Sustainable Power Technologies and Infrastructure

Energy Sustainability and Prosperity in a Time of Climate Change
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 16. November 2015
  • |
  • 412 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-803928-1 (ISBN)
 

This book presents an overview of current renewable energy sources, challenges and future trends. Drawing from their longtime expertise and deep knowledge of the field, the authors present a critic and well-structured perspective on sustainable power sources and technologies, including solar, wind, hydrogen and nuclear, both in large and small scale. Using accessible language they provide rigorous technological reviews and analyze the main issues of practical usage. The book addresses current questions in this area, such as: 'Is there enough biomass to make a difference in energy needs? Should biomass be used in Energy Generation?'; 'How mature is battery technology? Will it finally become cost effective, and will it make a significant difference this next decade?'; 'How big a role will small and modular nuclear power generation play in the coming decades?'; 'What will be the influence of national tax policies?'. No prior technical knowledge is assumed of the reader. It is, therefore, ideal for professionals and students in all areas of energy and power systems, as well as those involved in energy planning, management and policy.


  • Presents a realistic and clear overview of the key sustainable energy technologies that will play important roles in the world's energy mix and their impact on the current power infrastructure.
  • Discusses key societal and economic topics related to the implementation of sustainable energy sources in a straightforward way.
  • Covers a broad variety of sustainable and renewable energy sources, including hydrogen and bioenergy. It also explores key issues on small modular nuclear facilities, advances in battery technologies, grid integration, off-grid communities and the most recent topics in energy economics and policy.


Galen J. Suppes is a professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering of the University of Missouri, Columbia, USA. He received his B.S in Chemical Engineering from Kansas State University in 1985, and his Ph.D. from The Johns Hopkins University in 1989. He has also done Post-Doc Class Work at the University of Huston in 1991/92, and is author of over 120 documents, including peer reviewed articles, conference papers and scientific reports.
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 12,32 MB
978-0-12-803928-1 (9780128039281)
0128039280 (0128039280)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Sustainable Power Technologies and Infrastructure
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • Preface
  • Nuclear Power in History
  • Organization of the Book
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Energy and Civilization
  • Energy in Today's World
  • Gasoline from Coal Technology
  • Sustainable Nuclear Energy
  • The Critical Path
  • Sources of Energy
  • Nature's Methods of Storing Energy
  • Man's Interaction with Nature's Stockpiles and Renewable Energies
  • Industrial Revolution and Establishment of Energy Empires
  • Standard Oil Monopoly
  • Innovation in a World of Corporate Giants
  • The Oil Economy Through 2009
  • Energy Sources
  • Oil Fracking and Horizontal Drilling
  • Coordinated Strategic Approaches
  • Nuclear Power
  • Tesla
  • References
  • 2 Sources of Energy
  • Cosmic History of Energy
  • The Source of Atoms
  • Nuclear Energy
  • The First Use of Nuclear Power
  • Reserves
  • Reprocessing Technology
  • Geothermal
  • Recent Solar Energy
  • Use of Sunlight
  • Hydroelectric Energy
  • Wind Energy
  • Solar Hydrogen
  • Biomass
  • Ethanol and Biodiesel
  • Algal Biodiesel
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Petroleum Oil
  • Heavy Oil and Oil Shale
  • Oil Fracking Technology
  • Natural Gas from Fracking
  • Methane Hydrates
  • Liquids from Coal and Natural Gas
  • Lessons to Be Learned from History
  • References
  • 3 Energy and Sustainability
  • Politics of Change in the Energy Industry
  • Technology Emerging to What End?
  • Cost of Feedstock Resources
  • Wastes and By-Products as Feedstocks
  • Liquid Fuels Market
  • Fischer-Tropsch Technology
  • Impact of Commodity Crude Bidding
  • Case Study on Investment Decisions and Policy Impacts
  • True Barriers to Commercialization
  • Petroleum Reserves and Protecting the Status Quo
  • Intangible Risks (Costs) and International Antitrust Policies
  • Corporate Profitability and High Investment Thresholds
  • Taxes and Social Cost
  • The Cost of Driving a Vehicle
  • Corporate Lobbying Retrospect
  • Diversity as a Means to Produce Market Stability
  • Environmental Retrospect
  • Sustainability
  • Environmentalism History
  • Climate Change
  • New Coal Regulations
  • Carbon Dioxide Sequestration
  • Efficiency and Breakthrough Technology
  • Anticipated Breakthrough Technologies
  • References
  • 4 Energy Conversion and Storage
  • Use of Thermal Energy
  • The Concept of Work
  • Early Engine Designs
  • The Steam Engine Operating Cycle
  • Turbine-Based Engines
  • The Steam Turbine
  • Nuclear Power
  • Thermal Efficiency
  • Gas Turbines
  • Fuel Cells
  • Work and Efficiency in Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Efficiency
  • Flow Battery Technology
  • Convection Battery Technology
  • References
  • 5 The New Electric Vehicle Society
  • Petroleum Fuels: Their Evolution, Specification, and Processing
  • Spark-Ignition Fuels
  • Compression-Ignition Fuels
  • Turbine Fuels
  • Alternative Fuels
  • Liquid Fuels from Coal
  • Natural Gas
  • Solid Biomass Utilization
  • Biomass Liquids
  • Adsorbed Natural Gas and Shipping
  • Vehicular Fuel Conservation and Efficiency
  • Defining Efficiency
  • Diesel Engines
  • Hybrid Vehicles
  • Plug-In Hybrid
  • Electric Vehicle Potential
  • Grid Power Basis
  • Battery Electric Vehicles
  • Direct Electric Vehicles
  • References
  • 6 Energy in Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
  • The Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Industry
  • Peak Load Shifting with Hot Water Heaters
  • Use of Heat Pumps Instead of Fossil Fuels
  • Use of Thermal Energy Storage for Peak Load Shifting for Heat Pumps or Air Conditioning
  • Potential Impact of Thermal Energy Storage for Peak Load Shifting with Heat Pumps or Air Conditioning
  • Air Conditioning
  • Heating
  • Peak Load Shifting and Storing Heat
  • The Role of Electrical Power in HVAC to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • Example Calculations
  • Example Calculation
  • References
  • 7 Electrical Grid Power and Strength in Diversity
  • Production of Electrical Power
  • Sustainability and Electrical Power
  • Peak Load Shifting and Grid Storage
  • Increased Use of Battery Power in Vehicles
  • Battery Energy Storage
  • Fuel Cell Technology
  • New Solar Devices
  • The Next Step in Transportation
  • Increased Use of Electrical Power in Space Heating
  • Traditional Electrical Space-Heating Markets
  • Emerging Electrical Space-Heating Markets
  • Ground Source Heat Pumps
  • Hybrid Heat Pump Systems
  • Increased Use of Electrical Power for Hot Water Heating
  • Example Calculations
  • References
  • 8 The Future in Nuclear Power
  • Energies of Nuclear Processes
  • Chart of the Nuclides
  • Information for Stable Nuclides
  • Information for Unstable Nuclides
  • Neutron-Proton Ratios
  • Energy Levels of Atoms
  • Energy Levels of the Nucleus
  • Stability of Nuclei
  • Natural Radioactivity
  • Nuclear Decay
  • Conditions for Successful Nuclear Fission
  • (a) Uranium and Other Fertile Materials
  • (b) Binding Energy Constraints
  • (c) Nuclear Cross Sections
  • (d) Concentrated Events
  • Transmutation
  • Accelerator-Driven Systems Physics and Materials Research and Development
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Potential Benefits of Magnetic Fusion Energy Fuel Resources
  • Environmental and Safety Considerations
  • CRS-3 Paths to Fusion Energy Production
  • Magnetic Fusion Energy Research
  • Radiological Toxicology
  • Energy Efficiency in the Nuclear Energy Industry
  • Steam Cycles in Commercial Operation
  • Boiling Water Reactors
  • Pressurized Water Reactors
  • Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants
  • Generation IV Reactor Systems
  • Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor
  • Very-High-Temperature Reactor
  • Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor
  • Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor
  • Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor
  • Molten Salt Reactor
  • Toward the Future
  • Small Modular Nuclear Reactors
  • Lessons from History
  • Nuclear Safety
  • Fukushima in Review (3/11/2011)
  • The Chernobyl Catastrophe (1986)
  • The Three Mile Island Accident
  • Lessons Learned
  • Recycling and Green Chemistry
  • Recovery of Unused Fuel
  • Recovery of Unused Fuel
  • Full Use of Uranium/Thorium
  • Discovery and Recovery
  • First Production of Plutonium
  • PUREX Process-Cold War Plutonium Production
  • PUREX Process-Domestic Spent Fuel
  • Reprocessing: Recovery of Unused Fuel
  • PUREX Process
  • Advanced Aqueous Separation
  • Experimental Breeder Reactor II
  • Pyrometallurgical Reprocessing
  • Mining and Processing
  • Waste Generation from Reprocessing
  • Waste Minimization
  • Report to Congress
  • Example Calculations
  • References
  • Recommended Reading
  • 9 Options for Remote Locations
  • Resurgence of Farmhouse and Small-Town Power Networks
  • Cost of Wind Turbine Systems
  • Economics of Rural and Small-Town Wind Turbine Systems
  • Solar Applications
  • Cogeneration
  • Third-World Electrification
  • References
  • 10 Strategies and Critical Paths to Sustainability
  • Taxes and Social Cost
  • Currency as a Metric for Comparing Alternatives
  • Levelized Cost Approach
  • Capital Costs
  • Base Case Assumptions
  • Parameters Impacting Capital Cost
  • Standardized Designs
  • Improved Reactor Designs
  • Guaranteed Loans
  • Efficiency
  • Reprocessing
  • State Incentives
  • Sensitivity Analysis
  • Case Studies
  • Scenario 1: 40-Year Production Life with 4 Year Construction Times
  • Scenario 2: A $1365/kW Nuclear Power Plant at 47% Thermal Efficiency
  • Costs of Reprocessing
  • Barrier to Third-World Societies
  • Domestic Manufacturing Infrastructure
  • Overcoming Commercialization Barriers
  • Strategies and Critical Paths
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

List of Figures


Figure 1.1 The legacy of 30 years of commercial nuclear power in the United States including 30 years of fission products that are of little value and sufficient stockpiled fissionable fuel to continue to produce electrical power at the same rate for another 4350 years. 5 Figure 1.2 Typical composition of oil. 18 Figure 1.3 Year 2000 oil flow in million barrels per day. 19 Figure 1.4 Historic US oil prices. 20 Figure 1.5 US imports of petroleum. 20 Figure 1.6 World oil reserves by region. Estimates of Canadian reserves by Oil & Gas Journal in 2003 are much higher than previous years-they likely include easily recovered oil sands. 21 Figure 1.7 US Energy consumption by source. 22 Figure 1.8 Estimate of US energy reserves. 22 Figure 2.1 Past and projected source of liquid fuels in the United States including imports. 30 Figure 2.2 Impact of atomic mass number on permanence of atoms. H, hydrogen; He, helium; Li, lithium; C, carbon; O, oxygen; F, fluorine; Ar, argon; Fe, iron; Kr, krypton; Sn, tin; Gd, Gadolinium; Pu, plutonium; Bi, bismuth; and U, uranium. 34 Figure 2.3 Fusion of hydrogen to helium. 36 Figure 2.4 History of energy. 38 Figure 2.5 Basic steam cycle used with nuclear reactor source of heat. 40 Figure 2.6 Escalating chain reaction such as in a nuclear bomb. 42 Figure 2.7 Controlled steady-state chain nuclear fission such as in a nuclear reactor. 43 Figure 2.8 Approximate inventory of commercially spent nuclear fuel and fissionable isotopes having weapon potential (Pu-239 and U-235). The solid lines are for continued operation without reprocessing and the dashed lines are for reprocessing (starting in 2005) to meet the needs of current nuclear capacity. 46 Figure 2.9 Comparison of estimated reserves of prominent fuels other than renewable fuels. 64 Figure 2.10 Illustration of petroleum drilling rig and reservoir. 65 Figure 2.11 Historic and projected prices of petroleum, consumption of petroleum, and billions of dollars per year spent on oil imports by the United States. 71 Figure 3.1 Historic crude oil prices. 83 Figure 3.2 Summary of tax breakdown on $28 barrel of synthetic crude. 92 Figure 3.3 Summary of price contributions on a gallon of gasoline on a 201 cents per gallon of unleaded regular gasoline. 96 Figure 3.4 Comparison of electrical power generating capacity by fuel sources for electrical power generation in the United States between 1999 and 2012. 101 Figure 3.5 Carbon dioxide emissions by sector. 110 Figure 3.6 US IRS carbon dioxide sequestration credit form. 113 Figure 4.1 On Earth, most energy comes from the sun and ultimately becomes heat. This is a fascinating story of trial and error with the successful inventions providing the many devices we use every day. 122 Figure 4.2 Illustration of how pistons perform work. 128 Figure 4.3 Condensing steam used to move a piston. 133 Figure 4.4 Use of high- and low-pressure steam to power a piston. 133 Figure 4.5 Illustration of basic steam turbine power cycle. 139 Figure 4.6 Illustration of boiling water reactor (BWR) and steam power cycle. 141 Figure 4.7 Illustration of pressurized water reactor (PWR) and steam power cycle. 141 Figure 4.8 Illustration of atom and electron flow in hydrogen fuel cell. 151 Figure 4.9 Illustration of fuel cell circuit powering an electric motor. 152 Figure 4.10 Illustration of flow battery. 157 Figure 5.1 Crude oil fractions and market demands. 164 Figure 5.2 Summary of energy losses in use of fuel for automobile travel. 179 Figure 5.3 Average fuel economy of on-the-road vehicles. 180 Figure 5.4 Projected prices of electric vehicle batteries in $/kWh. 187 Figure 5.5 Projected energy densities of electric vehicle batteries in Wh/kg. 188 Figure 5.6 Illustration of Terreplane advanced transportation concept illustrating simple and low-cost nature of the propulsion line. 189 Figure 6.1 Example energy guide for a clothes dryer. 197 Figure 6.2 Typical vapor compression air conditioning cycle. 199 Figure 6.3 Illustration of heat pump showing operation of air conditioning versus heating modes. 201 Figure 6.4 Illustration of a base load power in 365 days a year and how space heating can increase base load. 203 Figure 6.5 Illustration of peak demand from chillers used for air conditioning during 24 hour a day. 204 Figure 6.6 Illustration of phase-change material nodules used to store cold during the night for use during the day to shift use of electricity from day to night. 205 Figure 7.1 Increases in thermal efficiency electrical power generation during past century. 212 Figure 7.2 Energy consumption in the U.S. Distribution by energy source only includes sources contributing more than 2% of the energy in each category. 214 Figure 7.3 Impact of space heating on base load for electrical power generation. 215 Figure 7.4 Estimated installed capacity for energy storage in global grid in 2011. 216 Figure 7.5 Simplified presentations of parallel and series HEV designs. 217 Figure 7.6 Comparison of PHEV and BEV designs. The PHEV has an engine and smaller battery pack. The BEV does not have a backup engine. 218 Figure 7.7 Comparison of net present cost for operating a conventional vehicle (CV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in HEV with a 20-mile range (PHEV-20), and a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with 200 mile range. Present values are based on a 7-year life cycle, $1.75 per gallon gasoline, and 6¢/kWh electricity. Data on PHEV-20, HEV, and CV from Frank. 219 Figure 7.8 Illustration of city BEV. The city BEV is a compact vehicle that has a maximum range of 60 miles. The city BEV is a niche market vehicle that can meet the needs of "some" commuter...

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