Neurovirology

Handbook of Clinical Neurology Series (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller, Swaab)
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. Juli 2014
  • |
  • 808 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-4539-4 (ISBN)
 

This volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series provides a complete review of the history, science and current state of neurovirology. It covers the science and clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of viruses of the brain and central nervous system, and is a trusted resource for scholars, scientists, neuroscientists, neurologists, virologists, and pharmacologists working on neurovirology.

Neurovirology has been significantly bolstered by modern technologies such as PCR and MRI with direct impact on isolating viruses and advancing therapeutics based on molecular medicine. These advances are particularly important today with the introduction of emerging and re-emerging diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Nipah encephalitis and the appearance of West Nile encephalitis in the western hemisphere.


*Detailed coverage of neurovirology from the basic science to clinical presentation

*Covers advances in neurovirology via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and MRI technology

*Covers emerging and re-emerging diseases including HIV/AIDS, Nipah encephalitis, and the appearance of West Nile encephalitis in the western hemisphere

0072-9752
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Niederlande
Elsevier Science
  • 62,45 MB
978-0-7020-4539-4 (9780702045394)
070204539X (070204539X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Neurovirology
  • Copyright
  • Available titles
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  • Contents
  • Section 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 1: A history of viral infections of the central nervous system: foundations, milestones, and patterns
  • Introduction
  • Foundations
  • Hippocratic medicine and Galen
  • Germ theory of disease: Pasteur and Koch
  • The discovery of viruses
  • Tobacco mosaic virus
  • Foot and mouth disease
  • Yellow fever
  • Milestones
  • The first ``filterable´´ viral diseases of the nervous system: rabies and polio
  • Rabies
  • Polio
  • Epidemics of viral encephalitis
  • St. Louis encephalitis
  • Japanese B encephalitis
  • Australian X disease and Murray Valley encephalitis
  • Western equine encephalomyelitis
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE)
  • West Nile fever
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)
  • Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Powasson virus
  • California encephalitis/La Crosse encephalitis
  • Nipah encephalitis
  • Sporadic viral encephalitis
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
  • Postvaccinial encephalomyelitis
  • Neuroparalytic accidents following rabies treatment
  • Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and ADEM
  • Gray matter and ADEM
  • PNS in ADEM
  • Relapsing ADEM
  • Slow viral encephalitis/encephalopathy
  • Viral aseptic meningitis
  • Wallgren and acute aseptic meningitis
  • Viral myelitis
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Herpes B virus
  • Rabies
  • Herpes family viruses
  • Chronic retroviral myelitis
  • Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP)
  • HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy
  • Conclusions: patterns observed and patterns predicted
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Basics of Virology
  • Introduction
  • What is a Virus?
  • Virus Taxonomy and Nomenclature
  • Virion Structure
  • Virus Origins and Evolution
  • Virus Origins
  • Virus and Host Coevolution
  • Mechanisms of Mutation
  • Evolution in the Host
  • Virus Replication Cycles
  • Overview
  • Entry
  • Gene Expression
  • Genome Replication
  • Assembly and Egress
  • Neurotropic Viruses
  • dsDna Viruses (Baltimore Class I)
  • Herpesviruses
  • Polyomaviruses
  • Poxviruses
  • Reoviridae
  • Rna Viruses
  • Positive-strand Rna Viruses (Baltimore class IV)
  • Picornaviruses
  • Flaviviruses
  • Togaviruses
  • Coronaviruses
  • Negative-strand Rna Viruses (Baltimore class V)
  • Arenaviruses
  • Bunyaviruses
  • Orthomyxoviruses
  • Paramyxoviruses
  • Rhabdoviruses
  • Reverse Transcribing Viruses (Baltimore class VI)
  • Retroviruses
  • Fundamental Aspects of Viral Pathogenesis
  • Immunity to Viruses
  • Diagnosis of Viral Infections
  • Antivirals
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Neuroepidemiology and the Epidemiology of Viral Infections Of the Nervous System
  • Introduction
  • A Brief Overview of Neuroepidemiology
  • Basic Epidemiologic Terms and Concepts (Lilienfeld and Stolley, 1994)
  • Epidemiologic Studies (Lilienfeld And Stolley, 1994)
  • Epidemiology of Viral Infections of the Nervous System
  • Mechanisms of viral-mediated Neurologic disease
  • Factors Influencing the Epidemiology Of viral Cns Disease
  • Epidemiology of Viral Neurologic Infections (Table3.1)
  • Encephalitis
  • Aseptic Meningitis
  • Anterior Myelitis
  • Myelopathy
  • Chronic Viral Cns Infections/prion Disease
  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
  • Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD) And other prionopathies
  • Epidemiology of Emerging Viral Neurologic diseases
  • The Introduction Or Emergence of an Infectious Agent Outside Its Endemic area
  • West Nile virus
  • Monkeypox
