Urban Evolutionary Biology

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 5. Mai 2020
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-257384-1 (ISBN)
 
Urban Evolutionary Biology fills an important knowledge gap on wild organismal evolution in the urban environment, whilst offering a novel exploration of the fast-growing new field of evolutionary research. The growing rate of urbanization and the maturation of urban study systems worldwide means interest in the urban environment as an agent of evolutionary change is rapidly increasing. We are presently witnessing the emergence of a new field of research in evolutionary biology. Despite its rapid global expansion, the urban environment has until now been a largely neglected study site among evolutionary biologists. With its conspicuously altered ecological dynamics, it stands in stark contrast to the natural environments traditionally used as cornerstones for evolutionary ecology research. Urbanization can offer a great range of new opportunities to test for rapid evolutionary processes as a consequence of human activity, both because of replicate contexts for hypothesis testing, but also because cities are characterized by an array of easily quantifiable environmental axes of variation and thus testable agents of selection. Thanks to a wide possible breadth of inference (in terms of taxa) that may be studied, and a great variety of analytical methods, urban evolution has the potential to stand at a fascinating multi-disciplinary crossroad, enriching the field of evolutionary biology with emergent yet incredibly potent new research themes where the urban habitat is key. Urban Evolutionary Biology is an advanced textbook suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers studying the genetics, evolutionary biology, and ecology of urban environments. It is also highly relevant to urban ecologists and urban wildlife practitioners.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • 68,11 MB
978-0-19-257384-1 (9780192573841)
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Marta Szulkin is an evolutionary biologist who completed her first degree at the University of Warsaw, Poland. She holds a Masters and a Doctoral degree in evolutionary biology from the University of Oxford (UK). Marta was as Magdalen College Research Fellow (University of Oxford), and a Marie Curie Fellow at CEFE CNRS in Montpellier (France). She is currently associate professor at the Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw (Poland), where she is heading the Wild Urban Evolution & Ecology Lab. She is managing a prospectively long-term study of urban passerines in Warsaw, and is interested in the evolution and ecology of all urban life. Jason Munshi-South is an evolutionary ecologist that completed a Ph.D. at the University of Maryland, USA, and a postdoctoral position at the Smithsonian Institution. He is currently a Professor of Biological Sciences at Fordham University in Bronx, NY, USA. His main research interests are the ecology and evolution of urban wildlife, with special emphasis on the landscape genomics of urban rodents. Anne Charmantier is an evolutionary ecologist educated in France, the UK and Canada, and presently holding a senior permanent CNRS position. Her main research interests are focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in the evolution of adaptive traits, especially in a context of rapid anthropogenic changes. Since 2007, she is managing a long-term blue tit project, which contributes to her research on local adaptation, plasticity, senescence, ecological genomics and sexual selection. She has particularly pioneered quantitative genetic approaches in wild populations, to study adaptive and non-adaptive responses to climate change and urbanisation.
  • Cover
  • Urban Evolutionary Biology
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • References
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • 1.1 Urban evolutionary biology
  • 1.2 Societal impact of urban evolutionary biology
  • 1.2.1 Education and outreach
  • 1.2.2 Sustainable cities
  • 1.3 Overview of chapters
  • 1.4 Challenges and emerging topics
  • 1.4.1 Challenges
  • 1.4.2 Are urban environments genetic sources or sinks?
  • 1.4.3 What are the sources of urban adaptation?
  • 1.4.4 Urbanization and mutation rates
  • 1.4.5 Domesticated species as case studies of microevolution
  • 1.4.6 The gut microbiome
  • 1.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 2: How to Quantify Urbanization When Testing for Urban Evolution?
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Frameworks for describing and quantifying urbanization
  • 2.2.1 Classic urban ecology frameworks
  • 2.2.2 Time as a missing axis in the study of the evolutionary consequences of urbanization
  • 2.2.3 Parallel urban evolution framework: replicated insight into urban-driven evolutionary processes
  • 2.3 Quantifying axes of variation in the urban environment
  • 2.3.1 Urban metrics
  • 2.3.2 Univariate versus multivariate approaches
  • 2.3.3 How is urbanization quantified in published studies of urban evolution?
  • 2.4 Study design and statistical approaches for urban evolutionary biology
  • 2.4.1 Model selection and variable fitting
  • 2.4.2 Controlling for spatial autocorrelation
  • 2.4.3 The problem of scale
  • 2.5 Conclusions and outlook
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Supplementary Information-Chapter 2
  • Quantification of environmental variation in a heterogeneous urban landscape
  • Variables collected on the ground
  • 1. Human presence
  • 2. Temperature (in C°)
  • 3. Sound pollution (in Db C)
  • Variables collected using a GIS approach
  • 4. Distance to closest roads
  • 5. Distance to closest paths
  • Variables collected with remote sensing (digital photography, satellite sensors)
  • 6. Light pollutionA map of light pollution
  • 7. Tree cover
  • 8. Imperviousness
  • 9. NDVI
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Urban Environments as a Framework to Study Parallel Evolution
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 How often do species show parallel responses to urbanization?
  • 3.3 What agents drive parallel evolution across cities?
  • 3.3.1 Urban heat islands
  • 3.3.2 Pollution
  • 3.3.3 Habitat fragmentation
  • 3.4 Why does parallelism not occur?
  • 3.4.1 Environmental variation
  • 3.4.2 Gene flow
  • 3.4.3 Genetic drift
  • 3.4.4 Genetic architecture of adaptations
  • 3.5 Recommendations for future studies
  • 3.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Landscape Genetic Approaches to Understanding Movement and Gene Flow in Cities
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Analytical approaches for investigating movement and gene flow in urban areas
  • 4.2.1 Choice of molecular markers in urban evolution studies
  • 4.2.2 Advances in spatial population genomic sand landscape genetics for testing gene flow hypotheses in urban environments
  • 4.2.3 Analytical challenges to landscapegenetic analyses in cities
  • 4.2.4 Landscape genomics approaches to identifying genes under selection in urban environments
  • 4.3 Empirical studies of urban gene flow, drift, and landscape genetics
  • 4.3.1 Gene flow, drift, and landscape genetics within cities
  • 4.3.2 Gene flow and drift between urban and rural habitats
  • 4.3.3 Landscape genomics to identify local adaptation to urbanized environments
  • 4.4 Future directions
  • 4.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Adaptation Genomics in Urban Environments
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Evolutionary significance of trait variation in an urban context: evidence for genetic adaptation
  • 5.2.1 Providing quantitative genetic empirical measures of urban-specific selection
  • 5.2.2 Testing for plastic versus genetic basis of adaptation
  • 5.3 Pinpointing genes implicated in adaptation to urban environments
  • 5.3.1 Pioneering use of low-resolution anonymous markers in urban evolution
  • 5.3.2 Candidate genes
  • 5.3.3 Urban evolution entering the genomic era: methods used so far
  • 5.3.4 Genome-wide sequencing pinpointing oligogenic adaptations in urban environments
  • 5.3.5 Polygenic adaptation in urban environments
  • 5.3.6 Further use of genomics in the field of urban evolution: methodological and taxonomic perspectives
  • 5.4 Epigenetics and the city
  • 5.5 Conclusions and summary of the perspectives
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Evolutionary Consequences of the Urban Heat Island
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Evolution in response to urban temperature rise
  • 6.3 Morphology
  • 6.4 Physiology
  • 6.5 Life history
  • 6.6 Fitness
  • 6.7 Synthesis: vote-counting meta-analysis
  • 6.8 Future directions: beyond standard evolutionary biology in a warmer environment
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 7: The Evolutionary Ecology of Mutualisms in Urban Landscapes
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 A mechanistic perspective on the evolutionary ecology of urban mutualisms
  • 7.2.1 Shifts from mutualism to antagonism
  • 7.2.2 Changes in trait-fitness relationships
  • 7.2.3 Partner switching
  • 7.2.4 Changes in partner behaviour
  • 7.2.5 Partner loss
  • 7.3 Transportation mutualisms
  • 7.3.1 Pollination mutualisms
  • 7.3.2 Seed dispersal mutualisms
  • 7.4 Protection mutualisms
  • 7.5 Nutritional mutualisms
  • 7.6 Future directions
  • 7.6.1 Do mutualisms respond differently (ecologically and evolutionarily) to urbanization than do other species interactions?
  • 7.6.2 What forms of mutualism will be most affected evolutionarily by urbanization?
  • 7.6.3 Is urbanization a unique evolutionary threat for mutualisms?
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Sidewalk Plants as a Model for Studying Adaptation to Urban Environments
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 The sidewalk plants model
  • 8.2.1 Taking advantage of the urban geometry
  • 8.2.2 Crepis sancta along the rural-urban gradient
  • 8.3 Natural selection on dispersal traits in response to urban fragmentation
  • 8.3.1 Is dispersal costly in urban patches?
  • 8.3.2 Shift of the seed dispersal ratio
  • 8.3.3 An evolutionary scenario for reduced dispersal in urban patches
  • 8.4 Natural selection on physiological traits in the urban environment
  • 8.4.1 Plant physiological traits related to the urban heat island
  • 8.4.2 Are selection gradients in urban patches consistent with physiological traits?
  • 8.5 Contemporary evolution: what can we learn from urban systems?
