Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 2. Juli 2015
  • |
  • 482 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-444-63557-0 (ISBN)
 

Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics, 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding data and indirect EM geothermometry, which, so far, have not all been covered by one book.

Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration and Indirect temperature estimation using EM sounding data additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments.


  • Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seismoelectrical and renewed magnetovariational approaches
  • Provides methodological guidelines for Electromagnetic data interpretation in various geological environments
  • Contains a balanced set of lectures covering all aspects of Electromagnetic sounding at global, regional and local levels along with case studies, highlighting the practical importance of electromagnetic data
  • Updates current findings in the field, in particular MT, magnetovariational and seismo-electrical methods and the practice of 3D interpretations


With over 30 years' geophysics experience, Spichak's main research interests include: Joint interpretation of electromagnetic and other geophysical data, Indirect estimation of the Earth's physical properties from the ground electromagneti data, and Computational electromagnetics.
Spichak has authored 8 books with Elsevier, including the previous edition of Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior (2006).
Spichak is the winner of the Gamburtsev award for the monograph 'Magnetotelluric fields in three-dimensional models of geoelectrics" (1999) and the Schmidt medal for outstanding achievements in Geophysics (2010).
0076-6895
  • Englisch
  • Niederlande
Elsevier Science
  • 37,46 MB
978-0-444-63557-0 (9780444635570)
0444635572 (0444635572)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 - Global 3-D EM Studies of the Solid Earth: Progress Status
  • 1.1 - Introduction
  • 1.2 - Governing equations
  • 1.3 - 3-D EM inversion of ground-based Dst data using C-response approach
  • 1.4 - 3-D EM inversion of ground-based Sq data: concept and results
  • 1.5 - 3-D EM inversion of satellite Dst data using matrix Q-response approach
  • 1.6 - Alternative concept to handle complex source structures
  • 1.7 - Alternative data source for global EM induction studies
  • 1.8 - Concluding remarks and outlook
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Magnetovariational Method in Deep Geoelectrics
  • 2.1 - Introduction
  • 2.2 - On integrated interpretation of MV and MT data
  • 2.3 - Model experiments
  • 2.4 - MV-MT study of the Cascadian subduction zone (EMSLAB experiment)
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 3 - Shallow Investigations by TEM-FAST Technique: Methodology and Examples
  • 3.1 - Introduction
  • 3.2 - Advantages of TEM in shallow depth studies
  • 3.3 - On the TEM-FAST technology
  • 3.4 - 1-D modeling and inversion
  • 3.4.1 - Modeling
  • 3.4.2 - Transformation
  • 3.4.3 - Inversion
  • 3.5 - 3-D modeling and inversion
  • 3.5.1 - Modeling
  • 3.5.2 - Inversion
  • 3.6 - Joint inversion of TEM and DC soundings
  • 3.7 - Side effects in TEM sounding
  • 3.7.1 - Superparamagnetic Effect in TEM
  • 3.7.2 - Effect of Induced Polarization
  • 3.7.3 - Antenna Polarization Effect
  • 3.8 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - Self-Consistent Problems of Geoelectrics
  • 4.1 - Introduction
  • 4.2 - Induced polarization in subsurface structure
  • 4.2.1 - Electric Field in a Nonpolarized Medium