  • The Emergence of a Novel Infectious agent
  • Deliberate Release of an Otherwise Uncommon but Virulent Agent in an Act of Bioterrorism Or Biowarfare
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Clinical approach to the syndromes of viral encephalitis, myelitis, and meningitis
  • Introduction
  • Definitions of viral central nervous system infection syndromes
  • Acute syndromes
  • Delayed acute, subacute, and chronic viral disease processes
  • Host factors
  • Viral encephalitis
  • General features
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Encephalopathy
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • HSV encephalitis
  • Parainfectious immune-mediated encephalomyelitis
  • Systemic autoimmune diseases which may present like viral encephalitis
  • Encephalitis mediated by specific autoantibodies to CNS neuronal receptor targets
  • Non-viral infections that can mimic viral encephalitis
  • Important clues to specific etiologies of viral encephalitis
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical features suggestive of specific viruses
  • Viral tropism within the brain
  • Laboratory diagnosis
  • Viral meningitis
  • General features
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Bacterial meningitis and HSV encephalitis
  • Non-viral causes of aseptic meningitis
  • Important clues to specific etiologies of viral meningitis
  • Viral myelitis
  • Definition of spinal cord syndromes
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Spinal cord tropism
  • Non-infectious mimics of viral myelitis
  • Non-viral causes of infectious myelitis
  • Clinical presentation and initial evaluation of suspected viral myelitis
  • Common viral causes of myelitis
  • Herpesviruses
  • Enteroviruses
  • Flaviviruses
  • Suggested investigations for viral CNS infections
  • Suggested treatment for CNS viral infection
  • Viral encephalitis
  • Viral meningitis
  • Viral myelitis
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infection
  • Introduction
  • General Principles of Laboratory viral Diagnosis
  • Viral Diagnostic Methods
  • Conventional Cell Culture
  • Rapid Cultures
  • Serology
  • Traditional Serologic Methods
  • Solid-phase Immunoassays
  • IgM Antibody Assays
  • Latex Agglutination
  • Lateral Flow Immunochromatography
  • Immunoblot Assays
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Histopathology and Cytology
  • Viral Antigen Detection
  • Spia
  • Immunofluorescence
  • Lateral Flow Immunochromatography
  • Latex Agglutination
  • Nucleic Acid Detection
  • Conventional PCR
  • Extraction
  • Amplification
  • Detection
  • Real-time PCR
  • Multiplex Methods
  • Non-PCR Molecular Techniques
  • Newer Molecular Platforms
  • Genotype, Phenotype, and Antiviral Resistance
  • Lack of Standardization of Quantitative Molecular Tests
  • Regulatory Requirements and Availability Of molecular Testing
  • Sample Collection and Transport
  • Summary and Interpretation of test Results
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Neuroimaging of Viral Infections of the Central Nervous System
  • Basic Principles of Imaging
  • Herpesviruses
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1)
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)
  • Varizella-zoster Virus (VZV)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)
  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)
  • Herpesvirus Simiae (B-virus)
  • Arbovirus
  • Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan Equine encephalitis
  • St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE)
  • West Nile Encephalitis
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Tick-borne Encephalitis
  • Dengue fever
  • Chikungunya fever
  • Rift Valley fever
  • La Crosse Encephalitis
  • Nipah and Hendra virus
  • Adenovirus
  • Arenaviruses
  • Hepatitis C
  • Human Immunodeficiency virus
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
  • Human T-lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I)
  • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE)
  • Rabies Encephalitis
  • Mumps Encephalitis
  • Enteroviral Encephalitis
  • Influenza
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Viral neuropathogenesis
  • Principles of viral pathogenesis
  • Viral invasion and spread to the CNS
  • Infection of the peripheral nervous system
  • Mechanisms of neural spread
  • Neuroinvasion from the blood
  • Sites of replication in the CNS
  • Viral strains
  • The role of cellular receptors
  • Neurotropic versus pantropic virus strains
  • Neurovirulence
  • Neuroinvasiveness
  • Immune response and protection
  • Primary infection and the role of antibody versus cellular immunity
  • Clearance of CNS virus infection
  • Secondary infection and protection against CNS invasion
  • Virus-induced immunopathology of the nervous system
  • Persistent viral infections of the CNS
  • Immunotolerant persistence
  • Latent persistence
  • Smoldering persistence
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Neuropathology of Viral Infections
  • General Pathologic Features of Viral Encephalitis
  • Role of Neuropathologic Evaluation
  • Central Nervous System Viral Infections Typically Presenting as an Acute Illness
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Pathology
  • Herpes Simplex Virus
  • Pathology
  • Varicella-zoster
  • Pathology
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Pathology
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Pathology
  • Rabies Virus
  • Pathology
  • West Nile Virus
  • Pathology
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus
  • Pathology
  • Central Nervous System Viral Infections Typically Associated With a Subacute Or Chronic Course
  • Measles Virus
  • Pathology
  • Jc Virus (progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy)
  • Pathology
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Pathology
  • HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis
  • Pathology
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Innate Immune Viral Recognition
  • Innate Immune Signaling Pathways
  • Toll-like Receptors
  • RIG-1 Like Receptors
  • The Inflammasome and Nod-like Receptors
  • Cellular Components of the Innate Immune Response
  • Monocyte-macrophages
  • Microglia
  • Dendritic cells
  • Non-immune cells
  • Innate Immune Responses in Cns Viral Infections
  • Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
  • West Nile Virus: Evasion of Host Innate Immune Defenses
  • Chronic Infection: HIV
  • CNS Autoimmunity: ADEM And MS
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Adaptive Immune Response to Viral Infections In the central nervous System
  • Viral Infection
  • Adaptive Immune Response: General
  • Adaptive Immune Response: Outside The CNS
  • Adaptive Immune Response: Inside the CNS
  • Getting Into The CNS
  • Once in The CNS
  • Viral Clearance Versus Viral Persistence
  • Adaptive Immune Response to Specific Neurotropic Viruses
  • West Nile virus
  • Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine encephalitis Viruses
  • Rabies virus
  • Influenza virus
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus
  • Poliovirus
  • Measles virus
  • Rubella virus
  • Mumps virus
  • Retroviruses
  • HIV-1
  • HTLV-1
  • Herpesviruses
  • JC virus
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Section 2: DNA Viruses
  • Chapter 11: Herpes Simplex virus
  • Introduction
  • Viral Composition and Replication
  • Immunology and Viral Defense
  • Latency, Reactivation, and Neurovirulence
  • Epidemiology
  • Central Nervous System Pathology
  • Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infections
  • In utero Hsv Disease
  • Disseminated Disease
  • Neonatal Cns Disease (encephalitis)
  • Sem Disease
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Hsv Encephalitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Other Neurologic Syndromes
  • Aseptic Meningitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Myelitis and Radiculitis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Varicella-zoster
  • Introduction
  • VZV genome
  • VZV latency
  • VZV epidemiology
  • Reactivation of VZV
  • Pathology of herpes zoster
  • Treatment of herpes zoster
  • Neurologic complications of zoster
  • Postherpetic neuralgia
  • Zoster paresis
  • VZV meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoradiculitis, and cerebellitis
  • VZV vasculopathy
  • VZV myelopathy
  • VZV-induced ocular disorders
  • Zoster sine herpete (radicular pain in the absence of rash)
  • Other neurologic disease produced by VZV reactivation without rash
  • Diagnostic tests
  • VZV DNA in human saliva
  • VZV-specific immunity
  • Prevention of zoster
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Epstein-Barr Virus Infections of the Nervous System
  • Introduction and a Brief History
  • The Structure and Biology Of Ebv
  • Pathogenesis of Ebv-related Diseases, Including the Nervous system
  • Diagnosis of Acute Ebv Infection
  • Ebv-related Neurologic Disease
  • Aseptic Meningitis
  • Ebv Encephalitis
  • Neuropathology of Ebv Infection
  • Imaging and Electroencephalographic Findings
  • Csf Findings
  • Cranial Nerve palsy
  • Transverse Myelitis
  • Cerebellar Ataxia
  • Psychiatric Manifestations in Acute Ebv infection
  • Alice in Wonderland Syndrome
  • Acute Hemiplegia
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Other Peripheral Neuropathies
  • Neurologic Manifestations of Ebv-driven Lymphoproliferative Disorders
  • Primary Cns Lymphoma
  • Burkitt's Lymphoma
  • X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disorder
  • Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder
  • Other Lpds
  • Treatment
  • Ebv and Multiple Sclerosis
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Cytomegalovirus Infections of the Adult Human Nervous System
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Basic Virology
  • Viral Structure
  • Gene Organization
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Acute Systemic Cmv Infection In the adult
  • Host With Intact Immunity
  • Immunosuppressed Host (Hiv, Transplant, Cancer Chemotherapy)
  • Cmv Infection of the Nervous System in the Adult (normal and Immunosuppressed)
  • Clinical Presentation and Course
  • Encephalitis
  • Immunocompetent hosts
  • Aids-associated Cmv Encephalitis
  • Cmv Encephalitis in Transplant And chemotherapy Patients
  • Cmv Encephalitis in Other Forms Of immunodeficiency
  • Cmv Polyradiculomyelopthy and Peripheral Mononeuropathy Multiplex
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Imaging
  • Csf Findings
  • Eeg
  • Therapy
  • Ganciclovir, Foscarnet, and Cidofovir
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
  • Epidemiology
  • Systemic Clinical and Laboratory Manifestations
  • Neurologic Manifestations
  • Microbiologic Diagnosis
  • Neuroimaging
  • Treatment and Prevention
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Human herpesvirus 6 and the Nervous System
  • Human herpesvirus 6 and the Nervous System
  • Introduction
  • Biology
  • Structure
  • Tropism
  • Latency
  • Pathogenesis
  • Epidemiology
  • Viral Detection
  • Spectrum of Clinical Disease
  • Immunocompetent host
  • Immunocompromised host
  • Neoplasia
  • Cns Disease
  • Febrile Seizures
  • Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Antigen and Pcr Assays
  • Serologic Assays
  • Virus Culture and Lymphoproliferative Assays
  • Pathogenesis
  • Antiviral Treatment
  • Encephalitis
  • Immunocompetent host
  • Immunocompromised host
  • Causality
  • Imaging
  • Outcomes
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Cognitive Dysfunction After Hct
  • Myelitis
  • Cns Malignancy
  • Treatment
  • Ganciclovir and Acyclovir
  • Foscarnet
  • Cidofovir
  • Prophylaxis
  • Resistance and New Treatments
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
  • Introduction
  • Molecular Biology of Jc virus
  • Pathogenesis Of Pml
  • Epidemiology of Jc virus
  • Host Factors and Underlying Diseases
  • Pml in the Era Of aids
  • Pml in Other Populations
  • Clinical Disease
  • Neuroimaging
  • Laboratory Studies
  • Pathology
  • Diagnosis
  • Pml-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Risk Mitigation Strategies
  • References
  • Section 3: RNA Viruses
  • Chapter 18: Enterovirus/Picornavirus Infections
  • History
  • Classification
  • Physical and Biochemical Properties
  • Viral Replication
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Geographic Distribution and Seasonal activity
  • Age and sex
  • Other Predisposing Factors
  • Endemic and Epidemic Patterns
  • Poliomyelitis in the Postvaccine era
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Extraneural Infection
  • Central Nervous System Invasion
  • Infection With the Central Nervous System
  • Neurovirulence and Attenuation
  • Immunity
  • Innate Immunity
  • Circulating Antibody/B-cell Responses
  • Local Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Antibody
  • Local Antibody Production in the Cns And viral Clearance
  • Cellular Immunity
  • Emerging Human Pathogens
  • Ev-71 Rhombencephalitis/brainstem Encephalitis
  • Cardioviruses
  • Disease Syndromes
  • Aseptic Meneingitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Paralytic Disease
  • Acute Cerebellar Ataxia
  • Cranial Nerve Palsies
  • Uncommon Neurologic Syndromes
  • Chronic (persistent) Enterovirus Infections
  • Postpolio Syndrome and Postpoliomyelitis Progressive Muscular Atrophy
  • Non-neurologic Syndromes
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Enterovirus Infections
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • Chapter 19: The equine encephalitides
  • Introduction
  • Virology
  • Viral structure and morphology
  • Viral replication
  • Growth in tissue culture
  • Pathogenesis
  • Pathology
  • Eastern equine encephalitis
  • Epidemiology
  • Infection of non-human species
  • Human infection
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention and treatment
  • Western equine encephalitis
  • Epidemiology
  • Infection in non-human species
  • Human infection
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention and treatment
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis
  • Epidemiology
  • Infection in non-human species
  • Infection in humans
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and prevention
  • References
  • Chapter 20: West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis Viruses
  • Introduction
  • West Nile virus
  • Epidemiology
  • Virology
  • Pathogenesis
  • West Nile fever
  • Clinical Features
  • West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease
  • Laboratory Features
  • Serology
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Chemistry and Hematology
  • Imaging
  • Eeg And Emg
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • St. Louis Encephalitis
  • References
  • Chapter 21: The Bunyaviridae
  • Introduction: the Family Bunyaviridae
  • Phleboviruses: Rift Valley Fever Virus and Toscana virus
  • Rift Valley Fever virus
  • Toscana virus
  • Orthobunyaviruses: La Crosse Virus and Cache Valley virus
  • La Crosse virus
  • Cache Valley virus
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Human Endogenous Retroviruses and the Nervous System
  • Human Endogenous Retroviruses
  • Herv Lifecycles: the Past and the Present
  • Herv Genomic Structures
  • Induction of Hervs in The Cns
  • Hervs in Neurologic Diseases
  • Hervs Triggered By Infectious Diseases of the Cns
  • Hervs in Multiple Sclerosis
  • Hervs in Schizophrenia
  • Hervs in Motor Neuron Disease
  • Hervs in Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
  • Pathologic Consequences of Herv Expression in the Nervous System
  • Toxicity and Immunomodulation By Herv Envelope Proteins
  • Immune Response to Hervs in the Nervous System
  • Can Resident Cns Cells Respond To Herv expression?
  • How Herv Expression Can Trigger Adaptive immune Responses
  • Genetic Polymorphisms in the Host May Contribute to Varied Clinical Outcomes Related to Herv Expression
  • Future Directions in Herv Research and Therapy for Herv-associated Neurologic Diseases
  • Current and Novel Therapies for Herv-associated Neurologic Diseases
  • State-of-the-art in Herv Research: Herv polymorphisms, Transcriptome, And proteome
  • Capitulation
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Central Nervous System Hiv-1 Infection
