Complications of Urologic Surgery E-Book

Prevention and Management
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 5. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. September 2017
  • |
  • 768 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-39248-8 (ISBN)
 

From the simple to the complex, Complications of Urologic Surgery, 5th Edition, by Drs. Samir S. Taneja and Ojas Shah, offers concise, to-the-point information on prevention and management strategies that help you provide the best patient care. Covering both office-based complications as well as common and uncommon surgical complications arising from open and minimally invasive urologic surgery, this updated, full-color volume is an invaluable resource for exam study or for convenient reference in everyday practice.

  • Contains 14 new chapters including Management of Urine Leak, Urologic Surgery in the Pregnant Female, Complications of Gender Assignment Surgery, Urologic Surgery in the Previously Radiated Field, Complications of Robotic Pelvic Floor Reconstruction, and Complications of Robotic Cystectomy.

  • Keeps you up to date with current preoperative management concerns including complications with effusion, hydrothorax, hemothorax, diaphragm injury, pneumonia, and air embolus.

  • Features more than 180 superb new illustrations, graphs, and tables for easier understanding of complex concepts.

  • Reviews new anticoagulant drugs and their risks and benefits.

  • Provides thoroughly updated content on oncology, endourology, and pediatric surgeries - all areas experiencing tremendous changes since the previous edition.
  • Englisch
  • Philadelphia
  • |
  • USA
  • 56,63 MB
978-0-323-39248-8 (9780323392488)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Inside Front Cover
  • Complications of Urologic Surgery
  • Copyright Page
  • Preface
  • Dedication
  • Table Of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • I Preoperative Assessment and Perioperative Management
  • 1 Impact of Host Factors and Comorbid Conditions
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Obesity
  • Obesity and Urologic Malignant Diseases
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Obesity and Benign Urologic Conditions
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Stress Urinary Incontinence
  • Urolithiasis
  • Malnutrition
  • Nutritional Status Assessment
  • Preoperative Management of Malnutrition
  • Infection and Urosepsis
  • Quantifying Comorbidity
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 1 Questions
  • Answers
  • 2 Preoperative Pulmonary Assessment and Management of Pulmonary Complications
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Pulmonary Assessment
  • Patient Factors
  • Cigarette Smoking
  • Procedure Factors
  • Surgical Approach and Anatomic Considerations
  • Anesthesia
  • Preoperative Patient Evaluation
  • Preoperative Strategies
  • Postoperative Strategies
  • Incentive Spirometry and Deep Breathing Exercises
  • Early Mobilization
  • Pain Control
  • Nasogastric Tube
  • Bronchospasm
  • Atelectasis
  • Pleural Effusion
  • Postoperative Pneumonia
  • Postoperative Management for Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Complications Involving the Pleural Space
  • Pneumothorax
  • Chylothorax
  • Hemothorax
  • Hydrothorax
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Air Embolism
  • Pulmonary Complications of Open and Laparoscopic Urologic Surgery
  • Pulmonary Complications of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
  • Patients With Prior Bleomycin Chemotherapy
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Questions
  • Answers
  • 3 Preoperative Cardiac Assessment and Management of Perioperative Cardiac Complications
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Timing and Surgical Risk
  • Evaluating the Patient and Risk Stratification
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Preoperative
  • Postoperative
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Preoperative
  • Postoperative
  • Valvular Heart Disease
  • Preoperative
  • Postoperative
  • Arrhythmias
  • Preoperative
  • Postoperative
  • Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices
  • Preoperative
  • Postoperative
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Preoperative
  • Postoperative
  • Perioperative Medical Interventions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Questions
  • Answers
  • 4 Preoperative Hematologic Assessment and Management of Hematologic Complications
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Abnormalities of Blood Components
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Platelets
  • von Willebrandâ??s Disease
  • Hemophilia A and B
  • Rare Inherited Factor Deficiencies
  • Disorders of Increased Bleeding
  • Renal Failure
  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
  • Primary Fibrinolysis
  • Vitamin Kâ??related Disorders
  • Massive Transfusion Syndrome
  • Anticoagulated Patient
  • Antiplatelet Therapy
  • Anticoagulation Therapy
  • Management of Intraoperative Bleeding
  • Problems of Increased Coagulation
  • Hypercoagulable State
  • Physiology
  • Evaluating the Hypercoagulable Patient
  • Management
  • Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism
  • Management
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 5 Metabolic Complications of Urologic Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Perioperative Management of the Patient With Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Management of Comorbidities and Complications
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Considerations
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Hyponatermia
  • Etiology
  • Presentation
  • Management
  • Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
  • Etiology
  • Mechanism
  • Presentation
  • Evaluation
  • Management
  • Transurethral Resection Syndrome
  • Etiology
  • Mechanism
  • Risk Factors
  • Presentation
  • Evaluation
  • Management
  • Postobstructive Diuresis
  • Etiology
  • Pathophysiology of Obstructive Nephropathy
  • Mechanism
  • Presentation
  • Evaluation and Management
  • Metabolic Complications of Urinary Diversion
  • Gastrointestinal Transport of Water and Electrolytes
  • Stomach
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum and Colon
  • Altered Sensorium
  • Chapter 5 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • References
  • References
  • 6 Anesthetic Complications in Urologic Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Anesthesia Safety
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Preanesthetic Evaluation
  • Anesthesia Risk: The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System
  • Choice of Anesthesia Technique in Urologic Surgery
  • Patient-specific Risk Stratification
  • Procedure-specific Indications
  • Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Physiologic Changes of Obesity
  • Respiratory Physiology
  • Cardiovascular Physiology
  • Comorbidities Associated With Obesity
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Failure, and Atrial Fibrillation
  • Hypertension
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Kidney Disease
  • Other Preoperative Risk Factors in Obesity: Difficult Airway
  • Preoperative Considerations for Obese and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients
  • Lap Band
  • Ambulatory Versus Inpatient
  • Obese Patients With Preoperative Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea or Obesity Hyperventilation Syndrome
  • Strategies for Anesthesia and Pain Management in Obese/Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients
  • Intraoperative Anesthesia Management
  • Complications During General Anesthesia
  • Difficult Airway
  • Hyperreactive Airway and Bronchospasm
  • Aspiration Pneumonitis
  • Laryngeal, Pharyngeal, and Esophageal Trauma
  • Airway Obstruction
  • Pneumothorax
  • Hypothermia
  • Hyperkalemic Cardiac Arrest
  • Autonomic Hyperreflexia
  • Malignant Hyperthermia
  • Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
  • Propofol Total Intravenous Anesthesia (Propofol TIVA).