  • 4.2.2 - Electric Field in a Polarized Medium
  • 4.2.3 - The Field Generated by External Current
  • 4.2.4 - Equations Connecting Different Fields
  • 4.3 - Self-consistent seismoelectric field
  • 4.3.1 - Seismoelectric (SE) Effect of the First Kind
  • 4.3.2 - Seismoelectric Effect of the Second Kind
  • 4.3.3 - Physical Interpretation of Seismoelectric Phenomena
  • 4.3.4 - Seismoelectric Field Simulation
  • 4.3.5 - Laboratory Studies of Seismoelectric Phenomena on Rock Specimens
  • 4.3.6 - Experimental Ground and Borehole Seismoelectric Surveys
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - 3-D EM Forward Modeling Using Balance Technique
  • 5.1 - Modern approaches to the forward problem solution
  • 5.1.1 - Methods of Integral Equations
  • 5.1.1.1 - The Method of Volume Integral Equations (VIE)
  • 5.1.1.2 - The Method of Surface Integral Equations (SIE)
  • 5.1.2 - Methods of Differential Equations
  • 5.1.2.1 - The Finite Difference Technique
  • 5.1.2.2 - The Finite Element Technique
  • 5.1.3 - Mixed Approaches
  • 5.1.4 - Analog (Physical) Modeling Approaches
  • 5.2 - Balance method of EM fields computation in models with arbitrary conductivity distribution
  • 5.2.1 - Statement of the Problem
  • 5.2.2 - Calculation of the Electric Field
  • 5.2.2.1 - Equations and Boundary Conditions
  • 5.2.2.2 - Discretization Scheme
  • 5.2.3 - Calculation of the Magnetic Field
  • 5.2.4 - Controlling the Accuracy of the Results
  • 5.2.4.1 - Criteria for Accuracy
  • 5.2.4.2 - Comparison with High-Frequency Asymptotic Solution
  • 5.2.4.3 - Comparison with Results Obtained by Other Techniques
  • 5.3 - Method of the EM field computation in axially symmetric media
  • 5.3.1 - Problem Statement
  • 5.3.2 - Basic Equations
  • 5.3.3 - Boundary Conditions
  • 5.3.4 - Discrete Equations and Their Numerical Solution
  • 5.3.4.1 - Discrete Equations
  • 5.3.4.2 - Basis Functions
  • 5.3.4.3 - Numerical Solution of Discrete Equations
  • 5.3.5 - Code Testing
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - 3-D EM Forward Modeling Using Integral Equations
  • 6.1 - Introduction
  • 6.2 - Volume integral equation method
  • 6.2.1 - Traditional IE Method
  • 6.2.1.1 - Comparison with Other Methods
  • 6.2.1.2 - Straightforward Solution
  • 6.2.1.3 - Neumann Series or Simple Iteration
  • 6.2.2 - Modified Iterative Dissipative Method
  • Krylov Subspace Iteration
  • 6.3 - Model examples
  • 6.3.1 - Induction Logging Problem
  • 6.3.2 - Airborne EM Example
  • 6.4 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Inverse Problems in Modern Magnetotellurics
  • 7.1 - Introduction
  • 7.2 - Three features of multidimensional inverse problem
  • 7.2.1 - Normal Background
  • 7.2.2 - On Detailness of Multidimensional Inversion
  • 7.2.3 - On Redundancy of Observation Data
  • 7.3 - Three questions of Hadamard
  • 7.3.1 - On the Existence of a Solution to the Inverse Problem
  • 7.3.2 - On the Uniqueness of the Solution to the Inverse Problem
  • 7.3.2.1 - 1-D MT Inversion
  • 7.3.2.2 - 2-D MT Inversion
  • 7.3.2.3 - 2-D MV Inversion
  • 7.3.3 - On the Instability of the Inverse Problem
  • 7.4 - MT and MV inversions in the light of Tikhonov's theory of ill posed problems
  • 7.4.1 - Conditionally Well Posed Formulation of Inverse Problem
  • 7.4.2 - Optimization Method
  • 7.4.3 - Regularization Method
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Methods of Joint Robust Inversion in Magnetotelluric and Magnetovariational Studies with Application to Synthet...
  • 8.1 - Adaptive parameterization of a geoelectric model