  • Introduction
  • History and Terminology
  • Character and Evolution of Csf Hiv-1 Infection
  • Cns Inflammation and Immune Activation
  • Neuropathology and Pathogenesis of Brain Injury
  • Had And Hive
  • Chronic ``asymptomatic´´ Infection And milder Brain Injury
  • Clinical Presentation And diagnosis
  • More Severe Disease in Untreated Patients: Had
  • Milder Presentations in Untreated Patients: Mnd And Ani
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of hand
  • Clinical Context
  • Neuroimaging
  • Csf Analysis
  • Treatment
  • Initiating Art For Had
  • Management of Treated Patients With Milder Cognitive Impairment
  • Symptomatic Csf Escape
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Neurologic disease due to HTLV-1 infection
  • History
  • Epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection
  • Basic virology of HTLV-1
  • Immune response to HTLV-1 infection
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
  • HTLV-1 Myelopathy and encephalomyelitis
  • Representative case
  • Clinical features of HAM/TSP
  • History
  • Neurologic exam
  • Course and prognosis
  • Laboratory studies
  • Cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities
  • Imaging
  • Electroencephalography and evoked potentials
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Pathology and pathogenesis
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • The role of the blood-brain barrier in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP
  • Mechanisms of tissue injury in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Antiviral strategies
  • Immunomodulating strategies
  • Corticosteroids
  • Interferons
  • Plasmapheresis and IVIG
  • Anti-IL-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies
  • Anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibodies
  • Valproic acid
  • Supportive therapy
  • Conclusions regarding therapies
  • Other neurologic disorders
  • HTLV-1 inflammatory myopathy/polymyositis and inclusion body myositis
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like disease and HTLV-1
  • HTLV-1 polyneuropathy
  • Autonomic neuropathy
  • Uveitis/retinal vasculitis
  • Other aspects of HTLV-1 biology
  • Non-neurologic disease reported in association with HTLV-1 infection
  • Animal models
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Tick-borne Encephalitis
  • Introduction
  • Virology, Classification Evolution, and Viral Dynamics
  • Epidemiology and Vector Ecology
  • Geographic Distibution of Tev Subtypes and vectors
  • Ixodes Lifecycle and Tbev Transmission in nature
  • Risk Assessment for Human Tbe and Definitions of Endemicity
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prophylaxis
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection
  • Introduction
  • Historic Perspective
  • Epidemiology
  • Enzootic cycle
  • Epidemiology of Human Disease
  • Geographic Distribution Of Jev
  • Virology
  • Clinical Features
  • Encephalitis
  • Acute Flaccid Paralysis
  • Outcome
  • Investigations
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Viral Entry and Replication
  • Inflammatory Changes
  • Innate Immunity
  • Humoral Immunity
  • Cellular Immunity
  • Management
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Vaccines
  • Mouse Brain Inactivated Vaccines
  • Live Attenuated Vaccine
  • More Recent Vaccine Developments
  • Recommendations on who Should Be Vaccinated
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Measles Virus and the Nervous System
  • Introduction
  • Basic Measles Pathogenesis
  • Measles virus
  • Cellular Receptors
  • Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Neurologic Complications
  • Autoimmune Disease
  • MeV Infection of The Cns
  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
  • Measles Inclusion Body Encephalitis
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Mumps and Rubella
  • Mumps
  • Introduction and Basic Virology
  • Neuropathogenesis and Animal models
  • Human Illnesses
  • Neurologic Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Rubella
  • Introduction and Basic Virology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Systemic Illnesses
  • Neurologic Manifestations
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Rabies
  • Introduction
  • History of Rabies
  • Rabies virus
  • Pathogenesis
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Disease
  • Laboratory Investigations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Management of Rabies
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Neurologic Aspects of Influenza Viruses
  • Introduction
  • Influenza virus
  • Influenza Viral Replication
  • General Principles of the Immune Response to Influenza virus
  • Pathogenesis of Influenza Infections
  • Neurologic Syndromes Associated With Standard Human Influenza A and B virus
  • 1918 Influenza H1N1 Pandemic
  • Encephalitis Lethargica
  • Postencephalitic Parkinsonism (Pep)
  • Reye's Syndrome
  • Influenza, Influenza Vaccine, and Guillain-Barre Syndrome
  • Myalgia and Myositis Associated With Influenza
  • Myocarditis Associated With influenza
  • Febrile Seizures Associated With influenza
  • Encephalopathy With Or Without seizures Associated With Influenza
  • Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy Associated With influenza
  • Neurologic Syndromes Associated With Avian Influenza h5n1
  • Conclusion and Future of Influenza Infections of Humans
