system capacity, coverage, throughput, latency, and user experience [1]. D2D communication can offload traffic from the serving base station by quickly exchanging a large amount of data among mobile devices in short range and alleviate congestion in the cellular core network.

In addition to that, D2D can also support local area services such as content distribution, local advertisement, and location aware services very effectively through unicast, groupcast, and broadcast transmission. A D2D in-coverage user can also act as a relay and extend the existing coverage of a serving base station and benefits the device that is on the edge of the cell boundary to experience better coverage [1]. The serving base station has the overall view of the entire cell, and it can facilitate D2D communication in different aspect, for example, finding the neighboring devices, reducing the transmitting power, and providing a suitable environment for communication. D2D implementation in cellular network does not require additional infrastructure and hence suppresses the high implementation costs. Undoubtedly, the reduction in transmission delay and offloading traffic from the existing base station to eases congestion in the cellular core network are the driving factors toward its addition in next generation of mobile networks [4].

In recent research, there are various attractive benefits of D2D in terms of spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, through put, and signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR). However, it is still unknown that if these gains could be fully utilized in the practice. In D2D communication, in spite of having many advantages, there are still many open challenges for the successful implementation of this technology. In particular, D2D communication will require efficient device discovery mechanisms (among devices in close proximity), intelligent mode selection (D2D or cellular mode) algorithms, complex resource management techniques (to avoid interference), and robust security protocols. Interference management is one of the compelling areas in D2D communication, and researchers have proposed different schemes, protocols, and methods to reduce interface. It is quite beneficial from a capacity and spectral efficiency point of view that D2D users reuse the same cellular resource for D2D communication. But it generates interference and requires different techniques to ensure that the quality of service (QoS) of a cellular link is not degraded because of D2D communication.

1.2 Evolution of D2D Communication


The wireless revolution in telecommunication begun in 1990s with the introduction of cellular network and has been driven by advances in radio frequency (RF) and microwave engineering [11]. In the past, infrared (IR) wireless technology was used for point-to-point links that use devices that are inexpensive, compact, lightweight, and consume low power. The limitations of IR technology were short distance, mobility of devices during transmission, and line-of-sight (LOS) requirement between transmitter and receiver. Unlike IR, the RF technology was effectively used for a long-distance communication that can penetrate through obstacles and does not require a LOS. RF technology operates in the range of 3?kHz-300?GHz and used for communication and broadcasting. The radio spectrum is divided into different segments and assigned to different technology industries, for example, very high frequency (VHF) band that ranges from 30 to 300?MHz is assigned to FM radio and TV broadcast, while ultra-high frequency (UHF) is dedicated to cellular, wireless local area network (WLAN), and Bluetooth, etc.

Current D2D technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi direct operate in unlicensed industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band; therefore, the interference with other devices operated in similar band is uncontrollable. Both suffers from limitations such as single hop communication, interference, limited range, latency, moderate data rate, and no centralized control. The burden of device discovery and communication initiation is also upon the user to establish a successful and reliable communication. The biggest obstacle is the inherit architecture of both technologies that does not allow a centralized controller to control and manage the D2D communication. Future cellular nodes would have the global view of the entire cell, and they can effectively manage the available resources for a successful D2D communication. The diversity of cellular communication provides lots of flexibility for D2D communication in terms of link establishment,...

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