Negotiating in the Leadership Zone expertly addresses the question: How do leaders become better negotiators? Much has been written about leadership, and negotiating skills have long been the subject of academics and business consultants. This book successfully brings negotiation and leadership together for the first time, building separate insights about them into practical, applied lessons and tools that can be used immediately.
Leaders will find unique cases, examples, and insights for high-stakes and routine negotiations alike. Mixng a readable, non-jargon approach with real-world stories and wide applicability, the author's use of 50+ years of experience as a business owner, negotiation consultant, and teacher to convey the fundamental logic and strategies underlying negotiations. The results are more than convincing.
- Draws upon 50+ years of the authors' relevant experience to teach leaders the logic and strategy behind successful negotiations
- Connects research and principles to actual events via short vignettes and extended case studies
- Features website tools, tips, stories, and video lessons on effective negotiating
- Encourages the leader in every reader
Leadership and management consultant and negotiator in the areas of business, production, law, education, government, and the non-profit sector, Ken Sylvester retired in 2012 as the President of Organization Strategy Institute, Inc.
The Case for the Leader-as-Negotiator
The need for Leaders to be Negotiators is discussed in this chapter. The context of this chapter is built on the interdependency of business and governments. Four prominent leadership theories that have dominated from the 1930s to the present are briefly described, setting the stage for the author's argument that studying leadership skills in exclusion of negotiation skills inhibits leaders' effectiveness. Organizational intelligence is described as a leader's ability to understand three zones common to most organizations. This chapter's emphasis is on replacing specialization with an integrated organizational approach. The Leader-Negotiator Theory unpacks the changes that have occurred in the concepts of leadership and negotiation. In addition, the rationale for the mind of the leader taking a higher priority than the four leadership styles is provided.
Assumptions; Collaboration; Critical thinking; Effective questioning; Leader; Negotiation; Negotiator; Theory
Introduction: The Need for Leader-Negotiators
There is a significant need for Leaders to be Negotiators in order for them to: 1. Negotiate within their organizations; 2. Extend opportunities beyond their organization's boundaries; and 3. Recognize the fundamental assumptions behind their industry, global economies, and the implications of worldwide competition. Leaders from business, education, nonprofits, and government must use negotiation
skills to succeed. When they look for assistance from literature and training in the area of negotiation, however, they are often limited to technique-based negotiation concepts and strategies. The technique-based, buy-sell theory of negotiation that dominates Western literature and culture is important to understand and useful in certain contexts. However, the complexity of organizations these days and the emerging global economic reality, characterized by its lack of a single, dominant political power, are at the heart of the need for the integration of leadership and negotiation. Answers, formulas, and techniques (AFTs) fail to consider the changing conditions that demand a more sophisticated approach to both leadership and negotiation. The model for my Leader-Negotiator (L-N) Theory included the study and implementation of this framework to educate and train approximately 30,000 professional leader-negotiators. This material has been presented to large corporations, small companies, government agencies, and universities since 1990. It is important to note that this is the first public offering of this framework, its practical elements, and suggested applications to the education and business worlds. It is my thesis that the disciplines of leadership and negotiation should be inseparable when discussing effective leadership. As such, I argue that the behavioral attributes necessary for effective leaders are complementary to behavioral attributes for effective negotiators. After reviewing the literature, I am left with the inescapable conclusion that no significant research in terms of number as well as rigor exists that addresses the real-world skills that Leader-Negotiators must possess today. The following story in Box 1.1
serves as a case in point about why leaders need to be negotiators in a global economy. Box 1.1
The China Story Following a business trip to Shanghai and Beijing China, one of the 28 leaders I consulted with from the Chinese government contacted me and asked if I could arrange a conversation between him and the CEO of the US-based technology company I represented on my trip. This government leader told me that the regional representative for this US company had been positioned to negotiate with them, but the Chinese viewed him as a manager, not a leader
who could complete a negotiated agreement. In fact, the Chinese officials were offended that this prominent technology company sent a manager instead of
the company's CEO to negotiate with them. This choice by the US company is the equivalent in China to sending a boy to do a man's job. Subsequently, I had a conversation with the technology company's CEO who said, "No, they would have their regional director, viewed by them as an expert negotiator, manage this negotiation." (The potential for this deal involved 2½ billion potential customers.) The deal was lost because Chinese protocol is that leaders, not managers, negotiate
important deals. This illustrates that the Chinese, in this case at least, perceive their leaders as Leader-Negotiators while many US companies separate the function of leadership from the function of negotiation. Global economic pressure requires leaders to practice collaboration among diverse human and political networks if they are to realize a bold economic future. Collaboration
implies a synergistic mind-set that engenders shared visions, alliance formation, and tolerates the ambiguity of managing complex, global relationships. Most leaders have not been schooled in negotiation skills, nor are these skills anticipated by academic institutions and most corporate systems. Shifting basic organizational assumptions is not just of interest but rather, necessary. This idea will be referred to in this book as global interdependence
Four Prominent Leadership Theories
We owe a debt to the early theorists who pioneered leadership studies; they have guided us to where we are today. It is important, therefore, to briefly examine the four predominant leadership theories
from which we have evolved.
Trait Theory: Personal Attributes Are What Determines a Leader's Effectiveness
Trait theory was developed in the late 1930s. Trait theory attributes leadership success to the extraordinary leader qualities, such as tireless energy, penetrating intuition, uncanny foresight, and irresistible persuasive powers. The assumption is that some people are natural or born leaders, endowed with traits not possessed by others.
Behavior Theory: What Leaders Do
Behavior theory caught fire in the 1950s. It was assumed that those who are most disciplined, who spend their time most efficiently, effectively network, mentor, and delegate, are most likely to succeed. Researchers thought that if they could discover what managers actually did
on the job, the secrets of effective leadership might be revealed. Hence, they attempted to classify human behavior through the use of questionnaires. Researchers measured task-oriented behavior, relationship-oriented behavior, and participative leadership.
Situation Leadership Theory: The Situation Determines the Leader's Behavior
Situation leadership theory developed around 1975. It proposed that leaders are born of circumstance and are at their best in a particular context. Also called "contingency" or "path-goal" theory, this model attempts to help managers and leaders deal with hectic schedules, fragmented organizational structures, and political pressures. Researchers have difficulty in measuring situation leadership because the model does not account for more than one situational variable at a time.
Power and Influence Theory: Leaders Exert Power and Followers React
Power and influence theory was popularized in the 1980s. It examines the use of on-the-job rewards, punishments, and persuasion, assuming that effective leadership flows from the top-down; leaders act and followers react. Studies in this school of thought focus on types of power, the amount of power, how power is exercised, and power tactics. Similarly, attention is paid to how influence is exerted-through persuasion, inspiration, consultation, praise, loyalty, friendships, favors, and more. Followers of this theory frequently call on Machiavelli's The Prince and Sun Tzu's Art of War.
Explaining the World from One Point of View Is a Perfect Formula for Failure
Although the leadership theories summarized above have become quite well-known, they still are not able to adequately describe or predict effective leadership. Further, they do not address leadership and
negotiation. Most books, training, seminars, and people try to adopt one of these theories as though it is THE
single operating theory for successful leadership. It is not the theory; it is the critical thinking
attached to the theory that makes it work. Successful leadership relies on the mind of the negotiator and effective questioning, to be discussed in detail in later chapters. The preponderance of leadership research focuses on leader-group relations, particularly leadership styles. However, "styles" ignore cultural assumptions that are inherent in global relationships. I want to emphasize that I am not disregarding the contributions of the numerous authors whose theories I have researched. Instead, each theory was reviewed and analyzed to identify gaps, resulting in the grounding of theoretical precepts included in my Leader-Negotiator Theory. The challenge remains to observe, describe, and understand the real world of leadership, and then develop a relevant and effective theory encompassing leadership and
The Leader-as-Negotiator Theory
In a very broad sense, negotiation
can be viewed as the changing of any relationship and can be viewed on a continuum spanning contractual and routine resource allocation to...