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Neurologic complications of hepatic viruses
  • Introduction
  • The spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations
  • Hepatitis a virus
  • Background
  • Pathogenesis
  • Extrahepatic manifestations
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Management and course
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Background
  • Pathogenesis
  • Extrahepatic manifestations
  • Muscle
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Central nervous system
  • Antiviral treatment
  • Side-effects of therapy
  • Management and course
  • Hepatitis C Virus
  • Background
  • Pathogenesis
  • Extrahepatic manifestations
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Muscle
  • Central nervous system
  • Antiviral treatment
  • Side-effects of therapy
  • Management and course
  • Hepatitis E virus
  • Background
  • Pathogenesis
  • Extrahepatic manifestations
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Management and course
  • Other hepatic viruses
  • Conclusion
  • Dedication
  • Note added in proof
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Henipavirus Encephalitis
  • Introduction
  • The Henipavirus
  • Epidemiology
  • The Reservoir host
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathology
  • Laboratory, Radiologic, and Diagnostic Investigations
  • Relapsed and late-onset Encephalitis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Diseases of the central nervous system caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and other arenaviruses
  • Introduction
  • Morphology
  • Viral genome organization
  • Viral proteins
  • Small-animal model systems
  • Human illnesses
  • LCMV
  • LCMV infection in pregnancy
  • LCMV in the immunosuppressed
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • Lassa fever
  • Argentine hemorrhagic fever
  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
  • Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 4: Other Topics Concerning Viral Or Presumed Viral Infections of the Cns
  • Chapter 34: Nervous System Viral Infections in Immunocompromised hosts
  • Introduction
  • Diagnostic Approach
  • Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
  • Terminology
  • Complications
  • Early Period (1 month to 6 months Posttransplant)
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Immune Reconsititution Inflammatory Syndrome
  • Late Period (more than 6 months Posttransplant)
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
  • Solid-organ Transplantation
  • Early Period (1 month After Sot)
  • Varicella-zoster virus
  • Hhv-6, Hhv-7, and Hhv-8
  • Ebv Ptld, Lymphoma, and Other Secondary neoplasms
  • Late Events After Sot
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
  • Hematologic Malignancies Treated Without Transplantation
  • Rituximab
  • Vzv in non-transplant Cancer patients
  • Primary Brain tumor
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Opportunistic Viral Infections in Patients With Other Rheumatologic/autoimmune Disorders
  • Other Systemic Diseases and Treatments: what is an Immunocompromised host?
  • General Management and disease-specific Treatment Guidelines
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • Introduction
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Presentation of Adem And variants
  • Adult Adem
  • Radiologic Characteristics
  • Histopathology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Vaccines and Viral / toxin-associated Neurologic Infections
  • Introduction
  • Vaccines and Vaccine Immunology
  • Vaccines for Neurologic Infections (table36.1)
  • Vaccines for Infections Occasionally Resulting in Neurologic Disease
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • Influenza
  • Vaccines for Infections Predominantly Associated With Neurologic Disease
  • Viral Infections
  • Poliovirus
  • Rabies
  • Arboviral Diseases (Japanese Encephalitis, tick-borne Encephalitis, Eastern/Western/Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis)
  • Varicella-zoster virus
  • Toxoid Vaccines
  • Neurologic Adverse Events Following Immunizations
  • Possible Mechanisms of Neurologic Aefi
  • Vaccines and Specific Neurologic Adverse Events
  • Vaccines and Guillain-barr Syndrome
  • Vaccinations and Multiple Sclerosis
  • Vaccinations and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • Vaccines and ``encephalopathy´´
  • Vaccines and Autism
  • Vaccines and the Risk of Relapse of Neurologic Disease
  • Surveillance and Monitoring for Adverse Events Following Immunization
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Encephalitis Lethargica (von Economo´s Encephalitis)
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Transmission
  • Etiology
  • The Infectious Disease Hypothesis
  • The Autoimmune Hypothesis
  • Clinical Illness
  • Acute Encephalitis Lethargica (El)
  • Chronic Neurologic Sequelae Of encephalitis lethargica
  • Relationship Between the Acute and Chronic forms
  • Pathology
  • Differential Diagnosis and Modern cases
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Bell´s Palsy and Vestibular Neuronitis
  • Anatomic Considerations
  • Facial Nerve (cranial Nerve (Cn) Vii) Anatomy
  • Vestibular Nerve Anatomy
  • Bell's palsy
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Vestibular Neuritis
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Etiology and Histopathogenesis
  • Treatment
  • References
  • Index
Chapter 1

