Petrophysics

Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties
 
 
Gulf Professional Publishing
  • 4. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 23. September 2015
  • |
  • 918 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803189-6 (ISBN)
 

Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties, Fourth Edition provides users with tactics that will help them understand rock-fluid interaction, a fundamental step that is necessary for all reservoir engineers to grasp in order to achieve the highest reservoir performance.

The book brings the most comprehensive coverage on the subject matter, and is the only training tool for all reservoir and production engineers entering the oil and gas industry. This latest edition is enhanced with new real-world case studies, the latest advances in reservoir characterization, and a new chapter covering unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, including coverage on production techniques, reservoir characteristics, and the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands from NMR logs.


  • Strengthened with a new chapter on shale oil and gas, adding the latest technological advances in the field today
  • Covers topics relating to porous media, permeability, fluid saturation, well logs, Dykstra-Parson, capillary pressure, wettability, Darcy's law, Hooke's law, reservoir characterization, filter-cake, and more
  • Updated with relevant practical case studies to enhance on the job training
  • Continues its longstanding, 20-year history as the leading book on petrophysics


Djebbar Tiab is the Senior Professor of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Oklahoma, and Petroleum Engineering consultant. He received his B.Sc. (May 1974) and M.Sc. (May 1975) degrees from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and his Ph.D. degree (July 1976) from the University of Oklahoma-all in petroleum engineering. He is the Director of the University of Oklahoma Graduate Program in Petroleum Engineering in Algeria. At the University of Oklahoma, he taught fifteen different petroleum and general engineering courses including: well test analysis, petrophysics, oil reservoir engineering, natural gas engineering, and properties of reservoir fluids. Dr. Tiab has consulted for a number of oil companies and offered training programs in petroleum engineering in the USA and overseas. He worked for over two years in the oilfields of Algeria for Alcore, S.A., an association of Sonatrach and Core Laboratories. He has also worked and consulted for Core Laboratories and Western Atlas in Houston, Texas, for four years as a Senior Reservoir Engineer Advisor.
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 50,32 MB
978-0-12-803189-6 (9780128031896)
0128031891 (0128031891)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface: 4th Edition of Petrophysics
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • Units
  • References
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Introduction to Mineralogy
  • Mineral Constituents of Rocks: A Review
  • Igneous Rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks
  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Clays
  • Shale
  • Siltstones (mud-rocks)
  • Sandstones
  • Carbonates
  • Evaporites
  • Properties of Sedimentary Particles
  • Development and use of Petrophysics
  • Problems
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Introduction to Petroleum Geology
  • Review of Composition of the Globe
  • Plate Tectonics
  • Geologic Time
  • Sedimentary Geology
  • Basins
  • Divergent Continental Margins
  • Convergent Continental Margins
  • Transform Continental Margins
  • Transgressive-Regressive Cycles
  • Accumulation of Sediments
  • Hydrocarbon Traps
  • Origin of Petroleum
  • Transformation of Organics into Kerogen
  • Transformation of Kerogen into Oil and Gas
  • Migration and Accumulation of Petroleum
  • Primary Migration
  • Secondary Migration
  • Properties of Subsurface Fluids
  • Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient
  • Lithostatic Pressure Gradient
  • Geothermal Gradient
  • Oilfield Waters
  • Compressibility
  • Gas Solubility
  • Viscosity
  • Petroleum
  • Gas Density
  • Viscosity of Gases
  • Oil Density
  • Oil Viscosity
  • Petroleum Chemistry
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Porosity and Permeability
  • Introduction
  • Porosity
  • Factors Governing the Magnitude of Porosity
  • Engineering Classification of Porosity
  • Geological Classification of Porosity
  • Primary Porosity
  • Secondary Porosity
  • Visual Description of Porosity in Carbonate Rocks
  • Fluid Saturation
  • Quantitative Use of Porosity
  • Permeability
  • Classification of Permeability
  • Factors Affecting the Magnitude of Permeability
  • Permeability-Porosity Relationships
  • Kozeny Correlation
  • Concept of Flow Units
  • Mathematical Theory of Flow Units
  • Specific Surface Area
  • Flow Unit Characterization Factors
  • Flow Units Functions
  • Reservoir Zonation Using Normalized RQI
  • Effect of Packing on Permeability
  • Effect of Water Saturation on Permeability
  • Permeability from NMR
  • Permeability from GR Logs
  • Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Carbonate Rocks
  • Estimating Permeability in Carbonate Rocks
  • Directional Permeability
  • Anisotropy
  • Relationship Between kH and kV
  • Clean sandstone formations
  • Shaly sandstone formations
  • Field example
  • Reservoir Heterogeneity
  • Microscopic Heterogeneity
  • Macroscopic Heterogeneity
  • Mesoscopic Heterogeneity
  • Megascopic Heterogeneity
  • Gigascopic Heterogeneity
  • Distribution of Rock Properties
  • Permeability and Porosity Distributions
  • Lorenz Coefficient LK
  • Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient VK
  • Averaging Techniques
  • Effective Permeability from Core Data
  • Average Porosity and Saturation
  • Permeability from Well Test Data
  • Statistical Zonation Technique
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Formation Resistivity and Water Saturation
  • Formation Resistivity Factor
  • Resistivity Measurement
  • Determination of Formation Water Resistivity
  • Chemical Analysis
  • Resistivity-Concentration Equations
  • Spontaneous Potential Curve
  • Shale-Properties Method
  • Correlation Between FR and Porosity
  • Correlations Between FR and Tortuosity
  • Correlations Between FR and Cementation
  • Theoretical Formula for FR
  • Correlation Between FR and Water Saturation
  • Correlation Between FR and Permeability
  • Resistivity of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
  • Water Saturation in Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
  • Approximate Shale Relationship
  • Generalized Shale Relationship
  • Flow Units for Shaly Sandstones
  • Lab-Derived Evaluation of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
  • Log-Derived Evaluation of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
  • Formation Evaluation
  • Core Analysis
  • Well Log Analysis
  • Water Saturation
  • Porosity
  • Core Interpretation of Data
  • Interpretation of Well Log Data
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Capillary Pressure
  • Introduction
  • Derivation of the Capillary Pressure Equation
  • Capillary Rise
  • Semipermeable Disk Measurement of Capillary Pressure
  • Centrifuge Measurement of Capillary Pressure
  • Laboratory Procedure
  • Calculation of Centrifuge Capillary Pressure Data
  • Limiting Centrifuge Speed
  • Calculation of the Inlet Saturation
  • Measurement of Capillary Pressure by Mercury Injection
  • Low-Pressure Mercury Injection
  • High-Pressure Mercury-Injection Capillary Pressure
  • Pore-Size Distribution
  • Pore-Size Distribution Function
  • Porosity and Permeability
  • Relative Flow Analysis
  • Vertical Saturation Profile in a Reservoir
  • Capillary Pressure J-Function
  • Averaging Core Properties With the J-Function
  • Capillary Number
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Wettability
  • Wettability
  • Interfacial Tension
  • Contact Angle
  • Sessile Drop Measurement of Contact Angles
  • Wilhelmy Plate Measurement of Contact Angles
  • Surface Chemical Properties
  • Evaluation of Wettability
  • Amott Wettability Index
  • USBM Wettability Index
  • Combined Amott-USBM Wettability Test
  • Spontaneous Imbibition Wettability Test
  • Fluid Displacement Energy
  • Water-oil-Rock Interfacial Activity
  • Effect of Wettability on Oil Recovery
  • Effect of Brine Salinity on Oil Recovery
  • Alteration of Wettability
  • Treatment of the Rock
  • Addition of Fluid Soluble Compounds to Water and Oil
  • Aging the oil-Brine-Rock System
  • Effects of Temperature and Pressure
  • Restoration of Original Wettability
  • Fractional Flow Equation
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Applications of Darcy's Law
  • Darcys Law
  • Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids
  • Linear Flow of Gas
  • Darcys and Poiseuilles Laws
  • Linear Flow Through Fractures and Channels
  • Flow Through Fractures
  • Flow Through Solution Channels
  • Radial Flow Systems
  • Steady-State Flow
  • Pseudosteady-State Flow
  • Skin Zone
  • Dimensionless Pressure
  • Radial Laminar Flow of Gas
  • Turbulent Flow of Gas
  • Linear Turbulent Flow
  • Friction Factor of Porous Rocks
  • Turbulent Radial Flow
  • Multiple-Permeability Rocks
  • Layered Reservoirs With Crossflow
  • Layered Reservoirs Without Crossflow
  • Composite Reservoirs
  • Linear Flow Systems
  • Radial Flow Systems
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
  • Introduction
  • Origin of Permeability in Carbonate Rocks
  • Geological Classifications of Natural Fractures
  • Engineering Classification of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
  • Indicators of Natural Fractures
  • Visual Identification of Fractures
  • Petrophysical Properties of Naturally Fractured Rocks
  • Fracture Porosity Determination
  • RQI, FZI, and m for Carbonates
  • Porosity Partitioning Coefficient
  • Fracture Intensity Index
  • Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Double Porosity Systems
  • Porosity and Permeability Relationships in Type 1 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
  • Fractures Porosity and Aperture from Cores
  • Specific Area of Fractures
  • Effect of Fracture Shape
  • Hydraulic Radius of Fractures
  • Type 2 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
  • Fluid Flow Modeling in Fractures
  • Fracture Area
  • Fracture Storage Capacity
  • Fracture Conductivity
  • Characterizing Natural Fractures from Well-Test Data
  • Fracture Porosity and Permeability from Pressure Tests
  • Fracture Corridors in Carbonates
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Effect of Stress on Reservoir Rock Properties
  • Static Stress-Strain Relation
  • Stress Analysis
  • Strain Analysis
  • Two-Dimensional Stress-Strain Systems
  • Rock Deformation
  • Hooke's Law
  • Stress-Strain Diagrams
  • The Mohr Diagram
  • Dynamic Elastic Properties
  • Dynamic versus Static Modulus of Elasticity
  • Rock Strength and Hardness
  • Rock Hardness
  • Compressibility of Porous Rocks
  • Pore Compressibility
  • Effectiveness of Pore Pressure in Countering Stress
  • Rock Compressibility Correlations
  • Effect of Pore Compressibility on Reserves Calculations
  • Converting Lab Data to Reservoir Data
  • Effect of Stress on Core Data
  • Effect of Stress on Porosity
  • Effect of Stress on Permeability
  • Effect of Stress on Resistivity
  • Porosity-Permeability-Stress Relationship
  • Effect of Stress on Fracturing
  • Effect of Poissons Ratio on Fracture Gradient
  • FG for Offshore Wells
  • Effect of Poisson's Ratio on Fracture Dimensions
  • In Situ Stress Distribution
  • Effect of Stress Change on Rock Failure
  • Change in Stress Field due to Depletion and Repressurization
  • Stress Relationship at the Wellbore
  • Estimating Critical Borehole Pressure in Vertical Wells Overbalanced Conditions
  • Balanced and Underbalanced Conditions
  • Critical Borehole Pressure in Horizontal Wells
  • Overbalanced Conditions
  • Underbalanced Conditions
  • Critical Pore Pressure
  • Example of a North Sea Reservoir
  • Stress Field and Reservoir Stress Paths
  • Analysis
  • Porosity as Strength Indicator to Evaluate Sand Production
  • Problems
  • Additional Sample Data
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Reservoir Characterization
  • Introduction
  • Reservoir Volumes
  • Hydraulic Flow Units
  • Mobility Ratio
  • J-Function
  • Analysis of Reservoir Performance
  • Reservoir Rock And Liquid Expansion
  • Solution-Gas Drive
  • Gas-Cap Drive
  • Gravity Drainage
  • Water Drive
  • Decline Curves
  • Material Balance
  • Solution-Gas Drive
  • Gas-Cap Drive
  • Water Drive
  • Gravity Drainage
  • Development of the General Material Balance Equation
  • Gas Reservoir
  • Straight-line Solution of the Material Balance Equation
  • Gas Reservoir, Equation(10.21)
  • Oil Reservoirs
  • Basic Well-log Interpretation
  • Introduction
  • Geothermal Gradient
  • Self Potential Log
  • Gamma Ray Log
  • Acoustic Log
  • Density Log
  • Neutron Log
  • Micro-Logs
  • Formation Resistivity
  • Measurement of Oil and Gas
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Fluid-Rock Interactions
  • Introduction
  • Importance of Near-Wellbore Permeability
  • Nature of Permeability Damage
  • Origin of Permeability Damage
  • Types of Permeability Damage
  • Effect of Fines Migration on Permeability
  • Types and Sizes of Fines
  • Fines Migration
  • Chemical Damage
  • Mechanical Damage
  • Migration of Foreign Solids
  • Critical Velocity Concept
  • Entrainment and Surface Deposition
  • Entrainment and Plugging
  • Identification of Permeability Damage Mechanisms
  • Permeability Damage from Foreign Solids
  • Permeability Damage from Formation Fines
  • Effect of Water Quality on Permeability
  • External Filter-Cake Buildup
  • Internal Filter-Cake Buildup
  • Injectivity Decline from Plugging of Perforations
  • Impairment from Wellbore Fill-Up
  • Membrane Filtration Tests
  • Core Filtration Tests
  • External Filter-Cake Formation
  • Internal Filter-Cake Formation
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Shale-Gas Reservoirs
  • Unconventional Hydrocarbon Generation
  • Kerogen and Total Organic Content
  • Rock-Evaluation Pyrolysis
  • Vitrinite Reflectance
  • Petrophysical Evaluation
  • Total Organic Carbon Content from Logs: Passey DeltalogR
  • ?logR from Resistivity and Sonic Logs
  • ?logR from Resistivity and Density Logs
  • ?logR from Resistivity and Neutron Logs
  • Sondergeld Correction Factor
  • Henderson Baseline
  • Schmoker Method
  • Total Porosity
  • TOC from NMR Measurements
  • Effective Porosity
  • Total Gas in Place in Shale-Gas Reservoirs
  • Two-Volume Petrophysical Model
  • Langmuir Isotherm
  • Langmuir Isotherm as an Equation of a Straight Line
  • Gas Recovery Factor
  • Recovery Factor from Langmuir Isotherm
  • Adsorbed Gas in Place (Ga)
  • Free Gas in Place (Gf)
  • Three-Volume Petrophysical Model
  • Adsorbed-Gas Gibbs Correction
  • Empirical Correlations of TOC
  • Permeability
  • GRI Crushed Method
  • Empirical Correlations of Permeability
  • Effect of Stress on Matrix Permeability
  • Reliability of Lab-Results
  • Permeability from Pressure Transient Tests
  • Linear Flow Analysis
  • Bilinear Flow Analysis
  • Problems
  • References
  • Appendix A: Measurement of Rock and Fluid Properties
  • Experiment 1: Fluid Content of Rocks by the Retort Method
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Equipment
  • Calibration retort
  • Specimen retort
  • Retorting
  • Sample Calculations
  • Retort calibration
  • Results from the reservoir test specimen
  • Saturation calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 2: Measurement of Saturation by Solvent Extraction
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Sample Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • Reference
  • Experiment 3: Density, Specific Gravity, and API Gravity
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Measurement of API gravity
  • Westphal balance
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 4: Specific Gravity of Gases
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Sample Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • Reference
  • Experiment 5: Viscosity
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Cannon-Fenske viscometer
  • Saybolt viscometer
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 6: Fluorescence
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Questions and Problems
  • Reference
  • Experiment 7: Absolute and Effective Porosity
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Absolute porosity from grain volume
  • Sample Calculation
  • Grain and bulk volumes
  • Sample Calculation
  • Effective porosity
  • Porosity measurement by gas compression/expansion
  • Sample Calculation
  • Sample Calculation
  • Statistical evaluation of porosity data
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 8: Sieve Analysis (Particle-Size Distribution)
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Sieve Analysis Procedure
  • Calculations
  • Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 9: Surface Area of Sediments
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedure
  • Calculations
  • Question and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 10: Absolute Permeability
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Absolute Permeability using a liquid
  • Absolute Permeability using a gas
  • Effect of overburden pressure on absolute permeability
  • Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • Sample Calculation
  • Sample Calculation 2
  • References
  • Experiment 11: Absolute Permeability Measured with a Gas
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Calculations
  • Experimental Data
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 12: Relative Permeability
  • Introduction
  • Steady-state method
  • Unsteady-state method
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Sample Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 13: Surface and Interfacial Tensions
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • duNouy ring method
  • Capillary rise method
  • Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 14: Capillary Pressure
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Core preparation for capillary pressure measurement
  • Porous diaphragm method
  • Mercury injection method
  • Centrifuge method
  • Centrifuge procedure
  • Calculation of Capillary Pressure and Saturation
  • USBM wettability index [Program USBMWET.FOR]
  • Energy required for fluid displacement
  • Sample Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 15: Determination of Z-Factors for Imperfect Gases
  • Introduction
  • Van der Waals' equation
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • References
  • Experiment 16: Basic Sediment and Water Analysis (BS&W)
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Questions and Problems
  • Reference
  • Experiment 17: Point-Load Strength Test
  • Introduction
  • Equipment and Procedures
  • Calculations
  • Questions and Problems
  • Reference
  • Appendix B: Computer Programs
  • Introduction
  • Index
  • Back Cover
  • Back Cover

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