Antimicrobial Textiles

 
 
Woodhead Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 11. April 2016
  • |
  • 372 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100585-9 (ISBN)
 

Antimicrobial textiles have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years due to their potential for reducing the transmission of infection in medical and healthcare environments. Antimicrobial properties can also improve the performance and lifespan of consumer products, and so these fabrics are increasingly finding applications in the wider textile and apparel industry. This book provides systematic coverage of the technologies and materials required for developing these important textiles.

In Part One, chapters address key issues and technologies in the creation of antimicrobial textile products. Topics covered include testing and regulation, microencapsulation, sol-gel coating and plasma technologies, nanotechnology and life cycle assessment. Part Two then reviews key antimicrobial agents, such as N-halamines, plant based compounds and photo-active chemicals. Finally, the chapters of Part Three offer detailed reviews of antimicrobial textiles for particular important applications, including medical devices, protective clothing and products with improved durability and longevity.


  • Reviews key issues and technologies in the creation of antimicrobial textile products
  • Offered a detailed overview of by antimicrobial agents and a wide range of important applications
  • Produced by an experienced editor and a distinguished and international team of contributors
  • Englisch
  • London
Elsevier Science
  • 6,33 MB
978-0-08-100585-9 (9780081005859)
0081005857 (0081005857)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Antimicrobial Textiles
  • The Textile Institute and Woodhead Publishing
  • Related titles
  • Antimicrobial Textiles
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles
  • 1 - Introduction: development of antimicrobial textiles
  • One - Key issues and technologies in creating antimicrobial textile products
  • 2 - Testing and regulation of antimicrobial textiles
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Safety testing
  • 2.2.1 DIN EN ISO 10993-5 (test for in vitro cytotoxicity) [9]
  • 2.2.2 DIN EN ISO 10993-10 (tests for skin irritation) [10]
  • 2.2.3 Tests for influence of resident skin flora
  • 2.3 Efficacy testing
  • 2.3.1 Antibacterial testing
  • 2.3.1.1 AATCC 147 (parallel streak method) [16]
  • 2.3.1.2 DIN EN ISO 20645 (agar plate diffusion test) [17]
  • 2.3.1.3 ASTM E2149 (shake flask test) [18]
  • 2.3.1.4 AATCC 100 [19]
  • 2.3.1.5 DIN EN ISO 20743 [20]
  • 2.3.2 Antifungal testing
  • 2.3.2.1 AATCC 30 [21]
  • 2.3.2.2 DIN EN 14119 [22]
  • 2.3.3 Assessment of antimicrobial testing methods
  • 2.4 Durability testing
  • 2.5 Resistance risks
  • 2.6 Regulations of antimicrobial textiles
  • 2.6.1 Regulations for European markets
  • 2.6.2 Regulations for US markets
  • 2.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • 3 - Microencapsulation technologies for antimicrobial textiles
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Antimicrobial finishing technologies
  • 3.2.1 Biocides and biostatics
  • 3.2.2 Mechanisms of antimicrobial activities
  • 3.2.2.1 Controlled release or leaching
  • 3.2.2.2 Regenerable mechanism
  • 3.2.2.3 Bound and barrier types of antimicrobials
  • 3.2.3 Resistance to washing
  • 3.2.4 Common application methods
  • 3.2.5 General requirements of antimicrobial finishing for textiles
  • 3.3 Microencapsulation technologies for antimicrobial textiles
  • 3.3.1 Topical applications for hygiene purposes
  • 3.3.1.1 Hygienic socks loaded with antifungal microcapsules
  • 3.3.1.2 Undergarments and microcapsules with traditional Chinese medicine
  • 3.3.1.3 Antiseptic treatment for foot wounds with Piper betel extract
  • 3.3.2 Applications for health and protection
  • 3.3.2.1 Encapsulated natural plant extracts as antimicrobial agents
  • 3.3.2.2 Antibacterial wall shell of microcapsule
  • 3.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • 4 - Sol-gel technology for antimicrobial textiles
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Sol-gel technology
  • 4.3 Antimicrobial treatments for textiles
  • 4.3.1 Metallic biocide compounds
  • 4.3.2 Metal oxide biocides
  • 4.3.3 Organic biocide compounds
  • 4.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • 5 - Plasma technology for antimicrobial textiles
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Plasma
  • 5.3 Plasma characteristics
  • 5.3.1 Plasma temperature
  • 5.3.2 Plasma density
  • 5.3.3 Plasma oscillation
  • 5.4 Plasma for the textile industry
  • 5.5 Plasma processes for the development of antimicrobial textiles
  • 5.5.1 Physical vapor deposition (PVD)
  • 5.5.2 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
  • 5.5.3 Plasma surface modification
  • 5.5.3.1 Functionalization
  • 5.5.3.2 Etching
  • 5.5.3.3 Grafting
  • 5.6 Applications
  • 5.7 Future trends
  • 5.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • 6 - Nanotechnology for antimicrobial textiles
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Antimicrobials and textiles
  • 6.3 Definitions and legal questions regarding the use of the term antimicrobial on textiles
  • 6.4 Claims, labels, and language choice
  • 6.5 History of antimicrobials applied to textiles
  • 6.6 Conventional antimicrobials applied to textiles
  • 6.7 Nanotechnology and antimicrobial treatments on fibers
  • 6.7.1 Issues involving nanoparticle silver
  • 6.7.2 Conclusion
  • References
  • 7 - Life cycle assessment of reusable hospital textiles with biocidal finish
  • 7.1 Background
  • 7.2 Biocidal protective technology
  • 7.3 Life cycle inventory of reduction in hospital-acquired infections
  • 7.4 Environmental balance of biocidal-protected patient gowns versus reduction in hospital-acquired infections
  • References
  • Two - Antimicrobial agents
  • 8 - N-halamines as antimicrobial textile finishes
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Modification of textiles with N-halamines
  • 8.2.1 N-halamines bound onto textiles via cross-linking
  • 8.2.2 Reactive N-halamine-treated textiles
  • 8.2.3 Grafting polymerization on textiles
  • 8.2.4 Polymeric N-halamine coatings
  • 8.2.5 N-halamine siloxane-coated textiles
  • 8.3 Incorporation of N-halamines in textile fibers
  • 8.4 Textiles treated with N-halamines and other antimicrobial agents
  • 8.4.1 N-halamine/quaternary ammonium salts
  • 8.4.2 N-halamine/titanium dioxide
  • 8.5 Future trends
  • 8.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 9 - Halogenated phenols and polybiguanides as antimicrobial textile finishes
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Types of halogenated phenols and polybiguanides
  • 9.2.1 Types of halogenated phenols
  • 9.2.1.1 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
  • 9.2.1.2 Pentachlorophenol (2-phenylphenoxide)
  • 9.2.1.3 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol (chlorocresol)
  • 9.2.1.4 4-Chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol(chloroxylenol
  • para-chloro-meta-xylenol
  • PCMX)
  • 9.2.1.5 2,4-Dichloro-3,5-dimethylphenol (dichloroxylenol
  • DCMX)
  • 9.2.1.6 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol (para-chlorometa-cresol
  • PCMC)
  • 9.2.1.7 Monochloro-2-phenylphenol
  • 9.2.1.8 2-Benzyl-4-chlorophenol (chlorphen
  • ortho-benzyl-para-chlorophenol
  • OBPCP)
  • 9.2.1.9 Mixed chlorinated xylenols
  • 9.2.1.10 Other halophenols
  • 9.2.2 Types of polybiguanides
  • 9.3 Properties of halogenated phenols and polybiguanides
  • 9.4 Antimicrobial mechanisms of halogenated phenols and polybiguanides
  • 9.4.1 Antimicrobial for controlled release
  • 9.4.2 Bound antimicrobials for polybiguanides
  • 9.5 Antimicrobial finishing methods
  • 9.5.1 Finishing with halogenated phenols
  • 9.5.2 Finishing with polybiguanides
  • 9.6 Evaluation of antimicrobial efficiency
  • 9.6.1 Qualitative evaluation
  • 9.6.2 Quantitative evaluation
  • References
  • 10 - Plant-based compounds for antimicrobial textiles
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.1.1 Medical textiles
  • 10.1.2 Cosmetic textiles
  • 10.2 Plant-based antimicrobial compounds
  • 10.2.1 Phenolic and polyphenols
  • 10.2.1.1 Simple phenols and phenolic acids
  • 10.2.1.2 Quinones
  • 10.2.1.3 Flavones, flavonoids, and flavonols
  • 10.2.1.4 Tannins
  • 10.2.1.5 Coumarins
  • 10.2.2 Terpenoids and essential oils
  • 10.2.2.1 Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes
  • 10.2.2.2 Diterpenoids
  • 10.2.2.3 Triterpenoids
  • 10.2.2.4 Tetraterpenes
  • 10.2.2.5 Mixtures
  • 10.3 Antimicrobial natural polymers and fibers
  • 10.3.1 Chitosan
  • 10.3.2 Alginate
  • 10.3.3 Gelatin
  • 10.3.4 Hyaluronic acid
  • 10.3.5 Antimicrobial finishing techniques
  • 10.3.5.1 Insertion of dope additives into the fiber
  • 10.3.5.2 Coating on fabric
  • 10.3.5.3 Cyclodextrin
  • 10.3.5.4 Microencapsulation
  • References
  • 11 - Photoactive chemicals for antimicrobial textiles
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Photocatalysts
  • 11.2.1 Mechanism of photoexcitation
  • 11.2.2 Photo-induced disinfection on TiO2-modified textile materials
  • 11.2.3 Recent development and modification of TiO2
  • 11.2.4 Modification of textile materials with TiO2
  • 11.3 Organic photo-induced antibacterial agents
  • 11.3.1 Photosensitization mechanisms and antibacterial effects
  • 11.3.2 Anthraquinone and benzophenone derivatives
  • 11.3.3 Porphyrins and phthalocyanines
  • 11.3.4 Others photosensitizers
  • 11.4 Concerns and future perspectives on photoactive antibacterial agents on textile materials
  • 11.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 12 - Barrier textiles for protection against microbes
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Antimicrobial agents used in textiles
  • 12.2.1 Silver nanoparticles
  • 12.2.2 Metal oxides
  • 12.2.3 Photoactive dyes
  • 12.2.4 Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • 12.2.5 N-halamines
  • 12.2.6 Triclosan
  • 12.2.7 Polybiguanides
  • 12.2.8 Chitosan
  • 12.2.9 Plant-derived bioactive agents
  • 12.3 Evaluation of antimicrobial fabrics
  • 12.3.1 Qualitative test methods
  • 12.3.2 Quantitative test methods
  • 12.3.3 Methods mimicking the real-life conditions
  • 12.4 Antimicrobial durability
  • 12.5 Health and environmental impacts
  • 12.5.1 Human health
  • 12.5.2 Environmental impacts
  • 12.5.3 Microbial resistance
  • 12.6 Conclusions and future trends
  • References
  • Three - Applications of antimicrobial textiles
  • 13 - Antimicrobial textiles for medical environments
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Textiles used in medical environments
  • 13.2.1 Clothing
  • 13.2.2 Bedding
  • 13.2.3 Furnishing items
  • 13.2.4 Dressings
  • 13.3 Survival of hospital-acquired infections on textiles
  • 13.4 Antimicrobial finishing agents for textiles in medical environments
  • 13.4.1 Commercially available antimicrobial finishes for medical textiles
  • 13.4.1.1 Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • 13.4.1.2 Metals
  • Silver
  • Copper
  • 13.4.1.3 Chitosan
  • 13.4.2 Methods of testing efficacy of antimicrobial textiles
  • 13.4.2.1 Testing standards
  • 13.5 Laundering and removal of microorganisms in healthcare environments
  • 13.5.1 Industrial
  • 13.5.2 Domestic
  • 13.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • 14 - Antimicrobial textiles for sutures, implants, and scaffolds
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Surgical site infections (SSIs)
  • 14.2.1 Introduction
  • 14.2.2 Risk factors and prevention
  • 14.2.3 Characters of foreign materials for preventing SSIs
  • 14.3 Common antimicrobial treatments of biomaterials
  • 14.3.1 Dipping, coating, and fumigating
  • 14.3.2 Plasma treatments for antimicrobial textiles
  • 14.3.2.1 The mechanism of plasma treatments
  • 14.3.2.2 Characteristics of plasma treatments
  • 14.3.2.3 Development of the research
  • 14.3.3 Textile dyeing technology with antimicrobial dyestuffs
  • 14.4 Antimicrobial sutures
  • 14.4.1 Suture-related SSIs
  • 14.4.2 Commercial antimicrobial sutures
  • 14.4.3 The laboratorial stage of antimicrobial suture
  • 14.5 Antimicrobial implants
  • 14.5.1 Vascular prostheses
  • 14.5.2 Antimicrobial prosthetic heart valve
  • 14.5.3 Antimicrobial treatment of ureteral stent
  • 14.5.4 Mesh for hernia repair
  • 14.6 Antimicrobial scaffolds
  • 14.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • 15 - Antimicrobial textiles for treating skin infections and atopic dermatitis
  • 15.1 Introduction: normal skin barrier and related flora
  • 15.2 Disrupted skin barrier and pathogen colonization
  • 15.3 Antimicrobial therapy and related textiles
  • 15.4 Classification and mechanism of antimicrobial agents
  • 15.5 Development of new antimicrobial active textiles for treating AD
  • 15.6 Clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety of antimicrobial active textiles
  • 15.6.1 Determination of AD severity
  • 15.6.2 Reduction in AD symptoms
  • 15.6.3 Measurement of skin barrier integrity and function
  • 15.6.4 Measurement of skin microbiomes
  • 15.7 Evaluation of the safety of antimicrobial textiles
  • 15.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • 16 - Antimicrobials for protective clothing
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Textiles as carriers of microorganisms
  • 16.3 Effect of microbial growth on textiles
  • 16.3.1 Generation of body odor
  • 16.3.2 Effect on human health
  • 16.3.3 Degradation or staining of textiles
  • 16.4 Requirements for antimicrobial finishes
  • 16.5 Mechanisms of antimicrobial finishes
  • 16.6 Antimicrobial textile fabrication methods
  • 16.7 Antimicrobial finishing agents
  • 16.7.1 Halogenated phenols
  • 16.7.2 Chitosan
  • 16.7.3 Neem
  • 16.7.4 Metal-based nanoparticles
  • 16.7.5 Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • References
  • 17 - Antimicrobial finishes for improving the durability and longevity of fabric structures
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Biocides and antimicrobial textiles
  • 17.3 Types of antimicrobial textiles
  • 17.3.1 Antimicrobial cotton
  • 17.3.2 Antimicrobial wool and silk
  • 17.3.3 Antimicrobial polyester and polyamides (nylon)
  • 17.3.4 Antimicrobial olefin fibers
  • 17.4 Future trends
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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