A history of viral infections of the central nervous system


foundations, milestones, and patterns


John Booss1,*; Alex C. Tselis2    1 Departments of Neurology and Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, VA Connecticut, West Haven, CT, USA
2 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
* Correspondence to: John Booss, Professor Emeritus, Yale University School of Medicine, Neurology Service, VA Connecticut, West Haven, CT 06516, USA. email address: john.booss@yale.edu

Abstract


For millennia, infectious diseases were viewed as the result of malignant supernatural forces or punishments by angry gods for human transgressions. In the 19th century several advances occurred. Medicine became based on clinical observations; Rudolph Virchow laid the foundation of cellular pathology; Louis Pasteur dismantled the notion of spontaneous generation, and Robert Koch established the fundamental techniques of bacteriology, together creating the revolutionary paradigm shift of germ theory.

Virology was born in the last decade of the 19th century in the study of tobacco mosaic virus; the crucial characteristics were the capacity to pass through a bacteria-retaining filter and the need for living cells in which to replicate. In 1901 yellow fever was shown to be the first human disease to be caused by a “filterable virus.” In 1903 rabies would be the first disease of the nervous system to be determined to be viral in nature, and polio followed soon thereafter.

Paradoxically, because no agent has yet been shown to be the cause, the modern study of epidemic encephalitis began with encephalitis lethargica in 1917. However, the flood gates of viral isolations opened in the 1930s for the arboviral encephalitides, using experimental primates and mice, starting with St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Within a decade, the viral nature of aseptic meningitis and herpes simplex sporadic encephalitis was demonstrated. From the 1950s through the 1970s great interest in “slow viral diseases” arose as potential models for chronic diseases of the nervous system.

The era of modern neurovirology has been characterized by two principal features. The first is the remarkable advances in technology – witness the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identifying infectious agents, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image the nervous system, and the advance in therapeutics based on molecular medicine. The second has been the impact of emerging and re-emerging diseases – witness the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, Nipah encephalitis, and the appearance of West Nile encephalitis in the western hemisphere.

Keywords

History

Viral diseases

Epidemic diseases

Germ theory

Filterable viruses

Central nervous system

Encephalitis

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

Slow viral diseases

AIDS

Aseptic meningitis

Myelitis

Neuropathy

Introduction


There is an innate fascination, and horror, on considering infection of the brain by a virus. The brain is the most complex biologic organization known, yet it can be devastated by a small spool of nucleic acid wrapped by a protein, with perhaps an additional coat of lipid. From both perspectives, submicroscopic size and markedly limited genomic coding capacity, viruses are the David in the confrontation with Goliath. Yet viruses can wreak havoc on the brain, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), often leaving death or disability in their wake. In this historic review we will discuss the evolution of germ theory and the definition of viruses as a class of infectious agents as a foundation. The early discoveries, early milestones, in viral infections of the nervous system will set the scene for the chapters on the modern understanding of topics and specific viral agents that follow. Our goal is to provide perspective for the reader, to demonstrate the emergence of patterns (Gaddis, 2002).

“Neurovirology” is a term of relatively recent vintage, no more than decades old. Yet evidence of viral infections of the nervous system is ancient – millennia old. Richard Johnson has recounted a charming anecdote of how the term neurovirology was devised by Elizabeth Hartmann, an administrator at the National Institutes of Health. She inserted it as shorthand on his 1961 Special Fellowship application. When Johnson protested that no such word existed, Hartmann, not illogically, pointed out that since several terms such as neurophysiology and neurochemistry existed, “why not neurovirology?” (Johnson, 1995). In contrast to the relatively recent minting of the term, evidence of the effects of viral infection of the nervous system, specifically polio, is found on an Egyptian funerary stela from at least three millennia ago. It depicts a typically withered leg of an Egyptian, Roma. He lived during the 18th or 19th dynasties, i.e., some time from the 16th to the 12th centuries BCE (Nunn, 1996). But perhaps the oldest known viral disease of the nervous system is rabies. Laws concerning rabid dogs are included in the Mesopotamian “Laws of Eschnunna,” before 1800 BCE. Rabies is likely the oldest disease identified as communicable (Kaplan and Meslin, 1996).

How should one begin? Given the three to four millennia between the first recognition of neurologic diseases shown ultimately to be of viral origin to the naming of neurovirology as a field of explicit study, how does one tell the story of viral infections of the nervous system? Complicating the telling, there is considerable chronologic overlap of the discoveries of the agents of virologic illnesses of the nervous system (D. Harter, personal communication, 2011). For example lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM), so named for its tropism for the meninges and causing viral meningitis, was first isolated during the investigation of St. Louis encephalitis (Armstrong and Lillie, 1934). In another example, herpes simplex virus (HSV), the most important cause of treatable sporadic encephalitis, was at one time offered as a cause of epidemic encephalitis lethargica (Zinsser, 1928; Levaditi, 1929). It was over a decade later that HSV was isolated and shown pathologically to be the cause of sporadic encephalitis in an infant (Smith et al., 1941). Thus one confronts the dilemma of how to relate a history, part of which can be given chronologically, and much of which is best understood when discussed by topic. Perhaps a hybrid approach is necessary.

Science builds on “the cumulative discoveries of the past” (Sinsheimer, 1988). Hence it is crucial to give the conceptual and experimental foundations on which the science of the virology of the nervous system rests. It begins with the rational understanding of medicine embodied in the Hippocratic tradition. The crucial development of germ theory rests on that base of rational medicine, and in turn provides the basis from which the demonstration of the nature of viruses can depart. Tobacco mosaic virus, foot and mouth disease (FMD), and yellow fever were the first diseases of plants, animals, and humans respectively to be shown to be of viral origin.

Two viral diseases of the nervous system, rabies and polio, were among the first human diseases to be shown to be viral in nature and serve to open up the history of the virology of the central nervous system (CNS). Because of the chronologic overlap of discovery among categories of viral diseases of the nervous system, it seemed best to tell that part of the story by topic. We will discuss the viral studies in various topics, such as epidemic and sporadic encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, myelitis and the slow viral diseases of the CNS, as separate entities, each with its own chronology and pattern of understanding. Within each category we will attempt to identify those investigations which have served to define the field, the milestones. We begin our discussion of the foundations with the antecedents of germ theory, starting with the tradition of Hippocrates, and the irrational beliefs that the Hippocratic school replaced.

Foundations


Hippocratic medicine and Galen


The first foundation is the establishment of medicine on rational thought and observation, replacing beliefs in supernatural forces. When adverse to human well-being, C-E. A. Winslow (1944) termed the several causes the demonic theory of disease. These included witches, spirits of the disembodied dead, and supernatural beings (Fig. 1.1). Another manifestation of supernatural beliefs was that disease reflected the response of a wrathful god. Finally, according to Winslow, disease could be the result of occult forces, a metaphysical belief in forces which lay “beyond the framework of the known physical universe.” These were beliefs which were overcome by the Hippocratic school of medicine based at the Greek isle of Cos.

Fig. 1.1 Dance of death. Such prints had their origins in a supernatural understanding of causation and reflected a demonic view of disease and death. This print by Michael Wolgemut in 1493 is sometimes attributed to Hans Holbein the...

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Dateiformat: PDF
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

255,85 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
Hinweis: Die Auswahl des von Ihnen gewünschten Dateiformats und des Kopierschutzes erfolgt erst im System des E-Book Anbieters
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung dieser Web-Seiten erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok