A User's Guide to Ellipsometry

 
 
Dover Publications (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 21. März 2013
  • |
  • 272 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-486-15192-2 (ISBN)
 
This text on optics for graduate students explains how to determine material properties and parameters for inaccessible substrates and unknown films as well as how to measure extremely thin films. Its 14 case studies illustrate concepts and reinforce applications of ellipsometry - particularly in relation to the semiconductor industry and to studies involving corrosion and oxide growth.A User's Guide to Ellipsometry will enable readers to move beyond limited turn-key applications of ellipsometers. In addition to its comprehensive discussions of the measurement of film thickness and optical constants in film, it also considers the trajectories of the ellipsometric parameters Del and Psi and how changes in materials affect parameters. This volume also addresses the use of polysilicon, a material commonly employed in the microelectronics industry, and the effects of substrate roughness. Three appendices provide helpful references.
  • Englisch
  • New York
  • |
  • USA
Guilford Publications
  • Höhe: 216 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 137 mm
  • 12,43 MB
978-0-486-15192-2 (9780486151922)
0486151921 (0486151921)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Harland G. Tompkins
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 - Theoretical Aspects
  • 1.1 Description of an Electromagnetic Wave
  • 1.2 Interaction of Light with Material
  • 1.2.1 The Complex Index of Refraction
  • 1.2.2 Laws of Reflection and Refraction
  • 1.2.3 Dispersion
  • 1.2.4 The Effect of Temperature
  • 1.3 Polarized Light
  • 1.3.1 Linearly Polarized Light
  • 1.3.2 Elliptically Polarized Light
  • 1.4 Reflections
  • 1.4.1 Coordinate System for Reflections
  • 1.4.2 Fresnel Reflection Coefficients and the Brewster Angle
  • 1.4.3 Total Reflection Coefficients for Multiple Interfaces
  • 1.5 Ellipsometry Definitions
  • 1.5.1 Del and Psi
  • 1.5.2 The Fundamental Equation of Ellipsometry
  • 1.6 References
  • Chapter 2 - Instrumentation
  • 2.1 Fundamentals and History
  • 2.2 Optical Elements
  • 2.2.1 The Light Source
  • 2.2.2 Polarizers and Analyzers
  • 2.2.3 The Quarter-Wave Plate
  • 2.2.4 The Reflection
  • 2.2.5 The Detector
  • 2.3 The Manual Null Instrument
  • 2.3.1 Conceptual
  • 23.2 Actual Practice
  • 2.4 Rotating Element Instruments
  • 2.4.1 The Rotating Null Instrument
  • 2.4.2 The Photometric Instrument
  • 2.5 References
  • Chapter 3 - Using Optical Parameters to Determine Material Properties
  • 3.1 Del/Psi and n and k for Substrates
  • 3.2 The Calculation of Del/Psi Trajectories for Films on Substrates
  • 3.3 Trajectories for Transparent Films
  • 3.4 Trajectories for Absorbing Films
  • 3.5 Two-Film Structures
  • 3.5.1 Transparent Films on Top
  • 3.5.2 Absorbing Films on Top
  • 3.6 References
  • Chapter 4 - Determining Optical Parameters for Inaccessible Substrates and Unknown Films
  • 4.1 Inaccessible Substrates and Unknown Films
  • 4.2 Determining Film-Free Values of Del and Psi
  • 4.2.1 An Example Using One Method
  • 4.2.2 An Example Using Another Method
  • 4.3 Determining the Complex Index of Refraction of the Film
  • 4.3.1 Description of the Materials for the Example
  • 4.3.2 Determining the Film-Free Point
  • 4.3.3 The Film Index
  • 4.4 Summary
  • 4.5 References
  • Chapter 5 - Extremely Thin Films
  • 5.1 General Principles
  • 5.2 Some Examples of Extremely Thin Films
  • 5.2.1 Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Adsorption on Silver
  • 5.2.2 Adsorption of Xe on Ag(111)