  • 8.5.1 Compelling evidence for rapid evolution in an urban environment
  • 8.5.2 Adaptation to global change
  • 8.5.3 Modes and tempo of evolutionary processes
  • 8.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Adaptive Evolution of Plant Life History in Urban Environments
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Potential effects of urban environments on plant life-history adaptation
  • 9.3 Life-history syndromes and tradeoffs
  • 9.4 Empirical approaches to studying urban evolution
  • 9.5 Empirical evidence
  • 9.6 Non-adaptive evolution
  • 9.7 Opportunities for the future
  • 9.8 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Urbanization and Evolution in Aquatic Environments
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Biotic interactions
  • 10.2.1 Predation
  • 10.2.2 Competition
  • 10.2.3 Diet
  • 10.3 Physical environment
  • 10.3.1 Habitat fragmentation
  • 10.3.2 Urban stream flow
  • 10.4 Temperature
  • 10.4.1 Phenology
  • 10.4.2 Morphology
  • 10.4.3 Body size and pace-of-life
  • 10.4.4 Sex determination
  • 10.5 Pollution
  • 10.5.1 Metals and other inorganic pollutants
  • 10.5.2 Synthetic organic compounds, endocrine disruptors, and antibiotics
  • 10.5.3 Light pollution
  • 10.5.4 Anthropogenic sound
  • 10.5.5 Nutrients and suspended particles
  • 10.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Evolutionary Dynamics of Metacommunities in Urbanized Landscapes
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 The urban evolving metacommunity framework
  • 11.2.1 Metacommunity ecology and landscape genetics
  • 11.2.2 Evolving metacommunities in urbanized landscapes
  • 11.3 Urban evolving metacommunities: a hypothetical example
  • 11.4 Approaches to study evolving metacommunities across urbanization gradients
  • 11.4.1 Community trait change: eco-evolutionary partitioning metrics
  • 11.4.2 The dynamics of community change: common gardening experiments
  • 11.5 Eco-evolutionary feedbacks of urban evolution on ecosystem features
  • 11.6 Future directions
  • 11.6.1 Multispecies approach
  • 11.6.2 Urban niches
  • 11.6.3 Reconstructing urban evolution and its consequences: resurrection ecology and historical data
  • 11.6.4 Forward-looking empirical work on urban evolving metacommunities
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Terrestrial Locomotor Evolution in Urban Environments
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Spatial organization of habitats
  • 12.2.1 Behaviourally mediated habitat use
  • 12.2.2 Mechanisms of locomotion in urban habitats
  • 12.2.3 Shifts in locomotion drive morphological change
  • 12.3 Substrate properties
  • 12.3.1 Climbing behaviour on urban substrates
  • 12.3.2 Mechanisms of climbing in the urban habitat
  • 12.3.3 Morphological changes associated with climbing urban substrates
  • 12.4 Conclusions
  • 12.4.1 Future directions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Urban Evolutionary Physiology
  • 13.1 Why physiology?
  • 13.2 Challenges of studying evolution of plastic physiological traits
  • 13.3 Urban stressors or stimulators
  • 13.4 Urban habitats and detoxification of xenobiotics
  • 13.4.1 Urban pollution
  • 13.4.2 Air pollution and its consequences: a case study of birds
  • 13.5 Urban habitats and the endocrine regulation of reproduction
  • 13.5.1 Night light pollution and reproductive endocrinology
  • 13.5.2 Food availability/quality and reproductive endocrinology
  • 13.6 Urban habitats and endocrine responses to challenges
  • 13.6.1 Altered food availability and the HPA axis
  • 13.6.2 Human activity and the HPA axis
  • 13.7 Urban habitats and metabolic responses
  • 13.7.1 Food quality and metabolic responses
  • 13.8 Unanswered questions and concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Urban Sexual Selection
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Sexual selection and fitness in urban environments
  • 14.3 Changes in sexual selection pressures
  • 14.4 Responses of signal senders to urban changes
  • 14.5 Responses of signal receivers to urban environmental changes
  • 14.6 Consequences for mating and reproductive strategies
  • 14.7 Evidence for evolutionary changes
  • 14.8 Potential role for speciation
  • 14.9 Conclusions and future directions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Cognition and Adaptation to Urban Environments
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Cognition and phenotype-environment mismatch
  • 15.3 Is cognition facilitating or inhibiting adaptive evolution in urban environments?
  • 15.4 Evolution of cognition in urban environments
  • 15.5 Future studies to investigate the role of cognition in urban evolution
  • 15.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Selection on Humans in Cities
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Signals from the past
  • 16.2.1 Old times, old friends, and selection at the dawn of urbanization
  • 16.2.2 How fast did traits respond genetically to past environmental changes?
  • 16.3 The transition to modernity
  • 16.3.1 Antagonistic pleiotropy across the transition to modernity
  • 16.3.2 When modernity chases our old friends away
  • 16.3.3 Opportunity for natural selection across the demographic transition
  • 16.4 Urban selection
  • 16.4.1 Opportunity for selection in cities
  • 16.4.2 Urban agents of selection: stressors
  • 16.4.3 Urban agents of selection: sociocultural factors
  • 16.4.4 Scale of urban selection
  • 16.4.5 Urban disease genetics
  • 16.5 Wrapping up: eco-evolutionary dynamics in the city
  • 16.5.1 Eco-evolutionary dynamics of health
  • 16.5.2 Implications for optimality models
  • 16.6 Conclusions
  • 16.6.1 Challenges for future research
  • 16.6.2 Transhumanism: the rise of a new selective forceWe close this chapter
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • List of Glossary Terms Definition
  • Index

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