Ecotoxicology Essentials

Environmental Contaminants and Their Biological Effects on Animals and Plants
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 18. April 2016
  • |
  • 500 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-801961-0 (ISBN)
 

Ecotoxicology Essentials: Environmental Contaminants and Their Biological Effects on Animals and Plants provides a fundamental understanding of this area for students and professionals in ecotoxicology, ecology, conservation, chemistry, public health, wildlife management, fisheries, and many other disciplines. Although new chemicals and potential problems are developed every year, a basic education is essential to address these new challenges, and this work gives such training. Written with the regulatory framework in mind, the material guides readers on modelling, how to conduct assessments, and human and wildlife risk, focusing on effects on animals rather than transport of chemicals. Simple discussions of chemistry are complemented by coverage on the behavior of the animal, dynamics of the ecosystem, real-life situations like drought, and predators in the system - i.e., the natural system versus the lab setting.

The book's first section contains chapters on the principles of contaminant toxicology including a brief history of the science of ecotoxicology, basic principles of the science, testing methods, and ways of determining if animals have been exposed to either acute or chronic concentrations of contaminants. The second section deals with the primary classes of contaminants including their chemical characteristics, sources, uses, and effects on organisms. The third section focuses on more complex issues such as the regulation of pollution, population and community effects, risk assessment and modelling.


  • Uses examples from both aquatic and terrestrial environments and species

  • Includes a Terms to Know section and a list of study questions in each chapter, fostering a greater understanding of the issues

  • Focuses on the effects of contaminants on wildlife while providing enough chemistry to allow a detailed understanding of the various contaminant groups

  • Emphasizes natural examples and 'real' species, rather than laboratory studies on only a handful of organisms

  • Features case histories, detailing actual events that include aspects of how the contamination occurred and its effects on wildlife

  • Provides material from a wide variety of international sources


Donald W. Sparling is an Associate Professor at Southern Illinois University. Having written more than 37 publications, his research interests in wildlife ecology include contaminant ecology, specifically the effects of contaminants on amphibians, reptiles, and birds; and wetland ecology, including storm water wetlands and the development of an index of biological integrity for assessing wetland conditions.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 17,34 MB
978-0-12-801961-0 (9780128019610)
0128019611 (0128019611)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Ecotoxicology Essentials
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • I. Basic Principles and Tools of Ecotoxicology
  • 1 An Introduction to Ecotoxicology
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of Chemicals That Affect Their Presence in the Natural Environment
  • Solubility
  • Soil/Water Partition Coefficients
  • Vapor Pressure
  • Melting Point
  • Structure
  • Persistence
  • Environmental Factors That Affect Contaminants
  • Ultraviolet Radiation and Oxidizers
  • Biological Organisms
  • Particulate Matter
  • Measuring Environmental Contaminants
  • Basics of Assessing Toxicity
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 2 Basics of Toxicity Testing
  • Introduction and Terms of the Tradecraft
  • Toxicity Testing: Historical Perspectives and Its Role as One Tool in the Ecotoxicology Toolbox
  • Historical Perspectives
  • Opening the Ecotoxicology Toolbox: Common Elements of Toxicity Tests
  • Toxicity Data Analysis
  • