Public Health Mini-Guides: Obesity E-Book

Obesity
 
 
Churchill Livingstone (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 13. April 2014
  • |
  • 144 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-4720-6 (ISBN)
 

Obesity and its linked morbidity and mortality is a significant public health challenge on a global scale and places a burden not only on the individual but also on society as a whole. This Mini-Guide presents key themes relating to this challenge, including the means of measuring obesity, the most recent prevalence and trends, the health consequences and causes of obesity along with approaches to counter obesity both at an individual and a population level.

    Understanding is facilitated through:

      • Case Studies

      • Boxed examples

      • Thinking Points

      • Summary Points at ends of chapters.

      • Links to webpages, resources and further reading.

      The Public Health Mini-Guides provide up-to-date, evidence-based information in a convenient pocket-sized format, on a range of current key public health topics. They support the work of health and social care practitioners and students on courses related to public health and health promotion.

      Each volume provides an objective and balanced introduction to an overview of the epidemiological, scientific, and other factors relating to public health. The Mini-Guides are structured to provide easy access to information. The first chapters cover background information needed to quickly understand the issue, including the epidemiology, demography and physiology. The later chapters examine examples of public health action to address the issue, covering health promotion intervention, legislative and other measures. The Mini-Guides are designed to be essential reference texts for students, practitioners and researchers with a professional interest in public health and health promotion.

      Students will find the books useful to cover assignments and on the ward, and practitioners will love the quick-reference format for use on the ward and in giving patient advice and running clinics on these topics.

      There will be a title providing essential information on the priority areas of:

        • Obesity

        • Smoking

        • Alcohol misuse

          • Sexual health

          • Mental health

            • Diabetes

            • Non-communicable diseases

            • Exercise

            • Drug misuse

            • Health inequalities
            • Englisch
            • London
            • 3,68 MB
            978-0-7020-4720-6 (9780702047206)
            0702047201 (0702047201)
            weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
            1 - Front Cover [Seite 1]
            2 - Public Health Mini-Guide: Obesity [Seite 4]
            3 - Copyright [Seite 5]
            4 - Contents [Seite 6]
            5 - Series Info [Seite 7]
            6 - Series preface [Seite 8]
            6.1 - What the Public Health Mini-Guides provide [Seite 8]
            6.2 - References [Seite 9]
            7 - Preface [Seite 10]
            8 - Chapter 1: Defining the obesity problem [Seite 12]
            8.1 - What is obesity? [Seite 12]
            8.2 - Measuring obesity [Seite 12]
            8.2.1 - Surveillance programmes [Seite 12]
            8.2.2 - Measurement of obesity [Seite 14]
            8.2.2.1 - Common measures of obesity [Seite 14]
            8.2.2.1.1 - Body Mass Index (BMI) [Seite 14]
            8.2.2.1.1.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of BMI [Seite 15]
            8.2.2.1.2 - Other height to weight indices [Seite 16]
            8.2.2.1.3 - Abdominal circumference measurements [Seite 16]
            8.2.2.1.3.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of abdominal circumference measures [Seite 18]
            8.2.2.1.4 - Skinfold estimation methods [Seite 19]
            8.2.2.1.4.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of skinfold estimation methods [Seite 19]
            8.2.2.1.5 - Bio Impedance Analysis [Seite 20]
            8.2.2.1.5.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of Bio Impedance Analysis [Seite 20]
            8.2.2.2 - Technical measures of obesity [Seite 22]
            8.2.2.2.1 - Body density measurements [Seite 22]
            8.2.2.2.1.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of body density measures [Seite 22]
            8.2.2.2.2 - Chemical measures [Seite 23]
            8.2.2.2.2.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of chemical measures [Seite 23]
            8.2.2.2.3 - Internal scanning [Seite 23]
            8.2.2.2.3.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of internal scans [Seite 24]
            8.2.2.2.4 - Body imaging [Seite 24]
            8.2.2.2.4.1 - Weaknesses and strengths of imaging [Seite 25]
            8.2.3 - Classifying obesity in children [Seite 26]
            8.2.3.1 - 1. British 1990 growth reference (UK90) [Seite 27]
            8.2.3.2 - 2. International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs [Seite 27]
            8.2.3.3 - 3. World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standard [Seite 28]
            8.2.3.4 - 4. World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth reference [Seite 28]
            8.2.3.5 - United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 growth reference [Seite 29]
            8.2.3.6 - Adiposity rebound [Seite 29]
            8.3 - Web pages and resources [Seite 31]
            8.4 - Further reading [Seite 31]
            9 - Chapter 2: Obesity prevalence and trends [Seite 33]
            9.1 - UK and Ireland prevalence figures [Seite 33]
            9.1.1 - England [Seite 33]
            9.1.1.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 33]
            9.1.1.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 33]
            9.1.2 - Scotland [Seite 35]
            9.1.2.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 35]
            9.1.2.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 35]
            9.1.3 - Wales [Seite 35]
            9.1.3.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 35]
            9.1.3.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 35]
            9.1.4 - Northern Ireland [Seite 35]
            9.1.4.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 35]
            9.1.4.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 35]
            9.1.5 - Ireland [Seite 36]
            9.1.5.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 36]
            9.1.5.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 36]
            9.1.6 - Access to UK data on obesity [Seite 37]
            9.2 - North America [Seite 37]
            9.2.1 - United States of America [Seite 37]
            9.2.1.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 37]
            9.2.1.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 38]
            9.2.2 - Canada [Seite 38]
            9.2.2.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 38]
            9.2.2.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 38]
            9.3 - Australasia [Seite 38]
            9.3.1 - Australia [Seite 38]
            9.3.1.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 38]
            9.3.1.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 39]
            9.3.2 - New Zealand [Seite 39]
            9.3.2.1 - Adult prevalence [Seite 39]
            9.3.2.2 - Child prevalence [Seite 39]
            9.4 - International prevalence of obesity [Seite 40]
            9.4.1 - WHO Global Health Observatory (apps.who.int/ghodata) [Seite 40]
            9.4.1.1 - Details [Seite 40]
            9.4.2 - WHO Global Infobase ( https://apps.who.int/infobase/Comparisons.aspx) [Seite 41]
            9.4.2.1 - Details [Seite 41]
            9.4.3 - WHO Global database on body mass index (http://apps.who.int/bmi) [Seite 41]
            9.4.3.1 - Details [Seite 41]
            9.4.4 - OECD StatExtracts - Health Stats (www.oecd.org) [Seite 42]
            9.4.4.1 - Details [Seite 42]
            9.4.5 - IASO Obesity Data (www.iaso.org) [Seite 42]
            9.4.5.1 - Details [Seite 42]
            9.5 - Adult international prevalence [Seite 42]
            9.6 - Child international prevalence [Seite 44]
            9.7 - Adult international trends [Seite 45]
            9.8 - Predicting future trends [Seite 48]
            9.9 - Prevalence within countries [Seite 50]
            9.9.1 - Sex [Seite 50]
            9.9.2 - Age [Seite 50]
            9.9.3 - Ethnicity [Seite 51]
            9.9.4 - Deprivation [Seite 53]
            9.9.5 - Regions [Seite 56]
            9.10 - Web pages and resources [Seite 58]
            9.11 - Further reading [Seite 58]
            10 - Chapter 3: The health consequences of obesity [Seite 59]
            10.1 - Difficulties evaluating the health consequences of obesity [Seite 59]
            10.2 - Fat as an active tissue [Seite 60]
            10.3 - Abdominal fat [Seite 60]
            10.4 - Types of ill health associated with obesity [Seite 61]
            10.5 - Circulatory system [Seite 61]
            10.5.1 - Hypertension [Seite 61]
            10.5.2 - Elevated cholesterol [Seite 62]
            10.5.3 - CVDs [Seite 62]
            10.6 - Cancer [Seite 63]
            10.7 - Metabolic [Seite 64]
            10.7.1 - Diabetes [Seite 64]
            10.7.2 - Metabolic syndrome [Seite 64]
            10.8 - Gastrointestinal and liver [Seite 65]
            10.8.1 - Gallstones [Seite 65]
            10.8.2 - Pancreatitis [Seite 66]
            10.8.3 - Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [Seite 66]
            10.8.4 - Non-alcoholic liver disease [Seite 67]
            10.9 - Musculoskeletal [Seite 67]
            10.9.1 - Joint pain [Seite 67]
            10.9.2 - Osteoarthritis [Seite 68]
            10.9.3 - Gout [Seite 68]
            10.9.4 - Other musculoskeletal conditions [Seite 68]
            10.10 - Respiratory system [Seite 68]
            10.10.1 - Respiratory function [Seite 68]
            10.10.2 - Obstructive sleep apnoea [Seite 69]
            10.10.3 - Asthma [Seite 69]
            10.10.4 - Other respiratory conditions [Seite 69]
            10.11 - Reproductive health [Seite 69]
            10.11.1 - Polycystic ovary syndrome [Seite 69]
            10.11.2 - Female fertility [Seite 69]
            10.11.3 - Male fertility [Seite 70]
            10.11.4 - Erectile dysfunction [Seite 70]
            10.11.5 - Contraceptive failure [Seite 70]
            10.11.6 - Pregnancy [Seite 70]
            10.12 - Urology [Seite 71]
            10.12.1 - Urinary incontinence [Seite 71]
            10.12.2 - Benign prostatic hyperplasia [Seite 71]
            10.12.3 - Kidney stones [Seite 71]
            10.12.4 - Chronic kidney disease [Seite 71]
            10.13 - Psychological and social difficulties [Seite 71]
            10.13.1 - Stigmatisation [Seite 71]
            10.13.2 - Depression [Seite 72]
            10.13.3 - Dementia [Seite 72]
            10.14 - Dermatology [Seite 72]
            10.14.1 - Skin infections [Seite 72]
            10.14.2 - Acanthosis nigricans [Seite 72]
            10.14.3 - Psoriasis [Seite 72]
            10.14.4 - Pressure sores [Seite 73]
            10.14.5 - Stretch marks [Seite 73]
            10.15 - Differences in risk between ethnic group [Seite 73]
            10.16 - Children and adolescents [Seite 74]
            10.17 - Mortality [Seite 74]
            10.18 - Societal impact of obesity [Seite 75]
            10.19 - Economic impact of obesity [Seite 75]
            10.20 - Web pages and resources [Seite 77]
            10.21 - Further reading [Seite 77]
            11 - Chapter 4: Causes of obesity [Seite 78]
            11.1 - Energy balance [Seite 78]
            11.1.1 - Energy intake [Seite 78]
            11.2 - Regulation of energy intake [Seite 79]
            11.3 - Energy expenditure [Seite 80]
            11.4 - Influences on obesity [Seite 81]
            11.5 - Individual influences on obesity [Seite 82]
            11.5.1 - Biological/genes [Seite 82]
            11.5.1.1 - Sex [Seite 82]
            11.5.1.2 - Age [Seite 83]
            11.5.1.3 - Socioeconomic status [Seite 84]
            11.5.1.4 - Ethnicity [Seite 85]
            11.5.1.5 - Intrapersonal [Seite 86]
            11.5.1.6 - Interpersonal [Seite 87]
            11.5.2 - Environmental factors [Seite 88]
            11.5.2.1 - Microenvironmental [Seite 89]
            11.5.2.2 - Macroenvironmental [Seite 90]
            11.5.3 - Economic development [Seite 90]
            11.5.4 - Food taxes [Seite 90]
            11.5.5 - Urban design [Seite 91]
            11.5.6 - Food industry [Seite 92]
            11.6 - Web pages and resources [Seite 93]
            11.7 - Further reading [Seite 93]
            12 - Chapter 5: Individual interventions to treat obesity [Seite 95]
            12.1 - Consultation [Seite 95]
            12.1.1 - 1. Screening to identify risk and willingness to change [Seite 96]
            12.1.2 - 2. Counselling to provide information and increase motivation [Seite 97]
            12.1.3 - 3. Referral for those at high risk to intervention [Seite 98]
            12.1.4 - 4. Follow-up to track progress and overcome barriers [Seite 98]
            12.2 - Adult interventions [Seite 98]
            12.2.1 - Non-clinical interventions targeting obesity [Seite 99]
            12.2.2 - Diet [Seite 99]
            12.2.2.1 - Reduced-energy diet (RED) [Seite 101]
            12.2.2.2 - Low-energy diet (LED) [Seite 101]
            12.2.2.3 - Very-low-energy diets (VLED) [Seite 101]
            12.2.2.4 - Fixed-energy-deficit (FED) [Seite 101]
            12.2.3 - Physical activity [Seite 101]
            12.2.4 - Behavioural [Seite 102]
            12.3 - Child interventions [Seite 103]
            12.4 - Drug therapy [Seite 105]
            12.4.1 - Anti-obesity drugs [Seite 106]
            12.4.1.1 - Lipase inhibitors [Seite 107]
            12.4.1.2 - Appetite suppressants [Seite 108]
            12.4.2 - Surgical intervention [Seite 108]
            12.5 - Web pages and resources [Seite 113]
            12.6 - Further reading [Seite 113]
            13 - Chapter 6: Population approaches to preventing obesity [Seite 114]
            13.1 - Population approach [Seite 114]
            13.1.1 - Targeting, development and monitoring [Seite 115]
            13.1.1.1 - Targeting [Seite 115]
            13.1.1.2 - Development [Seite 116]
            13.1.1.3 - Monitoring [Seite 116]
            13.1.2 - Multifactorial approach [Seite 117]
            13.1.3 - Policy [Seite 117]
            13.1.4 - Information [Seite 119]
            13.1.4.1 - Fiscal intervention [Seite 120]
            13.1.4.2 - Legislation [Seite 121]
            13.1.5 - Stakeholders [Seite 122]
            13.1.5.1 - National government [Seite 122]
            13.1.5.2 - Local government [Seite 122]
            13.1.5.3 - Health and social services [Seite 123]
            13.1.5.4 - International agencies [Seite 123]
            13.1.5.5 - Private sector [Seite 123]
            13.1.5.6 - Media [Seite 124]
            13.1.5.7 - Other stakeholders [Seite 124]
            13.1.6 - Settings [Seite 124]
            13.1.6.1 - Schools [Seite 124]
            13.1.6.2 - Work place [Seite 125]
            13.1.6.3 - Communities [Seite 125]
            13.1.7 - Web pages and resources [Seite 128]
            13.1.8 - Further reading [Seite 128]
            14 - References [Seite 130]
            14.1 - Chapter 1 [Seite 130]
            14.2 - Chapter 2 [Seite 132]
            14.3 - Chapter 3 [Seite 133]
            14.4 - Chapter 4 [Seite 134]
            14.5 - Chapter 5 [Seite 136]
            14.6 - Chapter 6 [Seite 137]
            15 - Index [Seite 140]
            16 - References [Seite 148]
            16.1 - Chapter 1 [Seite 148]
            16.2 - Chapter 2 [Seite 154]
            16.3 - Chapter 3 [Seite 157]
            16.4 - Chapter 4 [Seite 165]
            16.5 - Chapter 5 [Seite 176]
            16.6 - Chapter 6 [Seite 182]
            2

            Obesity prevalence and trends


            There are a number of surveillance programmes which describe prevalence figures for obesity measurements on a national level. Data from these surveys are drawn on to present the most recent figures at the time of publication in the UK and Ireland, North America and Australasia.

            UK and Ireland prevalence figures


            England


            Adult prevalence

            The 2010 Health Survey for England (HSE) found that for adults aged 16 years and over, 26.2% of men and 26.1% of women were obese; additionally 67.8% of men and 57.8% of women were overweight or obese. It also reports that 34.2% of men and 46.4% of women have a raised waist circumference, whilst only 42.0% of men and 41.1% of women have no increased risk using the BMI and waist circumference WHO classifications; see Table 2.1.1

            Table 2.1

            Prevalence of WHO classifications for adults in England, Health Survey for England 2010

            Not applicable 1.1 1.5 No increased risk 42.0 41.1 Increased risk 21.7 13.8 High risk 12.3 18.9 Very high risk 22.8 24.6

            Source: Health Survey for England 2010 Copyright © 2012, Re-used with the permission of The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All rights reserved.

            Child prevalence

            The 2010 HSE also describes prevalence amongst children using the UK90 thresholds. Amongst boys aged 2 to 15 years, 17.1% were classified as obese and 31.4% were overweight or obese. For girls of the same age, the figures were 14.8% and 29.2% respectively.1

            The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) collects data from large numbers of children in two primary school year groups in England every year. Prevalence figures from the most recent programme can be found in Table 2.2. These come from the 2010/11 academic year and use UK90 growth charts to determine BMI status.2

            Table 2.2

            Prevalence of BMI status for children in England, NCMP 2010/11


            Reception
            (4 to 5 years of age) Boys 10.1 23.9 Girls 8.8 21.4 Year 6
            (10 to 11 years of age) Boys 20.6 34.9 Girls 17.4 31.8

            Source: National Health Service Information Service 2012. National Childhood Measurement Programme, England, school year 2010/11.

            Both the HSE and the NCMP collect measured height and weight from which BMI is calculated. The HSE also collects waist circumference measurements for adults. This allows raised waist circumference and the WHO classification of increased risk to be calculated.

            The Health Survey for England (HSE) is a series of annual surveys designed to measure health and health-related behaviours in adults and children in England. It has a series of core elements that are included every year and special topics that are included in selected years. Anthropometric measurements are included in the core topics, and so BMI and obesity data are produced for every year of the survey. Details on the HSE, along with publications and data can be found at the National Health Service (NHS) Information Centre (IC) website: www.ic.nhs.uk

            Details on the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) can be found in the Case Study in Chapter 1 (Box 1.1). Information and publications on the NCMP can be found through the NHS Information Centre website: www.ic.nhs.uk. Further information and publications can be found through the Public Health England Obesity Knowledge and Intelligence team website who publish users’ guides for those people wishing to use NCMP data as well as providing interactive e-atlases, in which NCMP data for all years of the study can be presented for different regions in England and mapped against other regional measures: www.noo.org.uk.

            Scotland


            Adult prevalence

            The 2010 Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) reports that for adults over the age of 16 years, 27.4% of men and 28.9% of women are obese whilst 67.8% of men and 62.4% of women are overweight or obese.3

            Child prevalence

            For children aged 2 to 15 years, according to UK90 growth charts, 15.6% of boys were obese and 31.1% overweight or obese; for girls of the same age the figures were 12.9% and 28.5% respectively.3

            The SHeS collects measured height and weight data that are converted into BMI. The Scottish Health Survey was introduced in 1995 with data collections in 1995, 1998 and 2003. The continuous Scottish Health Survey began in January 2008 and ran continuously from 2008 to 2011. An annual report is published for each year of the survey, whilst a contract has recently been awarded to continue the survey for a further four years from 2012 to 2015. Information on the SHeS along with publications and statistics can be found through the Scottish Executive Government website: www.scotland.gov.uk

            Wales


            Adult prevalence

            Results from the 2010 Welsh Health Survey (WHS) estimate that for adults aged 16 years and above 22% of men and 21% of women were obese and 63% of men and 52% of women were overweight or obese.4

            Child prevalence

            Using UK90 growth charts for children aged 2 to 15 years the WHS found that 23% of boys were obese and 38% overweight or obese, whilst 16% of girls were obese and 34% overweight or obese.4

            The WHS collects self-reported height and weight data rather than measured data. The WHS was established in October 2003 and is an annual survey that runs all year round. The WHS is commissioned by the Welsh Assembly Government to provide information about the health of people in Wales. NatCena, a not-for-profit independent social research organisation, has been involved in the survey since its inception. Information, publications and data from the WHS can be found through the Welsh Assembly Government website: wales.gov.uk

            Northern Ireland


            Adult prevalence

            The 2005/06 Northern Ireland Health and Social Wellbeing Survey found that for adults 16 years and older 25% of men and 23% of women were obese, whilst 64% of men and 53% of women were overweight or obese.5 In 2010/11 the Health Survey Northern Ireland reported that 23% of men and women were obese, with 77% of men overweight and obese compared to 53% of women.6

            Child prevalence

            Using UK90 growth charts data from the 2005/06 Northern Ireland Health and Wellbeing Survey found that for children aged 2 to 15 years, 20% of boys were obese and 39% overweight or obese, whilst 15% of girls were obese and 31% were overweight or obese.5 The 2010/11 Health Survey Northern Ireland presented child prevalence figures determined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) growth curves, suggesting that 8% of boys and 9% of girls were obese, whilst a similar percentage of both sexes were overweight or obese (27%).6

            The Northern Ireland Health and Social Wellbeing Survey (NIHSWS) was commissioned by the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety and commissioned the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) to conduct the fieldwork for the survey. The survey was conducted in 1997, 2001 and 2005/06. Information, results and publications can be found through the NISRA website: www.csu.nisra.gov.uk

            The Health Survey Northern Ireland is a new Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety survey that will run every year on a continuous basis; 2010/11 was the first year of data collection.

            Information on this survey can be found through the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety website: www.dhsspsni.gov.uk

            Ireland


            Adult prevalence

            Measured data from the 2007 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition in Ireland (SLÁN) found that for adults aged 18 years and above, 24% of men and 26% of women were obese, whilst 69% of men and 59% of women were overweight and obese. The SLÁN also collected self-reported height and weight statistics, which reported that 16% of men and 13% of women were obese, with 59% of men and 41% of women overweight or obese, lower than for measured prevalence.7 The 2011 National Adult Nutrition Survey found that for adults aged 18 years and above 45.7% of men and 33.3% of women were obese, whilst 71.3% of...

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