  • 8.1.1 - A Background Structure and Windows to Scan Anomalies
  • 8.1.2 - A Priori Model Structure and Constrains
  • 8.1.3 - Window with Correlated Resistivities of Inversion Cells
  • 8.1.4 - Window with Finite Functions
  • 8.2 - Inverted and modeling data
  • 8.3 - Inversion as a minimization problem
  • 8.3.1 - Minimizing Functional
  • 8.3.2 - Robust Misfit Metric
  • 8.3.3 - Cycles of Tikhonov's Minimization
  • 8.3.4 - Newtonian Minimization Techniques
  • 8.3.5 - Solution of Linear Newtonian System and Choice of Scalar Newtonian Step
  • 8.3.6 - Multilevel Adaptive Stabilization
  • 8.3.7 - Postinversion Analysis
  • 8.4 - Study of inversion algorithms using synthetic datasets
  • 8.4.1 - Comparison of Three Model Parameterization Schemes in 2-D Inversion
  • 8.4.2 - 2-D Inversion with Numerous Finite Functions
  • 8.4.3 - 3-D Inversion Example
  • 8.4.4 - Resolution of a System of Local Conductors Using the CR-Parameterization
  • 8.4.5 - Reduction of Strong Data Noise and Static Shifts
  • 8.4.6 - Inversion of the EMTESZ Imitation MT/MV Dataset
  • 8.5 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Neural Network Reconstruction of Macroparameters of 3-D Geoelectric Structures
  • 9.1 - Introduction
  • 9.2 - Backpropagation technique
  • 9.3 - Creation of teaching and testing data pools
  • 9.4 - Effect of the ANN architecture on the quality of the parameters' recognition
  • 9.4.1 - Types of the Activation Function at Hidden and Output Layers
  • 9.4.2 - Number of the Neurons in a Hidden Layer
  • 9.4.3 - Effect of an Extra Hidden Layer
  • 9.4.4 - Threshold Level
  • 9.5 - Effect of the input data type
  • 9.6 - Effect of the volume and structure of the training data pool
  • 9.6.1 - Effect of Size
  • 9.6.2 - Effect of Structure
  • 9.6.2.1 - Random Selection of Synthetic Data Samples
  • 9.6.2.2 - Gaps in the Training Database
  • 9.6.2.3 - "No Target" Case
  • 9.7 - Extrapolation ability of ANN
  • 9.8 - Noise treatment
  • 9.9 - Case history: ANN reconstruction of the Minou fault parameters
  • 9.9.1 - Geological and Geophysical Setting
  • 9.9.2 - CSAMT Data Acquisition and Processing
  • 9.9.3 - 3-D Imaging Minou Fault Zone Using 1-D and 2-D Inversion
  • 9.9.3.1 - Synthesis of Bostick Transforms
  • 9.9.3.2 - 2-D Inversion Results
  • 9.9.4 - ANN Reconstruction of the Minou Geoelectric Structure
  • 9.9.4.1 - ANN Recognition in Terms of Macroparameters
  • 9.9.4.2 - Testing ANN Inversion Result
  • 9.9.5 - Discussion and Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Arrays of Simultaneous Electromagnetic Soundings: Design, Data Processing, Analysis, and Inversion
  • 10.1 - Simultaneous systems for natural EM fields observation
  • 10.1.1 - Simultaneous EM Sounding Arrays
  • 10.1.2 - Synchronized Clusters of Simultaneous MT and MV Soundings
  • 10.2 - Multisite schemes for estimation of transfer operators
  • 10.2.1 - Conventional Single Site and Remote Reference Techniques
  • 10.2.2 - MultiRR Generalization
  • 10.2.3 - Advanced RRMC Data Processing Technique
  • 10.2.4 - Comparison of Data Processing Techniques in the EMTESZ Project
  • 10.3 - Temporal stability of transfer operators
  • 10.4 - Methods for the analysis of simultaneous EM data
  • 10.4.1 - Transfer Function Invariant Analysis
  • 10.4.2 - Invariants of MV Transfer Functions in the EMTESZ and KIROVOGRAD Experiments
  • 10.5 - Methods for the interpretation of simultaneous EM data
  • 10.5.1 - Initial Approaches
  • 10.5.2 - Joint Inversion of MT/MV Data Ensembles
  • 10.5.3 - 2-D+ Inversion of MT/MV Dataset at the ZHIZDRA Profile in the KIROVOGRAD Array
  • 10.5.4 - Quasi-3-D Inversion of MV Data
  • 10.6 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - Magnetotelluric Field Transformations and Their Application in Interpretation
  • 11.1 - Introduction
  • 11.2 - Linear relations between MT field components
  • 11.3 - Point transforms of MT data
  • 11.3.1 - Impedance Transforms
  • 11.3.2 - Apparent Resistivity Type Transforms
  • 11.3.3 - Induction and Perturbation Vectors
  • 11.4 - Examples of the use of MT field point transforms for the interpretation
  • 11.4.1 - Dimensionality Indicators
  • 11.4.2 - Local and Regional Anomalies
  • 11.4.3 - Constructing Resistivity Images in the Absence of Prior Information
  • 11.5 - Integral transforms
  • 11.5.1 - Division of the MT Field into Parts
  • 11.5.2 - Transformation of the Field Components into Each Other
  • 11.5.3 - Synthesis of Synchronous MT Field From Impedances and Induction Vectors
  • 11.5.3.1 - Magnetic Field Synthesis From Known Impedance
  • 11.5.3.2 - Magnetic Field Synthesis From Known Tipper
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Modeling of Magnetotelluric Fields in 3-D Media
  • 12.1 - A feasibility study of MT method application in hydrocarbon exploration
  • 12.1.1 - Statement of the Problem
  • 12.1.2 - Numerical Modeling
  • 12.2 - Testing hypotheses of the geoelectric structure of the Transcaucasian region from magnetotelluric data
  • 12.2.1 - Geological and Geophysical Characteristics of the Region
  • 12.2.2 - Alternative Conductivity Models
  • 12.2.3 - Numerical Modeling of Magnetotelluric Fields
  • 12.2.4 - Conclusions
  • 12.3 - MT imaging internal structure of volcanoes
  • 12.3.1 - Simplified Model of the Volcano
  • 12.3.2 - Synthetic MT Pseudosections
  • 12.3.3 - Methodology of Interpretation of the MT Data Measured Over the Relief Surface
  • 12.3.4 - Effects of Initial Guess on the Depth and Electric Conductivity of the Magma Chamber
  • 12.4 - Simulation of MT monitoring of the magma chamber conductivity
  • 12.4.1 - Geoelectric Model of a Central Type Volcano
  • 12.4.2 - Detection of the Magma Chamber by MT Data
  • 12.4.3 - Estimation of MT Data Resolving Power with Respect to the Conductivity Variations in the Magma Chamber
  • 12.4.4 - "Guidelines" for MT Monitoring Electric Conductivity in a Magma Chamber
  • 12.5 - Assessment of the coastal aquifer salinization
  • 12.5.1 - Statement of the Problem
  • 12.5.2 - Modeling of the Salt Water Intrusion Zone Mapping by Audio MT Data
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 13 - Magnetotelluric Studies in Russia: Regional-Scale Surveys and Hydrocarbon Exploration
  • 13.1 - Introduction
  • 13.2 - MT survey technology in brief: data acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation
  • 13.3 - Regional-scale MT studies
  • 13.4 - MT for hydrocarbon prospecting
  • 13.4.1 - Eastern Siberia
  • 13.4.2 - Taimyr Peninsula
  • 13.4.3 - Pre-Caspian Depression
  • 13.4.3.1 - Akhtubinsk-Astrakhan 1 - EV profile
  • 13.4.3.2 - Altatino-Nikolskaya Area
  • 13.4.3.3 - Detailed Imaging of an Isolated Salt Dome
  • 13.5 - Prospects for future
  • 13.6 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Pulse and Frequency Soundings of Shelf Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
  • 14.1 - Introduction
  • 14.2 - Model and sounding configurations
  • 14.3 - Modeling results
  • 14.4 - Gradient configurations
  • 14.5 - Limiting possibilities of soundings
  • 14.6 - Sounding of inhomogeneous media
  • 14.7 - EM sounding in the frequency-dispersive media
  • 14.8 - Interpretation of soundings
  • 14.9 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Index
Chapter 2

Magnetovariational Method in Deep Geoelectrics


Mark N. Berdichevsky1 Vladimir I. Dmitriev Nina S. Golubtsova Natalia A. Mershchikova Pavel Yu. Pushkarev    Faculty of Geology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

Abstract


Deep resistivity structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle can be studied by two natural-source methods: magnetotelluric (MT) sounding, which uses electric and magnetic field variations, and magnetovariational (MV) sounding, which uses magnetic field variations only. Integrated MT and MV data interpretation is a multicriterion problem. MT and MV data have different sensitivity to resistivity structures, as well as different robustness to their 2-D approximation. We consider two approaches to MT and MV data integrated interpretation: parallel inversion and successive inversions of data components. In the first case, the selection of weights of data components is critical. We suggest successive inversions approach and test it on model data, calculated for the schematic 2-D resistivity model of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan, and experimental data, collected along the profile in the Cascadia subduction zone.

Keywords


magnetovariational sounding integrated data interpretation Tien Shan Cascadia subduction zone

Chapter Outline

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 On Integrated Interpretation of MV and MT Data 26

2.3 Model Experiments 29

2.4 MV-MT Study of the Cascadian Subduction Zone (EMSLAB Experiment) 34

Acknowledgments 45

References 45

2.1. Introduction


Deep geoelectric studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle include two methods: (1) the magnetotelluric (MT) method using the electric and magnetic fields and (2) the magnetovariational (MV) method using only the magnetic field. Following a common practice, a leading part belongs to the MT method with impedance tensor ^ and apparent resistivity ?a (vertical stratification of the medium, geoelectric zoning, mapping of underground topography, detection of conductive zones in the Earth crust and upper mantle, recognition of deep faults), whereas the MV method with tipper vector W and horizontal magnetic tensor ^ helps in tracing of horizontal conductivity contrasts, localization of geoelectric structures, determination of their strike. Such a partition of MT and MV methods is reflected even in the MT nomenclature: if the MT studies are referred to as MT soundings, the MV studies are considered as MV profiling (Rokityansky, 1982). The MT-MV geoelectric complex is widely and rather successfully used throughout the world. It provides unique information on the Earth's interior (porosity, permeability, graphitization, sulfidizing, dehydration, melting, fluid regime, ground-water mineralization, rheological characteristics, thermodynamic, and geodynamic processes). The weak point of deep geoelectrics with MT priority is that inhomogeneities in the uppermost layers may severely distort the electric field and consequently the impedance tensor along with the apparent resistivity. The distortions are of galvanic nature - they extend over the whole range of low frequencies causing static ("conformal") shifts of the low-frequency branches of apparent resistivity curves. The near-surface inhomogeneities affect the apparent resistivities, no matter how low the frequency is. They spoil the information on the deep conductivity. There is a plethora of techniques for correcting these distortions. But all these techniques are fraught with information losses or even with subjective (sometimes erroneous) decisions resulting in false structures. We can considerably improve the MT-MV complex by realizing to the full extent the potentialities of the MV method. The generally recognized advantage of MV method is that with lowering frequencies the induced currents penetrate deeper and deeper into the Earth, so that their magnetic field and consequently the tipper and magnetic tensor are less and less distorted by subsurface inhomogeneities and convey more and more information about buried inhomogeneities. This remarkable property of the magnetic field gives us the chance to protect the deep geoelectric studies from the static-shift problem (no electric field is measured). But excluding the electric field, we face the problem of informativeness of the MV method. It is commonly supposed that "MV studies determine only horizontal conductivity gradients, while the vertical conductivity distribution is not