Pesticides in Crop Production

Physiological and Biochemical Action
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 10. Februar 2020
  • |
  • 312 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-43220-3 (ISBN)
 
A guide to the diversity of pesticides used in modern agricultural practices, and the relevant social and environmental issues

Pesticides in Crop Production offers an important resource that explores pesticide action in plants; pesticide metabolism in soil microbes, plants and animals; bioaccumulation of pesticides and sensitiveness of microbiome towards pesticides. The authors explore pesticide risk assessment, the development of pesticide resistance in pests, microbial remediation of pesticide intoxicated legumes and pesticide toxicity amelioration in plants by plant hormones.

The authors include information on eco-friendly pest management. They review the impact of pesticides on soil microorganism, crops and other plants along with the impact on other organisms like aquatic fauna and terrestrial animals including human beings. The book also contains an analysis of pesticide by GC-MS/MS (Gas Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry) a reliable method for the quantification and confirmation of multiclass pesticide residues. This important book:



Offers a comprehensive guide to the use of the diversity of pesticides and the pertinent social and environmental issues
Explores the impact of pesticides from morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical perspectives
Shows how pesticides affects soil microorganisms, crops and other plants along with the impact on other organisms like aquatic fauna and animals
Critically examines whether chemical pesticides are boon or bane and whether they can be replaced by environmental friendly pesticides

Written for students, researchers and professionals in agriculture, botany, entomology and biotechnology, Pesticides in Crop Production examines the effects of chemical pesticides and the feasibility of using bio-pesticides.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
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  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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978-1-119-43220-3 (9781119432203)

weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
PRABHAT KUMAR SRIVASTAVA is an Assistant Professor of Botany in K. S. Saket Post Graduate College, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India, an affiliated college of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India.

VIJAY PRATAP SINGH is an Assistant Professor of Botany in C. M. P. Degree College, a constituent college of University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ANITA SINGH is an Assistant Professor of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

DURGESH KUMAR TRIPATHI is an Assistant Professor in Amity Institute of Organic Agriculture, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

SAMIKSHA SINGH is a D. Phil. scholar in the Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India.

SHEO MOHAN PRASAD is a Professor in the Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India.

DEVENDRA KUMAR CHAUHAN is Professor and Head, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India.
List of Contributors xiii

Preface xix

1 Development of Pesticide Resistance in Pests: A Key Challenge to the Crop Protection and Environmental Safety 1
Subramani Pandian and Manikandan Ramesh

1.1 Resistance: The Introduction 1

1.2 Pesticide Resistance: A Global Analysis 2

1.3 Molecular Genetics and Biochemical Basis of Pesticide Resistance 2

1.4 Changes in Pesticide Binding Sites 2

1.5 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors 3

1.6 GABA Receptors and Other Ligand-gated Chloride Channels 4

1.7 Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels 4

1.8 Insecticidal Microbial Toxins 5

1.9 Biotransformation 6

1.10 Acetylcholinesterase 6

1.11 Esterases 7

1.12 Carboxylesterases (B-Esterases) 7

1.13 Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases 8

1.14 Glutathione S-Transferases 8

1.15 Other Resistance Mechanisms 9

References 9

2 Fungicide Toxicity to Legumes and Its Microbial Remediation: A Current Perspective 15
Mohammad Shahid, Mohammad Saghir Khan and Almas Zaidi

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Nutritional Importance of Legumes 16

2.3 Fungal Diseases of Legumes: A General Perspective 17

2.4 Types of Fungicides and Their Mode of Action 17

2.5 Fungicides Uptake, Metabolism and Their Persistence 20

2.6 Phytotoxicity of Fungicides to Legumes: A General Perspective 21

2.7 Impact of Fungicides on Plant Growth 21

2.8 Effect on Symbiosis and Yield 23

2.9 Effect on Chlorophyll Content and Photosynthetic Rates 24

2.10 Fungicide Toxicity to Legume Rhizobium Symbiosis 25

2.10.1 Effect on Nodulation 25

2.10.2 Effect of Fungicides on Nitrogenase and Leghaemoglobin 25

2.10.3 Effect on Dry Biomass 26

2.11 Microbial Remediation of Fungicide Toxicity 26

2.12 Concluding Remarks 28

References 28

3 Pesticide Metabolism in Plants, Insects, Soil Microbes and Fishes: An Overview 35
Anket Sharma, Vinod Kumar, Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Ravdeep Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Saroj Arora, Ashwani Kumar Thukral and Renu Bhardwaj

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Metabolism of Pesticides in Plants 36

3.3 Metabolism of Pesticides in Insects 39

3.4 Metabolism of Pesticides in Soil Microbes 41

3.5 Metabolism of Pesticides in Fishes 43

3.6 Conclusion 45

References 45

4 Bioaccumulation of Pesticides and Its Impact on Biological Systems 55
Shubhra Gupta and Kapil Gupta

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Dispersion of Pesticides into the Environment 56

4.3 Behavior of Pesticides in Soil 57

4.4 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnifications of Pesticide 58

4.4.1 Bioaccumulation of Pesticides in Plants 59

4.4.2 Bioaccumulation of Pesticides in Animals 60

4.4.3 Bioaccumulation of Pesticides in Human and Toxicity 61

4.5 Regulatory Activity 62

4.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 62

References 63

5 Impact of Pesticide Exposure and Associated Health Effects 69
Jyoti Upadhayay, Mahendra Rana, Vijay Juyal, Satpal Singh Bisht and Rohit Joshi

5.1 Introduction 69

5.2 History of Evolution of Pesticides 70

5.3 Pesticides Regulations 70

5.4 Impact on Environment 71

5.5 Impact on Human Health 72

5.5.1 Pesticide Exposure 72

5.5.1.1 Pesticide Exposure Routes in Humans 72

5.5.1.2 Acute Toxicity of Pesticides 72

5.5.1.3 Neurobehavioral Effects After Acute Toxicity 74

5.5.1.4 Chronic Toxicity of Pesticides 74

5.5.1.5 Disruption of Endocrine System 74

5.5.2 Carcinogenicity 76

5.5.2.1 Neurological and Neuro-developmental Effects 78

5.5.2.2 Parkinson's Disease (PD) 78

5.5.2.3 Immunologic Effects 78

5.5.2.4 Reproductive Effects 78

5.5.2.5 Estrogenic Effects of Pesticides on Human Estrogen-Sensitive Cells 79

5.5.2.6 Diethyl Stilbestrol (DES) Syndrome (Model for Estrogenic Chemicals Exposure in the Environment) 79

5.5.2.7 Developmental Effects 79

5.6 Other Health Problems 80

5.6.1 Eye Problems 80

5.6.2 Respiratory Problems 80

5.6.3 Determination of Pollution Potential of Pesticides 80

5.7 Conclusion 81

References 82

6 Microbiome as Sensitive Markers for Risk Assessment of Pesticides 89
Upma Singh, Varsha Ashok Walvekar and Shilpi Sharma

6.1 Introduction 89

6.2 The Rhizosphere 90

6.3 Effect of Chemical Pesticides on Soil Microbial Communities 91

6.4 Effect of Pesticides on Plant Growth Parameters as a Result of Impact on Microbiome 95

6.5 Impact of Safer Alternatives, Biological Pesticides 96

6.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 102

Acknowledgment 102

References 102

7 Arms Race between Insecticide and Insecticide Resistance and Evolution of Insect Management Strategies 109
Pritam Chattopadhyay and Goutam Banerjee

7.1 Introduction 109

7.2 Different Types of Insecticide 110

7.3 Different Types of Insecticide Resistance 116

7.3.1 Cross Insecticide Resistance 116

7.3.2 Multiple Insecticide Resistance 116

7.3.3 Stable Insecticide Resistance 116

7.3.4 Unstable Insecticide Resistance 116

7.4 Reasons for Insecticide Resistance 117

7.5 Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance 118

7.5.1 Alterations in Insecticide Detoxification Capacity 118

7.5.2 Alteration of Toxin-Receptor Interactions 118

7.5.3 Alterations in Detoxification Metabolism 119

7.5.4 Alterations in Insecticide Penetration 119

7.5.5 Other Potential Mechanisms of Resistance 119

7.5.5.1 Induced Resistance 119

7.5.5.2 Behavioral Resistance 119

7.6 Factors Influencing Insecticide Resistance 119

7.6.1 Biological and Ecological Factors 120

7.6.2 Genetic Factors 121

7.6.3 Operational Factors 122

7.7 Managing Pesticide Resistance 122

7.7.1 Insecticide Resistance Database 122

7.7.2 Chemical Use Strategies for Resistance Management 122

7.7.2.1 Management by Moderation 122

7.7.2.2 Management by Multiple Attacks 123

7.7.2.3 Management by Saturation 123

7.7.3 Reactive Resistance Management 123

7.7.4 Proactive Resistance Management 123

7.7.5 Resistance Management as a Component of IPM 123

7.8 Technical Strategies to Combat Insecticide Resistance 123

7.8.1 Searching and Characterizing New and Novel Insecticide 123

7.8.2 Amending Biocontrol 124

7.8.3 Exploring Novel Insect Pest Resistant Varieties 124

7.8.3.1 Plant Immunity and Insect Resistance 124

7.8.4 Combining Known Insecticides in Appropriate Proportion 124

7.8.5 Modifying Known Insecticidal Toxins 125

7.9 Future Perspective 125

Acknowledgments 125

Conflict of Interest 125

References 126

8 Agricultural Herbicides and Fungi in Soil Exposed to Herbicides 131
Barberis Carla, Magnoli Carina, Carranza Cecilia, Benito Nicolas and Aluffi Melisa

8.1 Introduction 131

8.2 General Aspects of Main Herbicides 132

8.2.1 Clodinafop Propargyl 132

8.2.2 Toxicity of CF 132

8.2.3 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid 133

8.2.3.1 Toxicity of 2,4-D 133

8.2.4 Glyphosate 133

8.2.4.1 Toxicity of GP 133

8.2.5 Atrazine 134

8.2.5.1 Toxicity of Atrazine 134

8.2.6 Metolachlor 135

8.2.6.1 Toxicity of Metolachlor 135

8.2.7 Diuron 136

8.2.7.1 Toxicity of Diuron 136

8.2.8 Imazapyr 137

8.2.8.1 Toxicity of Imazapyr 137

8.2.9 Pendimethalin 137

8.2.9.1 Toxicity of Pendimethalin 138

8.2.10 Paraquat 138

8.2.10.1 Toxicity of PQ 138

8.3 Biodegradation of Most-Used Herbicides by Fungi 138

8.3.1 2,4-D Degradation 139

8.3.2 Atrazine Degradation 140

8.3.3 Metolachlor Degradation 140

8.4 Effect of Herbicides on Fungi 141

8.4.1 Glyphosate 141

8.4.2 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid and Others Herbicides 142

8.5 Effect of Herbicides on Toxicogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins Production 144

8.6 Effect of Herbicides on Phytopathogen Fungi 145

8.7 Conclusions 146

References 146

9 Pesticides Usage, Uptake and Mode of Action in Plants with Special Emphasis on Photosynthetic Characteristics 159
Nivedita Chaudhary, Krishna Kumar Choudhary, S.B. Agarwal and Madhoolika Agrawal

9.1 Introduction 159

9.1.1 Usage and Requirement of Pesticides on Plants 160

9.1.1.1 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 161

9.1.1.2 Cultural Control 161

9.1.1.3 Mechanical Control 162

9.1.1.4 Biological Control 162

9.1.1.5 Genetic Control 162

9.1.1.6 Chemical Control 162

9.1.2 Generalized Mode of Action and Uptake of Pesticides in Plants 162

9.2 Effects of Pesticides on the Physiological Characteristics of the Plants 166

9.2.1 Chlorophyll Fluorescence Affected by the Pesticides 168

9.2.2 Pesticides Affect Chlorophyll Content in the Plants 171

9.2.3 Effect of Pesticides on Photosynthesis 171

9.2.4 Effects of Pesticides on Stomatal Conductance, Transpiration and Dark Respiration 173

9.3 Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Pesticides 173

9.3.1 Beneficial Effects 174

9.3.2 Detrimental Effects 174

9.4 Conclusions 175

Acknowledgments 175

References 175

10 Botanical Pesticides for Eco-Friendly Pest Management: Drawbacks and Limitations 181
Christos A. Damalas and Spyridon D. Koutroubas

10.1 Introduction 181

10.2 Overview of Botanical Pesticides 182

10.3 Drawbacks and Limitations 184

10.4 Quality of Raw Material 184

10.5 Product Standardization 185

10.6 Rapid Degradation 186

10.7 Short Shelf-Life 186

10.8 Raw Material Availability 187

10.9 Safety of Botanical Pesticides 187

10.10 Regulatory Approval 188

10.11 Future Perspectives 188

10.12 Conclusions 189

References 190

11 Pesticide Interactions with Foodstuffs: Case Study of Apple 195
Geraldine Giacinti, Christine Raynaud and Valerie Simon

11.1 Introduction 195

11.2 Apple Biology 196

11.2.1 General Botanical Presentation 196

11.2.2 Plant Structural Biochemistry 196

11.2.3 Chemical Composition of the Tissues of the Fruit of Malus domestica Borkh 197

11.3 Pesticide Inputs 198

11.3.1 Chemical Composition of Pesticides 199

11.3.1.1 Active Molecules 199

11.3.1.2 Surfactants 199

11.3.1.3 Other Additives 199

11.3.2 Identification of Pesticides Currently Used in French Apple Orchards 200

11.4 Pesticide-Fruit Interactions 200

11.4.1 Epidermis Structure and Function in Apple 201

11.4.2 Two Diffusion Pathways in the Cuticle 202

11.4.3 Study of the Interactions Between Pesticides and Cuticle 204

11.4.3.1 Membrane Transport Mechanism for the Active Molecules of Pesticides 205

11.4.3.2 Cuticular Membrane Permeability 205

11.4.3.3 Identification of the Chemical Compounds of the Cuticle Interacting with Pesticides 206

11.4.4 Identification of Factors Likely to Influence Pesticide-Cuticule Interactions 209

11.4.4.1 Pesticide Formulations 209

11.4.4.2 Environmental Conditions 211

11.4.4.3 Pesticide Molecule Degradation in Plants: New Interactions 212

11.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 213

References 214

12 Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis in Cabbage and Cauliflower Using Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) 221
Mahadev C. Khetagoudar, Mahadev B. Chetti, A. V. Raghu and Dinesh C. Bilehal

12.1 Introduction 221

12.2 Experimental Details 222

12.2.1 Apparatus 222

12.2.2 Reagents 223

12.2.3 Preparation of Reference Standard Solutions 223

12.2.4 Preparation of Sample 224

12.2.5 GC- MS/MS Analysis 224

12.2.6 Validation Study 224

12.3 Results and Discussion 224

12.3.1 Optimization of GC Oven Programming 224

12.3.2 Optimization of MS/MS 226

12.3.3 QuEChERS Procedure for Extraction 226

12.3.4 Recovery Experiments of Spiked Samples 227

12.3.5 Method Performance 227

12.4 Applicability of the Developed Method 229

12.4.1 Sampling 229

12.5 Conclusion 230

Acknowledgments 230

References 230

13 Pesticide Toxicity Amelioration in Plants by Plant Hormones 233
Palak Bakshi, Shagun Bali, Parminder Kaur, Anjali Khajuria, Kanika Khanna, Bilal Ahmad Mir, Puja Ohri and Renu Bhardwaj

13.1 Introduction 233

13.2 Physico-Chemical Methods 237

13.2.1 Chemical Detoxification and Disposal Methods 237

13.2.2 Physical Detoxification and Disposal Methods 238

13.3 Enzymatic Methods 239

13.3.1 Oxidoreductases 240

13.3.2 Hydrolases 240

13.3.3 Lyases 241

13.4 Plant Growth Regulators 241

13.4.1 Auxins 241

13.4.2 Abscisic Acid 243

13.4.3 Brassinosteroids 244

13.4.4 Salicylic Acid 246

13.4.5 Jasmonic Acid 247

13.4.6 Polyphenols 248

13.5 Conclusion 249

References 249

14 Transgenic Strategies to Develop Resistant Plant Against the Pathogen and Pest 259
Neeraj Kumar Dubey, Kapil Gupta, Pawan Yadav, Jogeswar Panigrahi and Aditya Kumar Gupta

14.1 Introduction 259

14.2 Techniques Used for Transgenic Plant Development 260

14.3 Transgenic Plants Developed Against Pathogens and Pests 263

14.3.1 Virus 263

14.3.2 Bacteria 266

14.3.3 Fungi 266

14.3.4 Nematodes 270

14.3.5 Insects 272

14.3.6 Parasitic Weeds 276

14.4 Regulation of Insecticidal Gene Expression 278

14.5 Advantages 279

14.6 Disadvantages 279

14.7 Future Strategies 279

Acknowledgments 280

References 280

Index 291

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