  • Positioning-related Complications
  • Complications During Regional Anesthesia
  • Spinal Anesthesia
  • Postdural Puncture Headache.
  • Cauda Equina Syndrome/Transient Neurologic Syndrome.
  • Epidural Anesthesia
  • Inadvertent Subarachnoid Injection.
  • Inadvertent Intravascular Injection.
  • Combined Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia
  • Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity
  • Treatment.
  • Prevention.
  • Spinal Hematoma
  • Further Prevention of Regional Anesthesia Complications
  • Meperidine Spinal Anesthesia
  • Combined Intravenous and Intramuscular Ephedrine for Cardiovascular Stability
  • Nerve Blocks in Urology
  • Pudendal Nerve Block
  • Transvaginal Approach
  • Complications.
  • Prevention.
  • Midperineal Approach
  • Complications.
  • Prevention.
  • Direct Percutaneous Approach (Vaida Method)
  • Complications.
  • Prevention.
  • Penile Block
  • Perineal Nerve
  • Deep Dorsal Nerve of Penis
  • Indications of Penile Block (Adults Only)
  • Penile Nerve Block Techniques
  • Dorsal Penile Nerve Block.
  • Circumferential Block.
  • Complications and Prevention
  • Bleeding and Hematomas.
  • Local Anesthetic Toxicity.
  • Penile Ischemia and Necrosis.
  • Infection.
  • Intraoperative Penile Erection
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Obturator Reflex
  • Postoperative Pain Management
  • Narcotics
  • Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
  • Tramadol
  • Multimodal Analgesia
  • Intravenous Patient-controlled Analgesia
  • Epidural Patient-controlled Analgesia
  • The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient
  • Laparoscopy and Robotic-assisted Laparoscopy
  • Pathophysiology of Pneumoperitoneum (CO2 Insufflation)
  • Pneumoperitoneum Under General Anesthesia
  • Mechanical Effects of CO2 Insufflation.
  • Neurohormonal Effects.
  • Cardiovascular Effects.
  • Temperature Effects.
  • Respiratory Effects: Mechanical.
  • Respiratory Effects: Carbon Dioxide Absorption.
  • Specific Circulatory Changes.
  • cerebral blood flow.
  • splanchnic blood flow.
  • hepatic blood flow.
  • renal blood flow.
  • Pneumoperitoneum Under Regional Anesthesia
  • Respiratory Changes.
  • Cardiovascular Changes.
  • Operative Management
  • Patient Monitoring
  • General Anesthesia
  • Choice of Airway.
  • Nitrous Oxide.
  • Regional Anesthesia
  • Epidural Anesthesia.
  • Spinal Anesthesia.
  • Local Anesthesia.
  • Peripheral Nerve Blocks.
  • Complications of Patient Positioning in Robotic Surgery
  • Neural Mechanisms
  • Peripheral Neuropathy of Lower Extremity.
  • Peripheral Neuropathy of Upper Extremity.
  • Intraocular Neuropathy.
  • Vascular Mechanisms
  • Compartment Syndrome.
  • prevention of compartment syndrome.
  • treatment of compartment syndrome.
  • Rhabdomyolysis.
  • pathophysiology of rhabdomyolysis.
  • treatment of rhabdomyolysis.
  • prevention of rhabdomyolysis.
  • Clinical Complications During Pneumoperitoneum
  • Pneumopericardium, Pneumomediastinum
  • Pneumothorax
  • Tension Pneumothorax
  • Subcutaneous Emphysema
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia
  • Carbon Dioxide Gas Embolism
  • Shoulder Pain
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Questions
  • Answers
  • 7 Infectious Complications of Urologic Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Urologic Surgery
  • Endourologic Procedures
  • Open, Laparoscopic, and Robotic Urologic Surgery
  • Special Consideration: Heart Valves, Prostheses
  • Management of Surgical Infections
  • Surgical Site Infections
  • Intraabdominal Infections
  • Postoperative Urinary Tract Infections
  • Sepsis: Early Recognition and Treatment
  • Antibiotic Resistance
  • Clostridium difficile Colitis
  • Special Considerations
  • Prostate Biopsy
  • Inflatable Penile Prostheses
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Questions
  • Answers
  • 8 Classification of Complications and Assessment of Quality of Care
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Definition of Complications
  • Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events
  • Clavien-Dindo System
  • The International Continence Society and the International Urogynecological Association Classification of Complications Related Directly to the Insertion of Grafts and Prosthetics
  • National Quality Registries
  • Quality Improvement Strategies
  • Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle
  • Statistical Process Control
  • Root Cause Analysis
  • Lean Production System
  • Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
  • Summary
  • Chapter 8 Questions
  • Answers
  • References
  • References
  • II Common Surgical Considerations
  • 9 Complications of the Incision and Patient Positioning
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Seroma
  • Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
  • Prevention and Management
  • Hematomoa
  • Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
  • Prevention and Management
  • Surgical Site Infection
  • Definition
  • Risk Stratification
  • Microbiology
  • Prevention
  • Preoperative and Intraoperative Techniques
  • Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
  • Diagnosis and Management
  • Wound Dehiscence
  • Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
  • Suture Selection and Technique
  • Layered Versus Mass Closure
  • Nerve/Plexus Injuries
  • Upper Extremity Nerve Injuries
  • Lower Extremity Nerve Injuries
  • Injuries to the Femoral Nerve
  • Injuries Resulting From Lithotomy Position
  • Injuries Related to Positioning for Robotic Surgery
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Questions
  • Answers
  • 10 Management of Vascular Complications in Urology
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Overview
  • Instruments and Supplies
  • Instruments for Dissection
  • Instruments for Vascular Control and Repair
  • Endovascular Instruments
  • Hemostatic Agents
  • Causes and Prevention of Vascular Injuries
  • Causes of Vascular Complications
  • Types of Vascular Injuries
  • Identification of Vascular Injuries
  • Initial Management of Bleeding
  • Definitive Operative Management of Vascular Injuries
  • Anticoagulation
  • Embolectomy
  • General Principles of Vascular Repair
  • Approaches to Definitive Repair
  • Complications of Vascular Injuries
  • Pelvic/Retroperitoneal Hematoma
  • Thrombosis and Embolization
  • Arteriovenous Fistula
  • Stenosis
  • Specific Cases of Vascular Injury
  • Laparoscopic Access Injuries
  • Arterial Injuries
  • Aortic Injuries
  • Visceral Artery Injuries
  • Thoracic and Lumbar Segmental Artery Injuries
  • Iliac Artery Injuries
  • Venous Injuries
  • Inferior Vena Cava Injuries
  • Renal Vein Injuries
  • Hypogastric (Internal Iliac) Vein Injuries
  • Lumbar Vein Injuries
  • Inferior Vena Cava Tumor Thrombus
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Questions
  • Answers
  • 11 Management of Bowel Complications
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Ileus
  • Bowel Preparation
  • Bowel Injury
  • Bowel Leak, Abscess, and Fistula
  • Bowel Obstruction
  • Ogilvieâ??s Syndrome
  • Chapter 11 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • References
  • References
  • 12 Management of Urinary Fistula
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points:
  • Introduction
  • Vesicovaginal Fistula
  • Etiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Management
  • Urethrovaginal Fistula
  • Etiology
  • Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Ureteral Fistula
  • Etiology
  • Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Management
  • Intestinal Fistula
  • Etiology
  • Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 13 Management of Urine Leak
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Urinary Leak Associated With Partial Nephrectomy
  • Definition and Diagnosis of Urinary Leak
  • Symptoms of Urinary Leak
  • Incidence and Differential of Urinary Leak
  • Risk Factors of Urinary Leak
  • Prevention of Urinary Leak
  • Treatment of Urinary Leak (see Fig. 13.2)
  • Urinary Leak Associated With Radical Prostatectomy
  • Definition and Diagnosis of Urinary Leak
  • Symptoms of Urinary Leak
  • Incidence and Differential of Urinary Leak
  • Risk Factors of Urinary Leak
  • Prevention of Urinary Leak
  • Treatment of Urinary Leak (see Fig. 13.3)
  • Urinary Leak Following Urinary Diversions and Bladder Reconstruction
  • Definition and Diagnosis of Urinary Leak
  • Symptoms of Urinary Leak
  • Incidence and Differential of Urinary Leak
  • Risk Factors of Urinary Leak
  • Prevention of Urinary Leak
  • Management of Urinary Leak (see Fig. 13.4)
  • Urinary Leak Following Miscellaneous Procedures
  • Ureteral Reconstruction
  • Pyeloplasty
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 13 Questions
  • Case Study 1: Urinary Leak After Partial Nephrectomy
  • Case Study 2: Urinary Leak After Radical Prostatectomy
  • Case Study 3: Urinary Leak After Urinary Diversion
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1: Urinary Leak After Partial Nephrectomy
  • Case Study 2: Urinary Leak After Radical Prostatectomy
  • Case Study 3: Urinary Leak After Urinary Diversion
  • References
  • References
  • 14 Management of Ureteral Injury
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy
  • Etiologies of Ureteral Injury
  • Diagnosis
  • Timing of Repair
  • Preoperative Management
  • Strategies for the Management of Ureteral Injuries
  • Endoscopic Repair
  • Proximal Ureteral Repair
  • MidUreteral Repair
  • Distal Ureteral Repair
  • Long-Length Ureteral Repair
  • Other Considerations
  • Summary
  • Chapter 14 Questions
  • Case Study
  • Answers
  • Case Study
  • References
  • References
  • 15 Management of Complications Related to Traumatic Injuries
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Renal Trauma
  • Etiology and Management
  • Complications
  • Ureteral Trauma
  • Etiology and Management
  • Complications
  • Bladder Trauma
  • Etiology and Management
  • Complications
  • Urethral Trauma
  • Posterior Urethral Injuries
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Complications
  • Anterior Urethral Injuries
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Complications
  • External Genitalia
  • Penile Fractures
  • Etiology and Management
  • Complications
  • Penile Amputation
  • Etiology and Management
  • Complications
  • Testicular Trauma
  • Diagnosis and Management
  • Complications
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • III Surgical Scenarios Predisposing to Complication
  • 16 Urologic Surgery in the Obese
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Condition-specific Considerations
  • Malignant Urologic Disease
  • Prostate Cancer and Radical Prostatectomy
  • Technical Considerations
  • Kidney Cancer, Nephrectomy, and Partial Nephrectomy
  • Technical Considerations
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Technical Considerations
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Urolithiasis
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Questions
  • Answers
  • 17 Urologic Surgery in the Pregnant Patient
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • The Pregnant Patient
  • Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy
  • Cardiovascular Considerations
  • Respiratory Considerations
  • Hematologic Considerations
  • Renal Considerations
  • Ethical Considerations for Urologic Surgery During Pregnancy
  • Urologic Disease During Pregnancy
  • Urolithiasis
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology of Stone Disease During Pregnancy
  • Diagnosis of Stones During Pregnancy
  • Management of Stone Disease in Pregnancy
  • Complications
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy
  • Implications of Urinary Tract Infections and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria During Pregnancy
  • Management of Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy
  • Urologic Tumors
  • Epidemiology
  • Renal Tumors
  • Adrenal Tumors
  • Bladder Tumors
  • Ureteral Tumors
  • Urethral Tumors
  • Urachal Tumors
  • Imaging Considerations During Pregnancy
  • Surgical Considerations During Pregnancy
  • Surgical Positioning
  • Perioperative Fetal Monitoring
  • Open Versus Laparoscopic Approaches
  • Endoscopic
  • Complications Related to Pregnancy
  • Preterm Labor/Preterm Delivery
  • Invasive Placental Attachment
  • Urologic Trauma During Delivery
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Questions
  • Case Study
  • Answers
  • Case Study
  • 18 Management of Complications of Gender Confirmation Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Complications Specific to Female-to-Male Gender Confirmation Surgery
  • Urethral Stricture and Urethrocutaneous Fistula
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Persistent Vaginal Cavity
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Meatal Stenosis of Neophallus Urethra
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Male-to-Female Gender Confirmation Surgery Complications
  • Neovaginal Fistula
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Stricture of Neourethra or Meatal Stenosis
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Neovaginal Stenosis or Atresia
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Neovaginal Prolapse
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Questions
  • Case Study
  • Answers
  • Case Study
  • 19 Complications of Genitourinary Surgery in the Irradiated Pelvis
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • The Effects of Radiation on Wound Healing
  • Preoperative Evaluation and Patient Selection
  • Hyperbaric Oxygenation
  • General Intraoperative Considerations
  • Urethral Stricture
  • Rectourethral and Colovesical Fistula
  • Bladder Neck Contracture
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • IV Complications of Ambulatory Urologic Procedures
  • 20 Prostate Biopsy Complications
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Prostate Biopsy Complications and Factors Influencing Complications
  • Bleeding Complications
  • Infectious Complications
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Acute Urinary Retention
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Pain
  • Mortality
  • Complications of Alternative Biopsy Technique: Transperineal Biopsy
  • Methods to Decrease Complication Risks
  • Management of Complications
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 21 Complications of Upper Tract Drainage
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Surgical Decompression of the Urinary Tract
  • Indications for Retrograde Ureteral Stents
  • Indications for Nephrostomy Tubes
  • Indications for Antegrade Ureteral Stents
  • Complications of Stents
  • Stent Symptoms
  • Urinary Tract Infection/Sepsis
  • Periureteral Fluid Collection (Sterile or Infected)
  • Wire-Related Complications
  • Stent Migration
  • Adjacent Organ Injury/Stent Erosion
  • Stent Encrustation
  • Stent Fragmentation
  • Retained Stent
  • Inadequate Relief of Obstruction/Hydronephrosis
  • Metal Stents
  • Complications of Nephrostomy Tubes
  • Complication of Prone Positioning
  • Tube Complications
  • UTI/Sepsis
  • Pleural Complications
  • Hemorrhage, Hematuria/Clot Colic
  • Urine Leak/Renal Pelvis Perforation
  • Injury to Intraabdominal Organs
  • Tumor Seeding
  • Complications of Antegrade Stents
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 21 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • References
  • References
  • 22 Complications of Intravesical Therapy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Intravesical Immunotherapy
  • Bacille Calmette-Guérin
  • Overview of Complications
  • Specific Complications
  • Local Toxicity
  • Inflammatory Toxicity
  • Infectious Toxicity
  • Prevention of Systemic Absorption
  • Granulomatous Complications
  • Arthralgic Complications
  • Rare Complications
  • Continuing Therapy and Maintenance
  • Purified Protein Derivative Conversion
  • Contraindications
  • Interferons
  • Complications
  • Intravesical Chemotherapy
  • Mitomycin C
  • Thiotepa
  • Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, and Valrubicin
  • Gemcitabine
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 23 Complications of Renal Tissue Ablation
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Prevention of Complications
  • Patient Selection
  • Preoperative Angioembolization
  • Hydrodisplacement
  • Pyeloperfusion
  • Complications of Ablation
  • Radiofrequency Ablation
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Urinary Tract Injury
  • Hemorrhage
  • Pain/Neuropathy
  • Pneumothorax
  • Other
  • Cryoablation
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Hemorrhage
  • Urinary Tract Injury
  • Pneumothorax
  • Other
  • Microwave Ablation
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Hemorrhage
  • Urinary Tract Injury
  • Other
  • Irreversible Electroporation
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Overview of Complications
  • Managing Complications of Ablation
  • Hemorrhage
  • Urinary Tract Injury
  • Pain or Paresthesia at the Probe Insertion Site
  • Injuries to Adjacent Organs
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 23 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 24 Complications of Prostate Cryosurgical Ablation
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of Tissue Injury and Causes of Complications
  • Patient Selection
  • Diagnosis of Localized Recurrence for Patients Undergoing Salvage Prostate Ablation
  • Prostate Biopsy
  • Imaging and Other Tests for Staging
  • Operative Considerations
  • Technical Advances in Technology That Help to Reduce Complications
  • Technical Considerations
  • Complications
  • Complications of Cryoablation
  • Commonly Seen Complications
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • incidence.
  • etiology and pathogenesis.
  • management.
  • Perineal and/or Rectal Pain
  • incidence.
  • etiology and pathogenesis.
  • management.
  • Urinary Retention
  • incidence.
  • etiology and pathogenesis.
  • management.
  • Tissue Slough
  • incidence.
  • etiology and pathogenesis.
  • management.
  • Less Commonly Seen Complications
  • Incontinence
  • incidence.
  • etiology and pathogenesis.
  • management.
  • Rectal Fistula
  • incidence.
  • etiology and pathogenesis.
  • management.
  • Bladder Neck Contractures/Urethral Strictures
  • incidence.
  • etiology and pathogenesis.
  • management.
  • Rare or Anecdotal Complications
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • V Complications of Endourologic Procedures
  • 25 Complications of Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • General Considerations
  • Surgical Instrumentation
  • Irrigating Solutions
  • Patient Preparation
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Medication Counseling
  • Urine Culture and Antibiotic Prophylaxis
  • Anesthesia and Positioning
  • Anesthesia
  • Patient Positioning
  • Surgical Approach
  • Resection
  • Diffuse Carcinoma in Situ
  • Tumor Involving the Ureteral Orifice
  • Tumor on the Anterior Surface
  • Tumor at the Dome
  • Tumor at the Lateral Wall
  • Tumor in Bladder Diverticula
  • Restaging Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors
  • â??Radicalâ?? Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
  • Monopolar Versus Bipolar Electrocautery
  • Reducing Cautery Artifact
  • Use of Lasers
  • Complications of Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors
  • Overall Morbidity and Mortality
  • Mechanical Difficulties
  • Problems of Instrument Introduction
  • Postoperative Bleeding
  • Bleeding Due to Unresectable Disease, Radiation, or Chemotherapy
  • Bladder Perforation
  • Transurethral Resection Syndrome
  • Infection
  • Urinary Retention
  • The Effect of Trainee Participation on Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor Complications
  • Complications of Post Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor Intravesical Chemotherapy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 26 Complications of Endoscopic Procedures for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Nonspecific Complications of Endoscopic Procedures for BPH
  • Intraoperative
  • Intraoperative Bleeding
  • Transurethral Resection Syndrome
  • False Urethral Passage
  • Injury to the Bladder or Ureteral Orifices
  • Injury Beyond the Prostate
  • Challenges to Initiating Treatment
  • Postoperative
  • Postoperative Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Urinary Incontinence
  • Urethral Stricture
  • Bladder Neck Contracture
  • Meatal Stenosis
  • Retrograde Ejaculation
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Need for Retreatment
  • Miscellaneous
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 26 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • References
  • References
  • 27 Complications of Ureteroscopic Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Patient Selection
  • Renal and Ureteral Stones
  • Upper Urinary Tract Strictures
  • Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma
  • Contraindications
  • Preparation
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Perioperative Preparation
  • Technique of Upper Urinary Tract Endoscopy
  • Cystoscopy and Initial Upper Urinary Tract Access
  • Negotiating the Obstruction
  • Maintaining Access
  • Entry of the Ureteroscope
  • Endoscopy
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Ureteral Bleeding
  • Low-Grade Ureteral Injury
  • High-Grade Ureteral Injury
  • Failure and Conversion
  • Instrument Failure
  • Stone Retrieval Basket Failure.
  • Scope Damage and Durability.
  • Early Postoperative Complications
  • Infectious Complications
  • Cardiopulmonary Complications
  • Other Complications
  • Late Postoperative Complications
  • Ureteral Stricture
  • Retained and Encrusted Ureteral Stents
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 27 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 28 Complications of Percutaneous Renal Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Hemorrhage
  • Intraoperative Hemorrhage
  • Antegrade Endopyelotomy
  • Tubeless Percutaneous Renal Surgery
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage
  • Collecting System Injuries
  • Perforation and Extravasation
  • Ureteral Avulsion
  • Extrarenal and Extraureteral Stone Fragment Migration
  • Stricture
  • Infundibular Stenosis
  • Retained Foreign Bodies
  • Tumor Seeding
  • Nephrocutaneous Fistula
  • Injury Resulting From Energy Sources
  • Injury to Adjacent Structures
  • Lung and Pleura
  • Colon
  • Small Intestine
  • Liver, Gallbladder, and Spleen
  • Lymphatics
  • Medical Complications
  • Infection and Sepsis
  • Fluid Overload
  • Hypothermia
  • Positioning-Related Injuries
  • Air Embolism
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism
  • Mortality
  • Loss of Renal Function
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 28 Questions
  • Cases Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • References
  • References
  • 29 Complications of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Hematoma
  • Steinstrasse
  • Sepsis
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Vascular Injury
  • Adjacent Organ Injury
  • Urinary Fistulas
  • Hypertension
  • Renal Insufficiency
  • Diabetes Risk
  • Fertility Effects
  • Potential Long-term Complications
  • Strategies to Reduce Risk of Complications
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 29 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • VI Complications of Laparoscopic/Robotic Procedures
  • 30 Special Considerations in Laparoscopy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Patient Selection and Anesthetic Considerations
  • Positioning
  • Access Injuries
  • Minor Vascular Injuries
  • Major Vascular Injuries
  • Superior Mesenteric Artery Injury
  • Electrosurgery
  • Mechanical Failure
  • Visceral Injuries
  • Pleural/Diaphragmatic Injury
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 30 Questions
  • Answers
  • 31 Special Considerations in Robot-Assisted Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Patient Selection and Preparation
  • Robotic-team Approach
  • Patient Positioning
  • Effects of Pneumoperitoneum
  • Team Communication
  • Robotic System Failure
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 31 Questions
  • Answers
  • 32 Complications of Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Complications of Positioning
  • Complications of Access
  • Port Insertion/Insufflation
  • Bowel Injury
  • Bladder Injury
  • Retroperitoneal Vascular Injury
  • Epigastric/Abdominal Wall Vascular Injury
  • Intraoperative Surgical Complications
  • Bleeding
  • Visceral Injury: Bladder, Bowel, and Rectum
  • Ureteral Injury
  • Nerve Injury
  • Early Postoperative Complications
  • Bleeding
  • Anastomotic Urine Leak
  • Lymphocele
  • Urinary Tract and Wound Infection
  • Thromboembolic Complications
  • Port Site Hernia
  • Late Postoperative Consequences
  • Incontinence
  • Impotence
  • Oncologic Outcomes
  • References
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 32 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 33 Complications of Robotic Pelvic Floor Reconstruction
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Patient Positioning and Surgical Setup
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Bowel Complications
  • Hemorrhagic Complications
  • Urologic Complications
  • Vaginal Complications
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Infectious Complications
  • Thromboembolic Complications
  • Bowel Complications
  • Complications Related to Synthetic Mesh
  • De Novo Incontinence
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chaper 33 Questions
  • Answers
  • 34 Complications of Laparoscopic/Robotic Nephrectomy and Partial Nephrectomy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Patient Selection
  • Operative Planning
  • Procedural Complications
  • Complications Related to Patient Positioning
  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Nerve Injuries
  • Other Complications
  • Complications Related to Kidney Exposure
  • Vascular Injury
  • Bowel Injury
  • Spleen Injury
  • Pleural Injury
  • Pancreatic Injury
  • Hepatobiliary Injury
  • Chylous Ascites
  • Procedure-specific Considerations
  • Partial Nephrectomy
  • Bleeding
  • Urine Leak
  • Renal Function
  • Donor Nephrectomy
  • Simple Nephrectomy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 34 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 35 Complications of Robotic Upper Urinary Tract Reconstruction
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Operative Planning
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Minimally Invasive Pyeloplasty
  • Minimally Invasive Ureteral Reconstruction
  • Minimally Invasive Ureterolysis
  • Minimally Invasive Buccal Mucosa Graft Ureteroplasty
  • Minimally Invasive Renal Autotransplantation
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Minimally Invasive Pyeloplasty
  • Minimally Invasive Ureterolysis
  • Minimally Invasive Ureteral Reimplantation
  • Minimally Invasive Ureteroureterostomy
  • Minimally Invasive Boari Flap
  • Minimally Invasive Buccal Mucosa Ureteroplasty
  • Minimally Invasive Ileal Ureter
  • Minimally Invasive Ureterocalicostomy
  • Minimally Invasive Transureteroureterostomy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 35 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 36 Complications of Robotic Cystectomy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Review of Perioperative and Postoperative Complications
  • Comparisons Between Robotic and Open Radical Cystectomy
  • Factors Associated With Complications During Robotic Cystectomy
  • Perioperative Preparation
  • Patient Selection
  • Perioperative Pathways
  • Operative Equipment and Setup
  • Intraoperative Complications and Management
  • Ureteral Dissection
  • Posterior Dissection and Pedicles
  • Developing Space of Retzius and Prostate Dissection
  • Lymph Node Dissection
  • Issues Unique to Female Cystectomy
  • Urinary Diversion
  • Postoperative Complications and Management
  • Venous Thromboembolism
  • Wound Infection/Fascial Dehiscence
  • Lymphocele
  • Ileus
  • Anastomotic Leak and Enterocutaneous Fistula
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 36 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • VII Complications of Extirpative Surgery
  • 37 Complications of Nephrectomy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Cardiopulmonary Considerations
  • Urologic Considerations
  • Patient Preparation
  • General Medico-Renal Considerations
  • Surgical Approach
  • Site Verification
  • Anterior Incisions
  • Flank Incisions
  • Thoracoabdominal Incisions
  • Lumbodorsal Incisions
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Hemorrhage
  • Arterial Anatomy
  • Venous Anatomy
  • Statistics of Hemorrhage
  • Preoperative Embolization
  • Vessel Dissection
  • Hematoma
  • Injury to Nearby Organs
  • Spleen
  • Pancreas
  • Duodenum
  • Liver
  • Colon and Stomach
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Diaphragm
  • Infection
  • Pneumonia
  • Abscess
  • Special Populations
  • Tumor Thrombus
  • Cytoreductive Nephrectomy
  • Locally Recurrent Disease
  • Donor Nephrectomy
  • Elderly Patients
  • Transitional Cell Carcinoma
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 37 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 38 Complications of Open Partial Nephrectomy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Operative Planning
  • General Complications
  • Open Partial Nephrectomy: Incidence
  • Specific Complications
  • Positive Margin
  • Bleeding
  • Infarct
  • Urine Leak
  • Renal Function
  • Reoperation
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 38 Questions
  • Answers
  • 39 Complications of Adrenal Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • General and Radiographic Workup and Adrenal Incidentaloma
  • Hyperaldosteronism
  • Cushingâ??s Syndrome
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Adrenal Carcinoma
  • Metastasis to Adrenal
  • Surgical Approaches and Intraoperative Complications
  • Basic Description of the Different Surgical Approaches
  • Partial Adrenalectomy
  • Postoperative Complications and Patient Management
  • Hyperaldosteronism
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Cushingâ??s Syndrome
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 39 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Case Study 3
  • Case Study 4
  • Case Study 5
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Case Study 3
  • Case Study 4
  • Case Study 5
  • 40 Complications of Lymphadenectomy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
  • Complications of Retroperitoneal Lymph node Dissection
  • Failure of Ejaculation
  • Lymphocele
  • Chylous Ascites
  • Vascular Complications
  • Venous Complications
  • Venous Anomalies
  • Arterial Complications
  • Gastrointestinal Complications
  • Complications of Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection
  • Considerations in Radical Prostatectomy
  • Considerations in Radical Cystectomy
  • Nerve Injury
  • Obturator
  • Genitofemoral
  • Femoral
  • Management of Pelvic Nerve Injuries
  • Lymphocele
  • Thromboembolic Events
  • Vascular Injury
  • Complications of Inguinal Lymph Node Dissection
  • Cutaneous Complications
  • Lymphatic Complications
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 40 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 41 Complications of Radical Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors
  • Complications by Organ System
  • Gastrointestinal Complications
  • Ileus
  • Small Bowel Obstruction
  • Clostridium difficile Colitis
  • Anastomotic Leak
  • Acute Colonic Pseudo-obstruction
  • Infectious Complications
  • Genitourinary Complications
  • Ureteral Obstruction
  • Urine Leak
  • Wound Complications
  • Wound Infection
  • Skin Separation and Fascial Dehiscence
  • Bleeding Complications
  • Thromboembolic Complications
  • Cardiac Complications
  • Pulmonary Complications
  • Neurologic Complications
  • Delirium
  • Nerve Injury
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Reoperation
  • Readmission
  • Mortality
  • Special Populations
  • Elderly
  • Following Radiation Therapy
  • Robotic Radical Cystectomy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 41 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 42 Complications of Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Bleeding
  • Rectal Injury
  • Ureteral Injury
  • Nerve Injury
  • Early Postoperative Complications
  • Urinary Leak
  • Urinary Tract and Wound Infection
  • Pulmonary Embolus and Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Loss of Catheter
  • Delayed Postoperative Complications
  • Impotence
  • Incontinence
  • Bladder Neck Contracture/ Anastomotic Stricture
  • Minor Complications
  • Salvage Prostatectomy
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 42 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • VIII Complications of Reconstructive Surgery
  • 43 Complications of Ureteral Reconstructive Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Surgical Anatomy
  • Etiology and Epidemiology of Ureteral Injury
  • Diagnosis and Preoperative Planning
  • General Surgical Considerations
  • Surgical Management
  • Ureteroureterostomy
  • Ureteroneocystostomy (Ureteral Reimplant)
  • Vesicopsoas Hitch (Psoas Hitch)
  • Boari Bladder Flap
  • Renal Descensus (Nephropexy)
  • Buccal Mucosal Graft for Ureteroplasty
  • Transureteroureterostomy
  • Intestinal Interposition (Ileal Ureter)
  • Autotransplant
  • Ureteroenteric Anastomotic Stricture
  • Transplant Anastomotic Stricture
  • Ureterolysis
  • Postoperative Stenting and Drainage
  • General Complications and Management
  • Urine Leakage
  • Ureteral Stricture
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 43 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 44 Complications of Renal Transplantation
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Basic Operative Procedure
  • Surgical Challenges
  • Multiple Vessels
  • Perioperative Anticoagulation
  • Severe Recipient Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Poor Graft Perfusion
  • Bleeding
  • Immunosuppression Toxicity
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Urologic Complications
  • Urinary Extravasation
  • Obstruction
  • Reflux
  • Hematuria
  • Vascular Complications
  • Hematomas
  • Renal Artery Stenosis
  • Renal Artery Thrombosis
  • Renal Vein Thrombosis
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism
  • Lymphocele
  • Arteriovenous Fistula
  • Graft Rejection
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 44 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 45 Complications of Conduit Urinary Diversion
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Selection of Bowel Segment
  • Selecting the Length of Bowel
  • Selecting the Site of Stoma
  • Extracorporeal versus Intracorporeal Laparoscopic Urinary Diversion
  • Complications
  • Conduit
  • Calculi
  • Malignant Disease
  • Bowel
  • Stoma
  • Parastomal Hernia or Prolapse
  • Stomal Stenosis
  • Ureterointestinal Anastomosis
  • Ureteroileal Anastomotic Leak
  • Anastomotic Strictures
  • Fate of the Kidney
  • Pyelonephritis and Renal Damage
  • Refluxing Versus Nonrefluxing Anastomoses
  • Double-barreled Wet Colostomy
  • Bacteriology of the Ileal Conduit
  • Other Potential Complications
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 45 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 46 Complications of Continent Cutaneous Diversion
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Prevention of Complications
  • Application to Robotic Surgery
  • Early Complications
  • Urine Leak
  • Necrosis of the Efferent Limb of the Pouch
  • Problems Related to Catheterization
  • Urinary Infection
  • Bowel Fistula to the Pouch and Other Bowel Complications
  • General Medical Complications and Complications Unrelated to the Diversion
  • Late Complications
  • Infections
  • Incontinence
  • Pouch Stones
  • Kidney Stones
  • Ureteral Pouch Obstruction
  • Stomal Stenosis and Difficulty With Catheterization
  • Conversion From a Continent to a Noncontinent Diversion
  • Afferent Antireflux Mechanism
  • Acute Pouch Rupture
  • Parastomal Hernia
  • Late Malignant Diseases
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 46 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 47 Complications of Orthotopic Neobladder
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Patient Selection and Contraindications to Orthotopic Diversion
  • Surgical Complications
  • Bowel Complications
  • Urethral Anastomotic Complications
  • Ureterointestinal Anastomotic Complications
  • Urolithiasis
  • Urinary Tract Colonization and Pyelonephritis
  • Fistulas
  • Voiding Dysfunction
  • Urethral and Pelvic Tumor Recurrence
  • Neobladder Rupture
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 47 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 48 Complications of Bladder Augmentation and Surgery for Neurogenic Bladder
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Short-term Complications
  • Long-term Complications
  • Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria
  • Stones
  • Perforation
  • Carcinoma
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • Bowel Dysfunction
  • Incontinence
  • Pregnancy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 48 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 49 Complications of Female Incontinence Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Types of Incontinence
  • Types of Incontinence Operations
  • Stress Incontinence Operations
  • Urge Incontinence Operations
  • Prevention of Complications
  • Complications
  • Choice of Approach
  • Risk Factors
  • Complications Related to Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Bleeding.
  • Urinary Tract Injury
  • Urethral Injury.
  • Bladder Injury.
  • Ureteral Injury.
  • Intraoperative Cystoscopy.
  • Bowel Injury.
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Voiding Dysfunction and Urinary Retention.
  • Vaginal Exposure and Urinary Tract Erosion.
  • Neuromuscular Injury.
  • Pain.
  • Sexual Dysfunction.
  • Other Postoperative Complications.
  • Urethral Bulking Agents
  • Complications Related to Urge Incontinence Surgery
  • Botulinum Toxin A
  • Sacral Neuromodulation
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 49 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 50 Complications of Surgery for Male Incontinence
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Procedures for Male Incontinence
  • Artificial Urinary Sphincter
  • Male Slings
  • Fixed Male Slings
  • Bone-Anchored Sling.
  • Transobturator Sling.
  • Quadratic Sling.
  • Adjustable Male Slings
  • Adjustable Retropubic Slings.
  • Adjustable Transobturator Slings.
  • Inflatable Balloon Compression
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Artificial Urinary Sphincter
  • Bleeding
  • Corporal Injury
  • Urethral Injury
  • Device Injury
  • Male Sling
  • Bleeding
  • Urethral Injury
  • Early Postoperative Complications
  • Artificial Urinary Sphincter
  • Hematoma
  • Retention
  • Early Infection
  • Early Erosion
  • Male Perineal Sling
  • Hematoma
  • Acute Retention
  • Pain and Paresthesia
  • Infection
  • Inflatable Balloon Compression
  • Delayed and Long-term Complications
  • Artificial Urinary Sphincter
  • Infection and Erosion
  • Recurrent Incontinence
  • Urethral Atrophy.
  • Mechanical Malfunction.
  • Urinary Retention
  • Male Sling
  • Infection and Erosion
  • De Novo Urgency
  • Obstruction
  • Prolonged Pain and Paresthesia
  • Osseus Complications
  • Recurrent Incontinence
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 50 Questions
  • Cases Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 51 Complications of Urethral Reconstruction
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Complications of Urethral Stricture Disease
  • Complications of Diagnostic Procedures
  • Complications of Urethral Dilation
  • Complications of Internal Urethrotomy
  • Complications of Endoscopic Treatment of Posterior Urethral Injuries
  • Complications of Urethral Stents
  • Complications of Open Surgical Procedures
  • Patient Positioning
  • Suprapubic Tube Placement
  • Excision and Primary Anastomosis for Posterior Disruptions
  • Excision and Primary Anastomosis for Proximal Anterior Strictures
  • Graft Harvest
  • Tissue Transfer Reconstruction
  • Flap Reconstruction
  • Graft Reconstruction
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 51 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 52 Complications of Surgery for Erectile Dysfunction and Peyronieâ??s Disease
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Penile Prosthesis Surgery
  • Infection
  • Antibiotic-impregnated Prostheses
  • Mechanical Malfunction
  • Erosion
  • Crural Perforation
  • Supersonic Transporter Deformity
  • Penile Necrosis
  • Complications of Penile Vascular Surgery
  • Peyronieâ??s Disease Surgery Complications
  • Indications
  • Intralesional Treatments
  • Procedures
  • Penile Plication Complications
  • Plaque Manipulation Surgery
  • Penile Prosthesis Surgery
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 52 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 53 Complications of Surgery of the Testicle, Vas Deferens, Epididymis, and Scrotum
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy
  • General Considerations in Scrotal Surgery
  • Complications Common to Scrotal Surgery
  • Vasectomy
  • Vasectomy Procedure Techniques
  • Management of Specific Complications
  • Long-Term Considerations
  • Varicocelectomy
  • Indications for Repair
  • Varicocele Repair Techniques
  • Management of Specific Complications
  • Sperm Extraction Procedures
  • Sperm Extraction Procedure Techniques
  • Management of Specific Complications
  • Vasectomy Reversal (Vasovasostomy and Vasoepididymostomy)
  • Vasectomy Reversal Procedure Techniques
  • Management of Specific Complications
  • Hydrocelectomy
  • Hydrocele Treatment Option Techniques
  • Aspiration and Sclerotherapy
  • Hydrocelectomy
  • Management of Specific Complications
  • Spermatocelectomy
  • Spermatocelectomy Procedure Techniques
  • Management of Specific Complications
  • Radical, Partial, and Simple Orchiectomy
  • Radical and Partial Orchiectomy Procedure
  • Management of Specific Complications
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 53 Questions
  • Answers
  • IX Complications of Pediatric Urologic Surgery
  • 54 Special Considerations in the Pediatric Patient
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Introduction
  • Preoperative Considerations
  • Psychological Preparation
  • Preoperative WorkUp
  • Medical Evaluation
  • Laboratory Evaluation
  • Important Medical Considerations
  • Bowel Preparation
  • Preoperative Fasting
  • Intraoperative Considerations
  • Robotic and Laparoscopic Considerations
  • Latex Precautions
  • Perioperative Antibiotics
  • Anesthesia
  • Hypothermia
  • Surgery Specific Complications
  • Complications of Circumcision
  • Complications of Inguinal Surgery
  • Orchidopexy
  • Hernia Repair and Inguinal Hydrocele Repair
  • Complications of Pyeloplasty
  • Postoperative Considerations
  • PostAnesthesia Care Considerations
  • Airway Obstruction
  • Nausea and Emesis
  • Surgical Site Infections
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Management
  • Pain Management
  • Ethics
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 54 Questions
  • Answers
  • 55 Complications of Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Cystoscopic Interventions
  • Puncture of Ureterocele
  • Endoscopic Correction of Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Incision of Posterior Urethral Valve
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • Introduction
  • Goals of Therapy
  • General Considerations
  • Radiation
  • Residual Fragments
  • Ancillary Procedures/Anesthesia
  • Ureteroscopy
  • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 55 Questions
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • Answers
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
  • 56 Complications of Pediatric Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • General Principles of Laparoscopy in Children
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Laparoscopic Access and Approach
  • Complications of Access and Port Site Closure
  • Anesthesia
  • Summary
  • Kidney Surgery
  • Pyeloplasty
  • Total and Partial Nephrectomy
  • Bladder and Lower Ureteral Surgery
  • Ureteroneocystostomy
  • Ureteroureterostomy
  • Appendicovesicostomy and Augmentation Cystoplasty
  • Testicular and Groin Surgery
  • Diagnostic Laparoscopy
  • Laparoscopic Orchiopexy
  • Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy
  • Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 56 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 57 Complications of Surgery for Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • In Utero Intervention
  • Outcomes
  • Initial Management of Patients With Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Primary Valve Ablation
  • Alternatives to Valve Ablation: Cutaneous Vesicostomy and Upper Tract Diversion
  • Controversies in Initial Management of Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Prognosis Following Initial Therapy
  • Vesicostomy Closure
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Bladder Dysfunction
  • Delayed Presentation of Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Progression to End-stage Renal Disease and Renal Transplantation
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 57 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 58 Complications of Ureteral Reimplantation, Antireflux Surgery, and Megaureter Repair
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Nonsurgical Complications
  • Risks of Medical Management
  • Bladder Dynamics and Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Surgical Complications of Ureteral Reimplantation in the Nondilated Ureter
  • Technical Considerations
  • Postoperative Evaluation and Identification of Complications
  • Early Complications
  • Low Urine Output
  • Infections and Voiding Dysfunction
  • Late Complications
  • Ureteral Obstruction
  • Postoperative Reflux
  • Ipsilateral Reflux
  • Contralateral Reflux
  • Managing the Failed Reimplant
  • Complications of Endoscopic Correction of Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Surgical Complications of Laparoscopic/Robotic Reimplant
  • Surgical Complications of Megaureter Repair
  • Surgical Complications of Ureterocele Repair
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 58 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 59 Complications of Exstrophy and Epispadias Repair
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Initial Bladder Closure
  • Overview
  • Complications
  • Infection
  • Wound Tension and Mobility
  • Osteotomy Complications
  • Bladder Outlet Obstruction
  • Penile Complications
  • Other Complications
  • Late Postoperative State
  • Incontinent Interval
  • Conclusion
  • Epispadias Repair
  • Overview
  • Complications
  • Bladder Neck Reconstruction
  • Overview
  • Complications
  • Long-Term Considerations
  • Penile Appearance
  • Penile and Introital Difficulties
  • Fertility and Pregnancy
  • Malignant Disease
  • Social Adjustments
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 59 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • References
  • References
  • 60 Complications of Hypospadias Repair
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Prevention of Complications
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Timing of Repair
  • History and Physical Examination
  • Operative Technique
  • Postoperative Care
  • Management of Complications
  • Early Postoperative Complications
  • Ischemia
  • Bleeding and Hematoma
  • Wound Infection
  • Wound Separation
  • Late Postoperative Complications
  • Urethrocutaneous Fistula
  • Urethral Stricture
  • Urethral Diverticulum
  • Meatal Complications
  • Persistent Chordee
  • Other Urethral Problems
  • Psychological Consequences
  • Complex Hypospadias
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 60 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 61 Complications of Surgery for Disorders of Sex Development
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • Overvirilization
  • Vaginal Agenesis and Vaginoplasty
  • Undervirilization and Gonadal Abnormalities
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 61 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • Answers
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • 62 Complications of Pediatric Urinary Diversions and Bladder Augmentation
  • Chapter Outline
  • Key Points
  • The Goals of Congenital Urologic Diversions and Urinary Reconstruction
  • Complications Following Temporizing Urinary Diversions of Infancy and Childhood
  • Cutaneous Pyelostomy, Ureterostomy, and Noncontinent Vesicostomy
  • Complications Following Definitive Urologic Reconstruction in Childhood
  • Lethal Complications Following Urologic Reconstruction in Childhood
  • Neoplasia
  • Spontaneous Bladder Perforations
  • Preservation of Renal Function Following Urinary Conduits and Bladder Reconstruction
  • Surgical Complications
  • Bladder and Renal Calculi
  • Need for Secondary Augmentations
  • Small Bowel Obstruction
  • Stomal Revision of Urinary Conduits or Revision of Catheterizable Limb
  • Medical Complications Following Bladder Augmentation or Urinary Diversion
  • Chronic Bacteriuria
  • Metabolic Sequalae
  • Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosisâ??Induced Osteoporosis or Growth Retardation
  • Fecal Incontinence
  • Prothrombin Deficiency
  • B12 Deficiency
  • Bladder Augmentations Not Using the Gastroenteric Segments
  • Autoaugmentation-Detrusor Myomectomy
  • Ureterocystoplasty
  • Incontinent Ileovesicostomy (Ileal Chimney)
  • Pregnancy Following Bladder Augmentation and Urinary Diversion
  • Patient Selection
  • References
  • References
  • Chapter 62 Questions
  • Case Studies
  • Answers
  • Case Studies
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Inside Back Cover

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