Platform Ecosystems

Aligning Architecture, Governance, and Strategy
 
 
Morgan Kaufmann (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. November 2013
  • |
  • 300 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-408054-6 (ISBN)
 

Platform Ecosystems is a hands-on guide that offers a complete roadmap for designing and orchestrating vibrant software platform ecosystems. Unlike software products that are managed, the evolution of ecosystems and their myriad participants must be orchestrated through a thoughtful alignment of architecture and governance. Whether you are an IT professional or a general manager, you will benefit from this book because platform strategy here lies at the intersection of software architecture and business strategy. It offers actionable tools to develop your own platform strategy, backed by original research, tangible metrics, rich data, and cases. You will learn how architectural choices create organically-evolvable, vibrant ecosystems. You will also learn to apply state-of-the-art research in software engineering, strategy, and evolutionary biology to leverage ecosystem dynamics unique to platforms. Read this book to learn how to:

  • Evolve software products and services into vibrant platform ecosystems
  • Orchestrate platform architecture and governance to sustain competitive advantage
  • Govern platform evolution using a powerful 3-dimensional framework

If you're ready to transform platform strategy from newspaper gossip and business school theory to real-world competitive advantage, start right here!


  • Understand how architecture and strategy are inseparably intertwined in platform ecosystems
  • Architect future-proof platforms and apps and amplify these choices through governance
  • Evolve platforms, apps, and entire ecosystems into vibrant successes and spot platform opportunities in almost any-not just IT-industry
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 9,91 MB
978-0-12-408054-6 (9780124080546)
0124080545 (0124080545)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Platform Ecosystems: Aligning Architecture, Governance, and Strategy
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Brief Contents
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Preview of this books message
  • How this book is organized
  • Assumptions about you
  • What this book is not about
  • Supplemental Materials
  • Part I: The Rise of Platforms
  • Chapter 1: The Rise of Platform Ecosystems
  • 1.1. The war of ecosystems
  • 1.2. Platform ecosystems
  • 1.2.1. Elements of a software platform ecosystem
  • 1.2.2. What a platform is not
  • 1.3. Drivers of the migration toward platforms
  • 1.3.1. Driver #1: Deepening specialization
  • 1.3.1.1. Consequences
  • 1.3.2. Driver #2: Packetization
  • 1.3.2.1. Consequences
  • 1.3.3. Driver #3: Software embedding
  • 1.3.3.1. Consequences
  • 1.3.4. Driver #4: The internet of things
  • 1.3.4.1. Consequences
  • 1.3.5. Driver #5: Ubiquity
  • 1.3.5.1. Consequences
  • 1.3.6. The perfect storm
  • 1.4. Lessons learned
  • Chapter 2: Core Concepts and Principles
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Core concepts
  • 2.2.1. The platform lifecycle
  • 2.2.1.1. Emergence of a dominant design
  • 2.2.1.2. S-curves and leapfrogging
  • 2.2.1.3. The technology diffusion curve on the end-user side
  • 2.2.2. Multisidedness
  • 2.2.3. Network effects
  • 2.2.4. Multihoming
  • 2.2.5. Tipping
  • 2.2.6. Lock-in
  • 2.2.7. Competitive durability
  • 2.2.8. Envelopment
  • 2.2.9. Architecture
  • 2.2.10. Governance
  • 2.3. Guiding principles
  • 2.3.1. The Red Queen effect
  • 2.3.2. The chicken-or-egg problem
  • 2.3.3. The penguin problem
  • 2.3.4. Emergence
  • 2.3.5. The seesaw problem
  • 2.3.6. The Humpty Dumpty problem
  • 2.3.7. The mirroring principle
  • 2.3.8. Coevolution
  • 2.3.9. The Goldilocks rule
  • 2.4. Lessons learned
  • Chapter 3: Why Platform Businesses Are Unlike Product or Service Businesses
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.1.1. Market potential differences
  • 3.1.2. Structural differences
  • 3.1.3. Management style differences
  • 3.2. Why platforms need a different mindset
  • 3.3. How products and services can evolve into platforms
  • 3.3.1. The four lenses for spotting platform opportunities
  • 3.4. Lessons learned
  • Chapter 4: The Value Proposition of Platforms
  • 4.1. Platform owners
  • 4.1.1. Massively distributed innovation
  • 4.1.2. Risk transfer
  • 4.1.3. Capturing the long-tail
  • 4.1.4. Competitive sustainability
  • 4.2. App developers
  • 4.2.1. Technological foundations
  • 4.2.2. Market access
  • 4.3. End-Users
  • 4.3.1. Mix-and-match customization
  • 4.3.2. Faster innovation and network benefits
  • 4.3.3. Competition among rivals
  • 4.3.4. Lower search and transaction costs
  • 4.4. Lessons learned
  • Part II: Architecture and Governance
  • Chapter 5: Platform Architecture
  • 5.1. How unemployed hairdressers became Frances mathematical champions
  • 5.2. Complexity: the Achilles heel of platforms
  • 5.2.1. Two types of complexity
  • 5.2.1.1. How complexity amplifies innovation risk in platforms
  • 5.3. The two functions of ecosystem architecture
  • 5.3.1. Partitioning
  • 5.3.2. Systems integration
  • 5.4. Ecosystem architecture
  • 5.4.1. App microarchitecture
  • 5.4.1.1. The four functional elements inside an app
  • 5.4.1.2. Unique properties of platform-based app functional partitioning
  • 5.4.1.3. Standalone microarchitecture
  • 5.4.1.4. Cloud microarchitecture
  • 5.4.1.5. Client-based microarchitecture
  • 5.4.1.6. Client-server microarchitecture
  • 5.4.1.7. Peer-to-peer microarchitecture
  • 5.4.1.8. Tiering in app microarchitectures
  • 5.4.1.9. Strategic and evolutionary consequences of app microarchitectures
  • 5.5. Four desirable properties of platform architectures
  • 5.5.1. Architectural lessons from cities
  • 5.6. Modularity of architectures
  • 5.6.1. Software modularity
  • 5.6.2. Platform architecture: an ecosystems DNA
  • 5.6.3. Design precedes production
  • 5.6.4. Design modularity enables production modularity
  • 5.7. Goldilocks strikes again
  • 5.7.1. Upsides of modularization
  • 5.7.2. Downsides of modularization
  • 5.7.2.1. Why modular enough is good enough
  • 5.8. Two mechanisms for modularization
  • 5.8.1. Decoupling
  • 5.8.1.1. Decomposition by reusability and variability - the five magic rules
  • 5.8.1.2. Decoupling by specifying allowable assumptions
  • 5.8.2. Interface standardization
  • 5.8.2.1. Precisely documented
  • 5.8.2.2. Frozen
  • 5.8.2.3. Versatile
  • 5.8.2.4. Compliance with interface standards
  • Chapter summary
  • Chapter 6: Platform Governance
  • 6.1. Platform governance as the blueprint for ecosystem orchestration
  • 6.2. Three dimensions of platform governance
  • 6.2.1. Decision rights partitioning
  • 6.2.1.1. Platform versus app decision rights
  • 6.2.1.2. Two classes of decision rights: strategic and implementation
  • 6.2.2. Control portfolio design
  • 6.2.2.1. Gatekeeping
  • 6.2.2.2. Process control
  • 6.2.2.3. Metrics
  • 6.2.2.4. Relational control
  • 6.2.2.5. Attempted versus realized control
  • 6.2.3. Pricing
  • 6.2.3.1. Decision 1: symmetric or asymmetric pricing?
  • 6.2.3.2. Decision 2: which side to subsidize and for how long
  • 6.2.3.3. Decision 3: usage versus access pricing
  • 6.2.3.4. Decision 4: pie-splitting using a fixed scale or a moving scale?
  • 6.2.3.5. Decision 5: app licensing decisions
  • 6.3. Aligning governance
  • 6.3.1. Aligning decision rights partitioning
  • 6.3.1.1. Aligning decision rights and architecture using the mirroring principle
  • 6.3.1.2. Aligning decision rights with specialized knowledge
  • 6.3.2. Aligning control portfolios
  • 6.3.2.1. The dual purpose of control in platforms
  • 6.3.2.2. Rules of thumb for designing a platform control portfolio
  • 6.3.2.3. Aligning individual control mechanism choices
  • 6.3.2.4. Aligning gatekeeping with platform architecture
  • 6.3.2.5. Aligning process control with platform architecture
  • 6.3.2.6. Aligning metrics-based control with platform architecture
  • 6.3.2.7. Aligning relational control with platform architecture
  • 6.3.3. Aligning platform pricing policies
  • 6.3.3.1. Aligning the pricing symmetry decision
  • 6.3.3.2. Aligning the choice and duration of the subsidized side
  • 6.3.3.3. Aligning usage and access pricing
  • 6.3.3.4. Aligning the pie-splitting scale choice?
  • 6.3.3.5. Decision 5: app licensing decisions
  • Chapter summary
  • Part III: Dynamics and Metrics of Ecosystem Evolution
  • Chapter 7: Metrics of Evolution
  • 7.1. Three roles of evolutionary metrics
  • 7.1.1. Metrics steer evolution
  • 7.1.2. Metrics separate signal from noise
  • 7.1.3. Metrics help manage tradeoffs
  • 7.2. Three guiding principles
  • 7.2.1. Look from outside in
  • 7.2.2. Focus attention on the short term without losing sight of the long term
  • 7.2.3. The cost of tracking a metric should never exceed the value of tracking it
  • 7.3. An overview of metrics of evolution in platform ecosystems
  • 7.4. Short-term metrics of evolution
  • 7.4.1. Resilience
  • 7.4.2. Scalability
  • 7.4.3. Composability
  • 7.5. Medium-term metrics of evolution
  • 7.5.1. Stickiness
  • 7.5.2. Platform synergy
  • 7.5.3. Plasticity
  • 7.6. Long-term metrics of evolution
  • 7.6.1. Envelopment
  • 7.6.2. Durability
  • 7.6.3. Mutation
  • 7.7. Lessons learned
  • Chapter 8: Real Options Thinking in Ecosystem Evolution
  • 8.1. An introduction to real options thinking
  • 8.2. Volatility in technologies and markets
  • 8.2.1. Technical volatility
  • 8.2.2. Market volatility
  • 8.3. Types of real options
  • 8.4. Applying real options thinking in practice
  • 8.4.1. Decomposing a project into smaller subprojects
  • 8.4.2. Sequencing subprojects
  • 8.5. Exercising real options: the devil is in the details
  • 8.5.1. Cost of an option
  • 8.5.2. Value of an option
  • 8.5.3. Exercising an embedded option: when to hold and when to fold
  • 8.6. Lessons learned
  • Chapter 9: Modular Operators: Platform Ecosystems Evolutionary Baby Steps
  • 9.1. An overview of modular operators
  • 9.1.1. Split
  • 9.1.2. Subtract
  • 9.1.3. Substitute
  • 9.1.4. Augment
  • 9.1.4.1. Special case 1: Invert
  • 9.1.4.2. Special case 2: Envelop
  • 9.1.5. Mutate
  • 9.1.5.1. Special case: Port
  • 9.2. Lessons learned
  • Part IV: Orchestrating Evolution
  • Chapter 10: Evolving a Platform
  • 10.1. The bathtub model: ecosystem innovation as stocks and flows
  • 10.1.1. Growing the stock
  • 10.1.1.1. Architecture-governance alignment
  • 10.1.2. Creating and sustaining a competitive advantage
  • 10.1.2.1. The resource litmus test
  • 10.1.3. Evolution speed: lessons from the American military doctrine
  • 10.2. Orchestrating platform evolution: a preview
  • 10.3. Orchestrating Short-Term platform evolution
  • 10.3.1. Orchestrating platform resilience
  • 10.3.2. Orchestrating platform scalability
  • 10.3.2.1. Platform architecture and platform scalability
  • 10.3.2.2. Aligning architecture with governance to enhance platform scalability
  • 10.3.3. Orchestrating platform composability
  • 10.4. Orchestrating Medium-Term platform evolution
  • 10.4.1. Growing platform stickiness
  • 10.4.1.1. Growing platform stickiness with end-users
  • 10.4.1.2. Growing platform stickiness with app developers
  • 10.4.1.2.1. Cheaper, easier, and faster app development