resolved" (Simpson and Bahr, 2005). Is it true? The fallacy of this statement is clearly seen from Figure 2.1, which shows a two-dimensional (2-D) model with an inclusion of higher conductivity in the upper layer resting on the resistive strata and conductive basement. The half width of the inclusion is 8 km. A depth to the conductive basement ranges from 25 km to 150 km. Let us compare the longitudinal apparent resistivity curves ?xy measured outside the inclusion (site O1, ? = -9 km), with the real-tipper curves Wzy=ReHza/Hy, measured at the same site O1, and with the magnetic-tensor curves yy-1=ReHya/Hyn, measured inside the inclusion (site O2, ? = 0). In the model under consideration, the bell-shaped MV curves Wzy and yy-1=ReHya/Hyn, derived from the ratio between the vertical component of the anomalous magnetic field to the horizontal component of the magnetic field and from the ratio between the horizontal component of the anomalous magnetic field to the horizontal component of the normal magnetic field, resolve the vertical conductivity distribution no worse than the customary MT curves ?xy. Generalizing these indications, we can say that the MV method reveals not only horizontal variations in the Earth's conductivity but the vertical variations as well. Moreover, we can appeal to the uniqueness theorem proved by Dmitriev for 2-D tipper and 2-D horizontal magnetic tensor and state that the 2-D piecewise analytical distribution of conductivity is uniquely defined by exact values of the tipper or the horizontal magnetic tensor given over all points of infinitely long transverse profile in the entire range of frequencies from 0 to 8 (Berdichevsky et al., 2003; Dmitriev and Berdichevsky, Chapter 7, this volume). The physical meaning of this unexpected result is rather simple. Naturally, the MV studies of horizontally homogeneous media with zero MV anomalies make no sense. But in the case of the horizontally inhomogeneous medium, the MV studies can be considered as ordinary frequency soundings using the magnetic field of excess currents distributed within a local horizontal inhomogeneity, which plays a role of the buried source. Figure 2.1 Illustrating the resolution of MT and MV soundings. Model parameters: ´1=100?Om, ?1=10?Om, w = 8 km, h1 = 1 km, ?2 = 10,000 Om, h2 = 24, 49, 99, 149 km, ?3 = 1 Om. Curve parameter: h = h1 + h2. So, we have every reason to revise the traditional MT-MV complex and consider a new MV-MT complex, within which the MV method, as being tolerant to subsurface distortions, plays a leading part and gives a sound geoelectric basis for MT-detailed specification. This approach goes back to the MT experiments that were performed in 1988-1990 in the Kirghiz Tien Shan mountains by geophysical teams of the Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (Trapeznikov et al., 1997; Berdichevsky and Dmitriev, 2002). These measurements were carried out at a profile characterized by strong local and regional distortions of apparent resistivities that dramatically complicated the interpretation of resulting data. The situation has normalized only with MV soundings. Figure 2.2 shows the real tippers, ReWzy, and the geoelectric model fitting these observation data. The model contains an inhomogeneous crustal conductive layer (a depth interval of 25-55 km) and vertical conductive zones confined to the known faults, the Nikolaev line (NL) and the Atbashi-Inylchik fault (AIF). The figure also presents the model reconstructed from seismic tomography data. The geoelectric model agrees remarkably well with the seismic model: low resistivities correlate with lower velocities. This correlation confirms the validity of geoelectric reconstructions based on MV data. We see that MV soundings not only outline crustal conductive zones but also stratify the lithosphere. Figure 2.2 Magnetovariational sounding in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan Mountains. (a) Plots of the real tipper along a profile crossing the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. (b) The resistivity section...

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Dateiformat: PDF
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

170,17 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
Hinweis: Die Auswahl des von Ihnen gewünschten Dateiformats und des Kopierschutzes erfolgt erst im System des E-Book Anbieters
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung des WebShops erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok