Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Dentistry

 
 
Mosby (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 30. Dezember 2015
  • |
  • 459 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-28731-9 (ISBN)
 

Develop your skills in evaluation and dental treatment planning for all types of patients! Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Dentistry, 3rd Edition provides a full-color guide to creating treatment plans based on a comprehensive patient assessment. Using evidence-based research, this book shows how risk assessment, prognosis, and expected treatment outcomes factor into the planning process. New chapters cover patient diagnosis and team-based treatment planning, and a new Evolve website includes videos, case scenarios, and decision-making algorithms. Written by experienced dentistry educators Stephen Stefanac and Samuel Nesbit, this book is the only dental resource that combines patient examination and oral diagnosis with treatment planning.

    • Clear, logical organization builds your understanding with sections on comprehensive patient evaluation, key treatment planning concepts, a detailed review of the five phases of planning treatment and guidelines for selecting the appropriate plan of care, and care planning for patients with special needs.
    • In Clinical Practice boxes highlight situations that may be faced by the general dentist.
    • What's the Evidence? boxes cite research articles affecting clinical decision-making and treatment planning strategies.
    • Ethics in Dentistry boxes address ethical issues you may encounter in treatment planning.
    • Review exercises in each chapter let you apply concepts to clinical practice.
    • Expert authors and contributors provide a current, authoritative resource for effective treatment planning.
    • Key Terms and a Glossary highlight and define important terminology.
    • Evidence-based coverage demonstrates how to use research and clinical evidence in making treatment planning decisions.
      • NEW Common Diagnoses in Dentistry chapter provides guidelines to making an accurate patient diagnosis prior to beginning treatment.
      • NEW Interprofessional Treatment Planning chapter describes dental care in the context of a team-based collaborative approach, so that the dental treatment plan aligns with the overall treatment goals of the patient.
      • NEW! Full-color photographs illustrate clinical principles and pathologies, and a colorful design highlights key content.
      • UPDATED content reflects advances in dental techniques, materials, and patient treatment options based on research, clinical experience, and current literature.
      • NEW resources on an Evolve website include videos, case-based scenarios, and decision-making algorithms.
      • Englisch
      • St Louis
      • |
      • USA
      Elsevier Health Sciences
      • 94,27 MB
      978-0-323-28731-9 (9780323287319)
      032328731X (032328731X)
      weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
      • Front cover
      • Inside front cover
      • Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Dentistry
      • Copyright
      • Contributors
      • Dedication
      • Preface
      • About evolve
      • Acknowledgments
      • Table of contents
      • 1 Patient Examination and Diagnosis
      • 1 Patient evaluation and assessment
      • Overview of the diagnostic process
      • Information gathering
      • Patient history
      • Techniques for obtaining a patient history
      • Questionnaires and forms.
      • Patient interviews.
      • Components of a patient history
      • Demographic data.
      • Chief concern or complaint and history.
      • General health history.
      • Medication history.
      • Personal history.
      • Oral health history.
      • Clinical examination
      • Physical examination
      • Vital signs.
      • Intraoral and extraoral soft tissue examination
      • Periodontal examination
      • Examination of the teeth
      • General assessment.
      • Occlusal examination.
      • Caries assessment.
      • Radiographic examination
      • Other diagnostic AIDS
      • Study casts
      • Diagnostic wax-ups and altered casts
      • Occlusal splints
      • Caries excavation
      • Consultation
      • Biopsy
      • Medical laboratory tests
      • Microbiologic and other testing systems
      • Documentation
      • Review questions
      • References
      • 2 Common diagnoses in dentistry
      • Patient diagnosis
      • Diagnoses and problems
      • Benefits of a diagnosis and problem list
      • Foundation for the treatment plan
      • Organization
      • Professional competence
      • Patient education
      • Standard of care
      • The comprehensive patient diagnosis
      • Common diagnoses
      • A. Diagnoses derived from the patient's chief concern and other concerns
      • B. General health diagnoses
      • C. Patient considerations that influence the treatment plan
      • D. Extraoral diagnoses
      • Abnormalities apparent through general observation
      • Parkinson's disease (PD)
      • Arthritis
      • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
      • Neuromuscular disorders
      • Vital signs irregularities
      • Hypertension (high blood pressure).
      • Irregular pulse (arrhythmia
      • includes rhythm, intensity, rate abnormalities).
      • Abnormalities apparent on the hands or exposed skin surfaces
      • Arthritic hands
      • Bruises (ecchymosis)
      • Splinter hemorrhages
      • Pitting (or dependent) edema
      • Nevi
      • Seborrheic keratosis
      • Solar (or actinic) cheilosis and solar keratosis
      • Basal cell carcinoma (BCCA)
      • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA)
      • Melanoma
      • Urticaria
      • Angioedema
      • Contact dermatitis (dermatitis medicamentosa)
      • Herpes zoster (shingles)
      • Abnormalities in the head, face, and neck region
      • Thyroid gland enlargement/goiter
      • Lymphadenopathy (lymphadenitis/lymphoid hyperplasia/calcified lymph nodes)
      • Carotid atherosclerosis
      • Cleft lip and cleft palate
      • E. Intraoral soft tissue diagnoses
      • Developmental lesions
      • Ankyloglossia
      • Hairy tongue
      • Varix/varicosity
      • Torus and other exostoses
      • Cleft palate
      • Traumatic and reactive lesions
      • Chewing/biting of oral mucosa
      • Linea alba
      • Traumatic ulcers
      • Leukoplakia
      • Hyperkeratosis
      • Amalgam tattoo
      • Nicotine stomatitis
      • Pyogenic granuloma
      • Fibroma
      • Hematoma
      • Mucocele (mucous extravasation phenomenon/mucous retention cyst/ranula)
      • Infection/inflammation
      • Parulis
      • Patent sinus tract (draining fistula)
      • Herpes infection (primary herpetic gingivostomatitis/recurrent herpes/herpetic ulcers)
      • Candidiasis
      • Angular cheilitis
      • Verruca vulgaris
      • Autoimmune processes
      • Aphthous ulcers
      • Lichen planus
      • Lichenoid reaction
      • Atrophic glossitis (bald tongue/burning tongue)
      • Cysts/tumors/neoplasias of soft tissue origin
      • Developmental odontogenic cysts
      • Leukoplakia
      • Erythroplakia
      • Erythroleukoplakia
      • Squamous cell carcinoma
      • F. Salivary gland abnormalities
      • Nonneoplastic lesions
      • Mucocele and ranula
      • Sialolithiasis (salivary stones)
      • Hyposalivation
      • Xerostomia
      • Sjögren syndrome
      • Neoplastic lesions
      • Pleomorphic adenoma (PA)
      • G. Abnormalities of the jaws (nonperiodontal radiographic)
      • H. Temporomandibular joint diseases: Neuropathic pain and neurovascular pain
      • Temporomandibular disorders
      • Radiographic abnormalities of the tmj complex
      • Neuropathic pain
      • Trigeminal neuralgia (TN)
      • Atypical odontalgia
      • Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)
      • Trigeminal nerve injury (deafferentation)
      • Burning mouth syndrome
      • Neurovascular pain
      • Migraine headache
      • Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC)
      • I. Periodontal diseases
      • Plaque-induced gingival diseases
      • Chronic periodontitis
      • The concept of the reduced periodontium
      • J. Pulpal and periapical diagnoses
      • K. Dental caries
      • Some guiding definitions6?¹0
      • Caries lesion severity
      • Non-cavitated lesion
      • Cavity/cavitated lesion
      • Caries lesion activity (net progression toward demineralization)
      • Active caries lesion
      • Arrested or inactive caries lesion
      • Classification of lesions by anatomical location¹²
      • Coronal primary caries lesion
      • Secondary caries, recurrent caries, or caries lesions associated with restorations and sealants (cars)
      • Root surface caries lesions
      • Radiographic detection of the caries lesion
      • L. Tooth cracks and fractures
      • Classifying the longitudinal fractures and cracks
      • Craze lines
      • Fractured cusp
      • Cracked tooth
      • Split tooth
      • Vertical root fracture
      • M. Other noncarious abnormalities of teeth
      • N. Occlusal abnormalities
      • O. Esthetic problems
      • Dentofacial issues
      • Tooth-related esthetic issues
      • Lip and gingival esthetic issues
      • P. Single tooth restoration defects
      • Q. Fixed prosthodontic problems
      • R. Removable prosthodontic problems
      • S. Implant-related diagnoses
      • Review questions
      • References
      • Suggested readings
      • 2 The Treatment Planning Process
      • 3 Evidence-based treatment planning: Assessment of risk, prognosis, and expected treatment outcomes
      • Definition of evidence-based dentistry, risk assessment, prognosis, and treatment outcomes
      • Evidence-based dentistry
      • Risk assessment
      • Prognosis
      • Treatment outcomes
      • Traditional model for dental treatment planning
      • Professional variability and disagreement in treatment planning
      • Why dentists disagree in treatment planning
      • Inaccuracy of diagnostic tests
      • Misdiagnosis and disagreement on diagnosis
      • Lack of risk assessment
      • Uncertain prognosis
      • Limited availability or use of outcomes measures
      • Dentists' varying interpretations of patient expectations
      • Need for more and better information on which to base decisions
      • Evidence-based decision making
      • Risk assessment
      • Risk assessment and dental treatment planning
      • Heritable conditions
      • Systemic disease as a risk indicator for oral health problems
      • Dietary and other behavioral risk indicators
      • Risk indicators related to stress and anxiety
      • Functional or trauma-related conditions
      • Environmental risk indicators
      • Socioeconomic status
      • Previous disease experience
      • Oral cancer risk assessment
      • Risk factors for oral cancer
      • Tobacco.
      • Alcohol.
      • High-risk human papillomavirus infection.
      • Trauma.
      • Immune system compromise and immunosuppression.
      • Radiation treatment.
      • Xerostomia.
      • Antineoplastic chemotherapy.
      • Malnutrition.
      • Previous history of oral cancer.
      • Caries risk assessment
      • Periodontal disease risk assessment
      • Occlusal/functional risk assessment
      • Bruxism
      • Tooth fracture
      • Occlusion-related temporomandibular disorders
      • Prognosis94?95?97??¹
      • Descriptors of prognosis
      • Domains of prognosis
      • Prognosis for specific diseases or conditions
      • Stomatitis.
      • Oral cancer.
      • Periodontal disease.
      • Prognosis for individual tooth or teeth
      • Prognosis determinants for specific treatments
      • Prognosis for overall treatment
      • Application and use of prognosis in treatment planning
      • Outcomes and outcomes measures
      • Role of outcomes measures
      • Using outcomes information in the treatment planning process
      • Can caries be left under a permanent restoration?
      • When should a defective restoration be replaced?¹¹6?¹¹7
      • When should a heavily restored tooth be crowned?
      • When should a missing posterior tooth be replaced?
      • Should a tooth with a failed root canal treatment be retreated?¹²7
      • Changing the treatment planning paradigm
      • Clinical recommendations and guidelines
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • References
      • Suggested readings and resources
      • 4 Developing the treatment plan
      • Developing treatment objectives
      • Patient goals and desires
      • Patient modifiers
      • Dentist goals and desires
      • Dentist modifiers
      • Knowledge
      • Technical skills
      • Treatment planning philosophy
      • Establishing the nature and scope of the treatment plan
      • Visioning
      • Key teeth
      • Phasing
      • Systemic phase
      • Acute phase
      • Disease control phase
      • Definitive treatment phase
      • Maintenance care phase
      • Presenting treatment plans and reaching consensus with the patient
      • Guidelines for sequencing dental treatment
      • Resolution of chief complaint
      • Periodontal therapy
      • Caries control
      • Endodontic therapy
      • Extraction
      • Occlusion
      • Replacements for teeth
      • Third parties
      • Public assistance plans
      • Private fee-for-service dental insurance policies
      • Obtaining informed consent and documenting the treatment plan
      • Informed consent
      • Treatment plan documentation
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • 5 Interprofessional treatment planning
      • Definition of interprofessional care
      • What is required for shared decision making
      • Members of an interprofessional team
      • The patient and his or her social support
      • Dental team members
      • Other health professionals
      • Primary care physician/family practice physician
      • Physician-medical specialties
      • Physician-surgical specialties
      • Physician assistant or associate
      • Nurse/registered nurse/licensed practical nurse
      • Nurse's aide or nursing assistant
      • Advanced practice nurse, including nurse practitioner
      • Certified registered nurse anesthetist or anesthetist
      • Pharmacist
      • Social worker/case worker/case manager
      • Mental healthcare professional
      • Speech and language pathologist
      • Audiologist
      • Physical therapist
      • Dietitian
      • Anaplastologist/maxillofacial prosthetist and technologist
      • Communication or referrals to other health professionals
      • Patient evaluation
      • Screening for and optimal management of systemic conditions
      • Systemic conditions contributing to an oral health problem
      • Oral manifestations of systemic conditions
      • Oral health problems associated with medical treatment
      • Quality of life and life expectancy concerns
      • Treatment planning
      • Active treatment
      • Maintenance care
      • Dentistry as part of the medical team
      • Oral disease contributing to a general health problem
      • Dental issues that arise during examination by a non-dental healthcare provider
      • Specific referrals to the dental team
      • Pre-procedural oral evaluation
      • Clear and timely communication and collaboration
      • Oral health status in supportive care facilities
      • Evaluation for possible oral source of infection
      • Oral evaluation in an emergency medicine setting
      • Conditions best managed by an interprofessional team that includes dentistry
      • Head and neck cancer
      • Initial recognition of oral cancer
      • Referral for definitive diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer
      • Planning dental treatment after diagnosis of head and neck cancer
      • Coordinating dental care in patients before cancer therapy
      • Supportive dental care during cancer therapy
      • Coordinating dental care after cancer therapy
      • Prosthetic rehabilitation
      • Long-term follow-up: Maintenance and surveillance
      • Cleft palate/craniofacial anomalies
      • Temporomandibular joint disorders/orofacial pain
      • Obstructive sleep apnea
      • Head and neck trauma (gunshot, explosion, motor vehicle accident)
      • Combined treatment in an operating room setting
      • Conclusion
      • References
      • 6 Ethical and legal considerations when treatment planning
      • Ethical foundations of dentistry
      • Societal expectations of health-related professions
      • Principles of biomedical ethics
      • Relationship between ethics and law
      • Types of law
      • Law and ethics
      • Dentist-patient relationship
      • Confidentiality
      • Accepting patients into dental practice
      • When does the dentist-patient relationship begin?
      • Who must be treated?
      • Terminating the dentist-patient relationship
      • Referring patients
      • Nonreferral of patients
      • Applying ethics and law to diagnosis and treatment planning
      • Informed consent
      • The process of informed consent
      • Who can give informed consent? competence and decision-making capacity
      • When a patient lacks decision-making capacity
      • Informed refusal
      • Documenting informed consent or informed refusal
      • Role and limitations of informed consent in the law
      • Can informed consent be obtained by another staff member?
      • Is informed consent always necessary?
      • Dental record
      • What is included in the dental record?
      • How should information be recorded in the dental record?
      • Electronic health and dental records
      • Who owns the dental record?
      • Legal value of the dental record
      • How long should dental records be kept?
      • Malpractice and professional liability
      • Duty
      • Breach of duty
      • Damages
      • Proximate cause
      • Other factors
      • Common causes for litigation
      • Suit-prone patients
      • Risk management
      • Liability insurance
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • References
      • Suggested readings
      • 3 Phases of the Treatment Plan
      • 7 Systemic phase of treatment
      • Increasing importance of the systemic phase of treatment
      • Rationale for systemic therapy
      • Recognition of systemic disease and patient referral for appropriate treatment
      • Modifying or limiting dental treatment
      • Prevention of medical emergencies during dental treatment
      • Prevention of postoperative complications
      • Evaluating the patient's current health status
      • Reviewing general health history
      • Health history
      • Current health information
      • Findings from physical evaluation
      • Vital signs
      • Visual inspection and oral examination
      • Evaluating relationship between systemic health and dental treatment
      • Systemic procedures
      • Postponing or limiting treatment
      • Consultation with a physician
      • Stress management
      • Prescribing or altering patient medication
      • Antibiotics
      • Pain medications
      • Positioning patient in dental chair
      • Regularly reviewing and updating general health history
      • How systemic conditions can affect treatment planning
      • Patients taking oral anticoagulants
      • Treatment implications
      • Pregnant patients
      • Radiographs
      • Medications
      • Managing dental emergencies during pregnancy
      • Disease control and definitive care
      • Diabetes
      • Treatment implications
      • Documentation of systemic concerns
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • References
      • 8 Acute phase of treatment
      • Challenges
      • Rewards
      • Profile of the patient requesting immediate treatment
      • Comprehensive care patient
      • Limited care patient
      • Patient evaluation
      • Patient history
      • Chief concern and history of the concern
      • Health and medication histories
      • Past dental history
      • Social history
      • Clinical examination
      • Diagnostic tests and techniques
      • Radiographic examination
      • Common acute problems and diagnoses
      • Complaint of pain
      • Pain of pulpal or periapical origin
      • Pain associated with periodontal tissues
      • Pain associated with tooth eruption or pericoronitis
      • Pain associated with previous dental treatment
      • Other sources of oral pain
      • Complaint of swelling
      • Esthetic complaints
      • Traumatic injury
      • Treatment planning for acute needs
      • Defining the range of options
      • Factors influencing treatment decisions
      • Choosing a plan that takes long-term implications into account
      • Acquiring consent for acute care
      • Using medications to treat acute problems
      • Documenting acute care treatment and follow-up
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • References
      • 9 Disease control phase of treatment
      • Purpose of disease control phase
      • Structuring disease control phase
      • Common disease control problems and issues
      • Dental caries
      • Caries management: Working definition
      • Objectives and scope of the caries management protocol
      • Caries management strategies
      • Provide fluoride exposure.
      • Plaque management.
      • Limit fermentable carbohydrates.
      • Pit and fissure sealants.
      • Restorative treatment.
      • Caries susceptibility tests.
      • Comprehensive caries management
      • Basic caries control protocol.
      • Optional caries interventions.
      • Management based on caries activity and caries risk.
      • Patient with no active caries lesions and at low risk for future caries.
      • Patient with isolated caries lesions and at low risk for future caries, or patient with no caries lesions but at moderate ...
      • Patient with multiple active lesions or at high risk for new caries.
      • Determination of the patient-specific cause.
      • Implementing the basic caries control protocol.
      • Selecting from the optional caries interventions.
      • Reassessment.
      • Periodontal diseases
      • Causes of periodontal disease
      • Local factors-plaque, calculus, and pathogenic microbiota.
      • Heredity.
      • Systemic factors and immunoinflammatory response.
      • Tobacco use.
      • Other deleterious habits.
      • Defective restorations.
      • Occlusal trauma.
      • Treatment of active periodontal disease-initial therapy
      • Systemic considerations.
      • Oral self-care instructions.
      • Extraction of hopeless teeth.
      • Elimination of iatrogenic restorations and open caries lesions contributing to periodontal disease.
      • Managing other dental problems that contribute to periodontal disease.
      • Scaling and root planing.
      • Pharmacotherapy.
      • Periodontal reevaluation
      • Pulpal therapy and management of lesions and defects encroaching on pulp
      • Reversible pulpitis or a healthy pulp when the caries, fracture, or defect is of moderate depth and pulp is not exposed
      • Reversible pulpitis or a healthy pulp, and healthy periapical area when the caries, fracture, or defect is in close proxim ...
      • Reversible pulpitis or a healthy pulp, and healthy periapical area when the pulp is exposed
      • Irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp
      • Patient declines treatment for an asymptomatic apical periodontitis, cyst, or granuloma
      • Single tooth restoration in the disease control phase of care
      • Stabilization of dental malalignment, malocclusion, or occlusal disharmony
      • Root proximity problem that precludes restoration of a carious lesion or fracture
      • Plunger cusp, open contact, and/or marginal ridge discrepancy contributing to food impaction and periodontal disease
      • Severe crowding
      • Occlusal trauma affecting multiple teeth
      • Occlusal trauma affecting isolated teeth
      • Supraerupted tooth extending into an opposing edentulous space
      • Impacted tooth other than a third molar
      • Decreased vertical dimension of occlusion
      • Disorders associated with the temporomandibular joints and/or muscles of mastication
      • Reducing disc displacement
      • Nonreducing disc displacement
      • Degenerative joint disease
      • Masticatory myalgia
      • Use of tobacco products
      • Smoking cessation
      • Information for the patient about effects of tobacco.
      • Smoking cessation strategies.
      • Other forms of oral pathology
      • Replacement of a missing tooth or teeth during the disease control phase
      • Reassessment
      • Making the transition to the definitive phase of care
      • Review questions
      • Suggested projects
      • References
      • Suggested readings
      • Caries
      • Periodontal disease
      • Temporomandibular joint disorders
      • Endodontics
      • Oral pathologic conditions
      • 10 Definitive phase of treatment
      • Definitive phase treatment options
      • Periodontal therapy
      • Periodontal disease and related conditions
      • Periodontitis not responsive to initial therapy
      • Angular bone defects
      • Furcation involvement
      • Root proximity
      • Congenital or medication-associated gingival enlargement
      • Mucogingival deformities and conditions
      • High frenal attachment
      • Esthetic and architectural defects or problems
      • Keys to decision making
      • Professional considerations
      • Patient considerations
      • Procedures for treating periodontal disease
      • Local delivery antimicrobials
      • Host modulation
      • Periodontal surgery
      • Periodontal regeneration therapy
      • Summary
      • Orthodontic treatment
      • Malocclusions and related conditions
      • Angle class I malocclusion
      • Impacted maxillary canines
      • Anterior open bite
      • Skeletal abnormalities
      • Keys to decision making
      • Professional considerations
      • Patient considerations
      • Procedures for treating malocclusion
      • Comprehensive orthodontics
      • Limited orthodontic tooth movement
      • Orthognathic surgery
      • Other occlusal therapies
      • Procedures for treating occlusal problems
      • Athletic guard
      • Occlusal guard
      • Occlusal splint
      • Occlusal adjustment
      • Restoring individual teeth
      • Keys to decision making
      • Professional considerations
      • Patient considerations
      • Single tooth restorative procedures
      • Pit and fissure sealant
      • Composite resin restoration
      • Glass ionomer restoration
      • Amalgam restoration
      • Inlays and onlays
      • Definitive crown
      • Cosmetic dentistry
      • Keys to decision making
      • Professional and patient considerations
      • Representative esthetic problems and treatment procedures
      • Microabrasion
      • Contouring teeth
      • Vital bleaching
      • Bleaching devitalized teeth
      • Veneers
      • Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) or all-ceramic crown
      • Elective (nonacute) endodontic problems
      • Keys to decision making
      • Professional considerations
      • Patient considerations
      • Procedures for treating nonacute endodontic problems
      • Root canal therapy
      • Apical surgery
      • Extractions and preprosthodontic surgery
      • Extraction
      • Preprosthodontic surgery
      • Exophytic soft tissue lesions
      • Bulbous tuberosities
      • Exostoses and tori
      • Ridge augmentation procedures
      • Surgical procedures associated with implant placement
      • Replacing missing teeth
      • Keys to decision making
      • Professional considerations
      • Patient considerations
      • Procedures for replacing missing teeth
      • Implant-retained prostheses
      • Keys to implant decision making
      • Professional considerations.
      • Patient considerations.
      • Implant-retained single crown.
      • Implant-retained fixed partial denture.
      • Implant-retained removable partial denture.
      • Implant-retained fixed complete denture.
      • Implant-retained overdenture.
      • Fixed partial dentures (FPDs)
      • Removable partial dentures
      • Complete dentures
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • Suggested project
      • References
      • Suggested readings
      • Periodontics and periodontology
      • Orthodontics
      • Occlusion
      • Single tooth restorations and dental materials
      • Esthetic dentistry
      • Endodontics
      • Oral and maxillofacial surgery
      • Prosthodontics and implants
      • 11 Maintenance phase of care
      • Posttreatment assessment
      • Objectives for the posttreatment assessment
      • Elements of the posttreatment assessment
      • Documenting the posttreatment assessment
      • Rationale for including a maintenance phase in the treatment plan
      • Address ongoing patient needs
      • Follow-up of untreated diagnoses
      • Monitoring chronic conditions that can affect oral health
      • Revisiting elective treatment issues
      • Patient centered benefits
      • Rapport building
      • Patient education
      • Emphasis on individualized care
      • Health promotion and disease prevention
      • Anticipating further treatment needs
      • Practice management benefits
      • Professional competence
      • Efficient delivery of care
      • Reducing patient emergencies
      • Partnering with patients
      • Issues typically included in the maintenance phase
      • General health considerations
      • Oral homecare instructions
      • Oral prophylaxis
      • Caries control
      • Restorations and prostheses
      • Periodontal maintenance
      • Implant assessment
      • Endodontic reevaluation
      • Management of chronic oral soft tissue disease
      • Management of radiographically evident hard tissue abnormalities (other than caries or periodontal disease)
      • Orthodontic assessment by the general dentist
      • Ongoing orthodontic treatment by an orthodontist
      • Ongoing orthodontic treatment by the patient's regular general dentist
      • Orthodontic treatment has been completed
      • Radiographic images³
      • Elective treatment
      • Recall interval
      • Documenting the maintenance phase plan
      • Recall visit
      • Evaluation
      • Update of health history questionnaire
      • Vital signs (blood pressure and pulse)
      • Head, face, and neck/extraoral/intraoral examination
      • Evaluation of any patient concerns or complaints
      • Orthodontic/occlusal/temporomandibular joint examination
      • Periodontal evaluation
      • Caries/restorative evaluation
      • Radiographic images
      • Special considerations for implants
      • Special considerations for fixed partial dentures
      • Special considerations for removable prostheses
      • Therapy
      • Planning for current and future needs
      • Progress note
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • Suggested projects
      • References
      • 4 Planning Treatment for Unique Patient Populations
      • 12 Patients with special needs
      • Identifying the patient with special needs
      • Role of the general dentist in management of the patient with special needs
      • Access to care
      • Transportation
      • Residency
      • Office accommodations
      • Funding sources
      • Private pay
      • Medicare¹²?¹4
      • Medicaid
      • Other sources
      • Planning for specific conditions
      • Patients with developmental delay or cognitive disorders
      • Traumatic brain injury
      • Severe coagulopathies
      • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
      • Patients under hospice care
      • Patient evaluation
      • Chief concern and history of the chief concern
      • General health history and review of systems
      • Oral health history
      • Personal history
      • Functional history
      • Obtaining additional information from other healthcare providers
      • Physical and oral examination in the dental office
      • Actively cooperative patients
      • Passively cooperative patients
      • Actively uncooperative or combative patients
      • Passively uncooperative patients
      • Imaging
      • Special diagnostic tests and procedures
      • Diagnostic casts
      • Arriving at a diagnosis
      • Treatment planning for the patient with special needs
      • Unique aspects of treatment planning for the special care patient
      • Importance of general health issues
      • Importance of functional and behavioral issues
      • Iatrosedation.
      • Nitrous oxide and oxygen analgesia.
      • Oral sedation.
      • Intravenous sedation.
      • General anesthesia.
      • Levels of care
      • Interview and patient education.
      • Patient examination.
      • Disease control procedures.
      • Operative dentistry.
      • Limited fixed and removable prosthodontics.
      • Comprehensive restorative care.
      • Treatment plan content
      • Sequencing the plan and the timing of treatment
      • Transportation and availability.
      • Planning care to be performed under general anesthesia.
      • Support from caregivers.
      • Patient cooperation.
      • Patient endurance.
      • Preventive and maintenance services
      • Referral options
      • Phasing treatment
      • Systemic phase
      • Acute phase
      • Disease control phase
      • Holding phase
      • Definitive phase
      • Maintenance phase
      • Informed consent
      • Delivery of care
      • Appointment scheduling
      • Patient positioning and transfer
      • Precautions with transfers
      • Patients who are gurney-bound
      • Patients using wheelchairs
      • Transfers from a wheelchair to a dental chair.
      • One-person transfer.
      • Two-person transfer.
      • Sliding board.
      • Lifts.
      • Supports
      • Posture
      • Restraints
      • Communication with special care patients
      • Role of the family
      • Role of the patient's caregiver
      • Other professional resources
      • Social workers
      • Physician assistants
      • Registered nurses
      • Licensed practical nurses
      • Nurse's aides/assistants
      • Pharmacists
      • Audiologists/speech and language pathologists
      • Ethical and legal issues
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • Suggested project
      • References
      • Suggested readings
      • 13 Patients who are substance dependent
      • Challenges to the dentist
      • Recognition of patient substance abuse
      • Delivery of dental care
      • Behavioral/compliance issues
      • Patient assessment (signs and symptoms of substance abuse)
      • Obtaining the patient's health history
      • Head, face, and neck-intraoral/extraoral examination
      • Effects of inappropriate drug use and their implications
      • Unpredictable drug metabolism
      • Infectious diseases, infective endocarditis, and nutritional deficiencies
      • Psychological issues
      • Alcohol abuse-related disorders
      • Prevalence of alcohol abuse.
      • Pathophysiology of high alcohol use.
      • Other abused substances
      • Caffeine.
      • Tobacco.
      • Marijuana (cannabis sativa).
      • Marijuana as a medication.
      • Prescription medication abuse.
      • Heroin.
      • Cocaine.
      • Methamphetamine.
      • Oral signs of methamphetamine use.
      • Physician consultation and laboratory testing
      • Confronting the substance abuse issue with the patient
      • Assisting the patient in managing the addiction
      • Practice management issues
      • The dental office as a source for drug procurement
      • Theft/burglary
      • Nitrous oxide abuse/theft
      • Embezzlement
      • Substance abuse by a member of the office team or other dental healthcare professional
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • References
      • 14 Patients who are anxious or fearful
      • Nature and scope of problem
      • Effect on society
      • Effect on dental team
      • Effect on patient
      • Characteristics of dental anxiety, fear, and phobia
      • Anxiety and pain perception
      • Anxiety and pain memory
      • Gender differences in pain response
      • Etiology
      • Recognition and diagnosis of dental anxiety
      • Standardized indices
      • Patient examination, referral, and treatment plan presentation
      • Interviewing the fearful patient
      • Referral
      • Treatment plan presentation
      • Delivery of care to the fearful patient
      • Distraction
      • Relaxation
      • Hypnosis and guided imagery
      • Altering the treatment approach and sequence
      • Pharmacologic intervention
      • Levels of sedation
      • Routes of administration
      • Pediatric anxiolysis/sedation
      • Benzodiazepines
      • Nitrous oxide
      • Intravenous sedation
      • General anesthesia
      • Integrating anxiolytic therapy into delivery of dental care
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • References
      • 15 Patients with a psychological disorder
      • Patient evaluation
      • Obtaining patient history
      • Patient with diagnosed psychological disorder
      • Patient with undiagnosed psychological disorder
      • Patient with poorly controlled psychological disorder
      • General treatment planning considerations for the patient with a psychological disorder
      • Major types of psychological disorders
      • Anxiety disorders
      • Generalized anxiety disorder
      • Panic disorder
      • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
      • Specific phobias
      • Medications used to treat anxiety
      • Treatment planning for patients with anxiety disorders
      • Depressive disorders
      • Major depressive disorder
      • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)
      • Antidepressant medications
      • Tricyclic antidepressants
      • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
      • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
      • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
      • Treatment planning for the patient with depressive disorder
      • Bipolar I and bipolar II disorders
      • Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders
      • Schizophrenia
      • Antipsychotic medications
      • Treatment planning for the patient with a psychotic disorder
      • Other pathologic behaviors
      • Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
      • Treatment planning for patients with obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
      • Posttraumatic stress disorder
      • Treatment planning for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder
      • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
      • Treatment planning for the patient with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
      • Somatic symptom and related disorders
      • Somatic symptom disorder
      • Factitious disorder
      • Denial
      • Collusion
      • Delusions
      • Secondary gain
      • Medication effects that affect dental treatment
      • Interactions of psychotherapeutic drugs with medications used in dentistry
      • Confusion
      • Orthostatic hypotension
      • Intraoral effects of psychotherapeutic agents
      • Effect of psychological disorders on the oral cavity
      • Xerostomia
      • Dental caries
      • Periodontal disease
      • Facial and masticatory muscle pain and bruxism
      • Conclusion
      • References
      • 16 Adolescent patients
      • The adolescent in the world
      • Stages of adolescence
      • Adolescent population
      • Lifestyle issues that may affect adolescent health
      • Diet and nutrition
      • At-risk behaviors
      • Patient assessment
      • Confidentiality issues
      • Patient history
      • Clinical examination
      • Oral disease in the adolescent
      • Dental erosion
      • Dental caries
      • Periodontal diseases
      • Puberty-associated gingivitis
      • Eruption gingivitis
      • Aggressive periodontitis
      • Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
      • Pericoronitis
      • Malocclusion
      • Tobacco-related problems
      • Alcohol and substance abuse
      • Anorexia nervosa and bulimia
      • Treatment planning for the adolescent patient
      • Informed consent
      • Restorative issues
      • Esthetics
      • Treating the adolescent patient
      • Follow-up and maintenance
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • Suggested projects
      • References
      • Suggested readings
      • 17 Geriatric patients
      • Oral health in the aging population
      • Changing needs and values
      • Evaluation of the older patient
      • Patient interview
      • Patient's health history
      • Medication history
      • Examination
      • Risk assessment
      • Identifying health problems that may affect dental treatment
      • Need for antibiotic premedication
      • Systemic phase dental treatment planning
      • Cardiac disease
      • Neurologic disorders
      • Alzheimer's disease
      • Parkinson's disease
      • Cerebrovascular accident
      • Late-life depression
      • Oral cancer and other malignant neoplasms
      • Disease control phase and prevention strategies
      • Management of xerostomia
      • Oral physiotherapy
      • Toothbrushes and interdental cleaning AIDS
      • Chemotherapeutic agents
      • Dietary modification
      • Definitive treatment planning for older adults
      • Treatment planning for active and independent elderly
      • General principles for devising plan of care
      • Presentation of treatment options
      • Delivery of care
      • Treatment planning for frail elderly
      • Options for delivering care
      • Interdisciplinary geriatric healthcare team
      • Documentation requirements
      • Treatment planning in alternative settings
      • Maintenance phase treatment planning
      • Conclusion
      • Review questions
      • References
      • Suggested readings and resources
      • 18 Patients who are motivationally compromised or financially limited
      • Oral health beliefs
      • Soft teeth
      • Pregnancy and breast-feeding
      • Family dentures
      • Fear of the dentist
      • Identifying underlying problems
      • Genetic and developmental factors
      • Metabolic, endocrine, and immune deficiency factors
      • Oral health literacy
      • Interrelationship of oral health and self-image
      • Behavioral and nutritional factors
      • Psychological gain
      • Evaluating potential for change
      • Making a treatment decision
      • Likelihood of successful treatment
      • Consequences of failure
      • Patient participation
      • Motivating the patient
      • Internal motivators
      • Immediate pain relief
      • Long-term pain relief
      • Prospect of a more-positive self-image
      • Improved appearance and elimination of halitosis
      • Improved function
      • Eliminating disease
      • Improved wellness
      • External motivators
      • Family pressure
      • Career advancement/positive employment outcomes
      • Impending changes in life companion
      • Implementation
      • Management options
      • Ideal treatment
      • No comprehensive treatment (provision of acute care only)
      • Limited (disease control phase) treatment
      • Extraordinary efforts to maintain dentition with questionable prognosis
      • Caring for the patient with limited financial means
      • Staged treatment
      • Payment plans
      • Outside resources
      • Other practice settings
      • Reducing or waiving fees
      • Government-sponsored programs/public assistance programs
      • Disparities in oral health and access to care
      • Oral health disparities and social determinants of health
      • Role of the profession
      • Role of government
      • Role of third-party payers
      • A look to the future
      • Review questions
      • Suggested project
      • Suggested readings/websites
      • References
      • Glossary
      • Index
      • A
      • B
      • C
      • D
      • E
      • F
      • G
      • H
      • I
      • J
      • K
      • L
      • M
      • N
      • O
      • P
      • Q
      • R
      • S
      • T
      • U
      • V
      • W
      • X

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