  • 10.4.1.2.2. Evolving the platform core
  • 10.4.1.2.3. Evolving the platforms boundary
  • 10.4.1.2.4. Spotting such opportunities
  • 10.4.1.3. Expanding app developers market access
  • 10.4.2. Growing platform synergy across the ecosystem
  • 10.4.3. Orchestrating platform plasticity
  • 10.4.3.1. Catalyzing ecosystem innovation capacity with developers self interest
  • 10.4.3.2. Increasing ecosystem diversity increases platform plasticity
  • 10.4.3.3. Recognize the platform innovations that will not naturally occur
  • 10.5. Orchestrating Long-Term platform evolution
  • 10.5.1. Orchestrating platform envelopment
  • 10.5.1.1. Horizontal envelopment
  • 10.5.2. Rebuffing envelopment attacks on a platform
  • 10.5.2.1. Vertical envelopment
  • 10.5.2.2. When is downstream envelopment by a platform acceptable?
  • 10.5.3. Orchestrating platform durability
  • 10.5.4. Consistently contributing valuable resources to the ecosystem
  • 10.5.4.1. Many eyes are better than few
  • 10.5.4.2. Coevolving platform governance with aging platform architecture
  • 10.5.4.3. Expanding the scope of a platform through vertical envelopment
  • 10.5.4.4. Maintain modularity by adding new APIs
  • 10.5.4.5. Plug the gap in system-wide innovations that will not naturally occur
  • 10.5.4.6. Mutate into markets when a platforms existing assets are still rare
  • 10.5.5. Accumulating nonsubstitutable assets
  • 10.5.5.1. The Icarus paradox: the other thing besides taxes that is an absolute certainty
  • 10.5.5.2. Recognize whether a platform is in a winner-takes-all or pie-splitting market
  • 10.5.6. Orchestrating platform mutation
  • 10.6. Lessons learned
  • Chapter 11: Evolving an App
  • 11.1. Dynamics of platform markets
  • 11.1.1. A rising tide floats all boats
  • 11.2. The Eureka moment and the origin of apps
  • 11.2.1. Who is the incumbent? Think again
  • 11.3. How app microarchitecture shapes app evolvability
  • 11.4. Evolving an app: a preview
  • 11.5. Evolving an app in the short term
  • 11.5.1. Managing app resilience
  • 11.5.2. Improving app scalability
  • 11.5.3. Enhancing app composability
  • 11.6. Evolving an app in the medium term
  • 11.6.1. Growing app stickiness
  • 11.6.2. Tradeoffs in managing an app's platform synergy
  • 11.6.3. Enhancing app plasticity
  • 11.7. Evolving an app in the long term
  • 11.7.1. App envelopment: how apps evolve into platforms
  • 11.7.1.1. Horizontal envelopment by apps
  • 11.7.1.2. Vertical envelopment by apps and on apps
  • 11.7.1.3. Thwarting envelopment attacks by a platform owner
  • 11.7.1.4. A bold retreat as an alternative to quitting
  • 11.7.2. Enhancing app durability
  • 11.7.2.1. Tempering expectations
  • 11.7.3. Orchestrating app mutation
  • 11.8. Lessons learned
  • Part V: The Road Ahead
  • Chapter 12: Every Product Is a Platform Waiting to Happen
  • 12.1. Idea 1: migration to ecosystem competition
  • 12.1.1. Business ecosystems in nontechnology industries
  • 12.1.2. Properties unique to business ecosystems
  • 12.1.3. The three stooges of a business ecosystem
  • 12.2. Idea 2: ecosystem orchestration drives evolutionary survival
  • 12.2.1. The Red Queen race to survive
  • 12.2.2. Business ecosystems thrive on orchestration
  • 12.2.3. You cannot win the Grand Prix by watching the fuel gauge
  • 12.2.4. Challenges in business ecosystems evolve over their lifecycle
  • 12.3. Idea 3: Orchestration Requires Interlocking of Ecosystem Architecture and Governance
  • 12.3.1. Architecture is an ecosystems DNA
  • 12.3.2. Ecosystem governance is the catalyst for evolution
  • 12.3.3. Architecture and governance as the interlocking gears of an ecosystems evolutionary motor
  • About the Author
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Index

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