  • 5.2.3 Oxidation of Beryllium
  • 5.3 Summary
  • 5.4 References
  • Chapter 6 - The Special Case of Polysilicon
  • 6.1 General
  • 6.2 Range of the Optical Constants
  • 6.3 Del/Psi Trajectories in General
  • 6.4 Effect of the Coefficient of Extinction
  • 6.5 Effect of the Index of Refraction
  • 6.6 Requirements
  • 6.7 Measuring the Thickness of Oxide on Polysilicon
  • 6.8 Simplifications
  • 6.9 References
  • Chapter 7 - The Effect of Roughness
  • 7.1 General
  • 7.2 Macroscopic Roughness
  • 7.3 Microscopic Roughness
  • 7.4 Perspective
  • 7.5 Substrate Roughness
  • 7.5.1 Near-Dielectric
  • 7.5.2 Metallic
  • 7.6 Film Growth with Roughness
  • 7.6.1 Perspective
  • 7.6.2 Estimation of Uncertainty
  • 7.7 References
  • CASE STUDIES
  • Case 1: - Dissolution and Swelling of Thin Polymer Films
  • C1.1 General
  • C1.2 Early Work Using a Psi-meter
  • C1.3 Later Work Using an Ellipsometer
  • C1.4 Modeling the Swollen Film
  • C1.5 Comparison of Data with Model
  • C1.6 References
  • Case 2: - Ion Beam Interaction with Silicon
  • C2.1 General
  • C2.2 Development of the Analysis Method
  • C2.3 Ion Beam Damage Results
  • C2.4 Damage Removal
  • C2.5 References
  • Case 3: - Dry Oxidation of Metals
  • C3.1 General
  • C3.2 Oxidation of Bismuth at Room Temperature
  • C3.3 Plasma Oxidation of Tantalum
  • C3.4 Thermal Oxidation of Nickel
  • C3.5 References
  • Case 4: - Optical Properties of Sputtered Chromium Suboxide Thin Films
  • C4.1 General
  • C4.2 Film Preparation and Auger Analysis
  • C4.3 Optical Measurements
  • C4.4 Reference
  • Case 5: - Ion-Assisted Film Growth of Zirconium Dioxide
  • C5.1 Experimental Apparatus
  • C5.2 Optical Measurements
  • C5.3 References
  • Case 6: - Electrochemical/Ellipsometric Studies of Oxides on Metals
  • C6.1 General
  • C6.2 Experimental Methods
  • C6.3 Oxide Growth: 1. Zirconium
  • C6.4 Oxide Growth: 2. Titanium
  • C6.5 Oxide Growth: 3. Vanadium
  • C6.6 Deposition of Oxides: 1. Lead
  • C6.7 Deposition of Oxides: 2. Manganese
  • C6.8 References
  • Case 7: - Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Films
  • C7.1 General
  • C7.2 Mechanism of Film Formation
  • C7.3 Properties vs. Deposition Parameters
  • C7.4 References
  • Case 8: - Fluoropolymer Films on Silicon from Reactive Ion Etching
  • C8.1 General
  • C8.2 Film Formation and Properties
  • C8.3 Interface Studies
  • C8.4 Removal with a Hydrogen Plasma
  • C8.5 Other Formation and Removal Studies
  • C8.6 References
  • Case 9: - Various Films on InP
  • C9.1 General
  • C9.2 The InP Surface Optical Properties
  • C9.3 The Thermal Oxide on InP
  • C9.4 PMMA on InP
  • C9.5 References
  • Case 10: - Benzotriazole and Benzimidazole on Copper
  • C10.1 General
  • C10.2 Ex situ Studies
  • C10.3 In situ Studies
  • C10.4 References
  • Case 11: - Adsorption on Metal Surfaces
  • C11.1 General
  • C11.2 NO, O2, and CO on Copper
  • C11.3 Oxidation of Nickel
  • C11.4 The Interaction of Small Amounts of Oxygen with Aluminum Films
  • C11.5 Residual Gases on Silver
  • C11.6 References
  • Case 12: - Silicon-Germanium Thin Films
  • C12.1 General
  • C12.2 Experimental
  • C12.3 Results
  • C12.4 References
  • Case 13: - Profiling of HgCdTe
  • C13.1 General
  • C13.2 Experimental
  • C13.3 Results
  • C13.4 Discussion
  • C13.5 References
  • Case 14: - Oxides and Nitrides of Silicon
  • C14.1 General
  • C14.2 Low Temperature Growth of Silicon Dioxide
  • C14.3 Plasma Enhanced Silicon Nitride
  • C14.4 Silicon Oxynitride Films as a Selective Diffusion Barrier
  • C14.5 References
  • Appendices
  • INDEX
  • Astronomy
  • DOVER BOOKS ON ENGINEERING

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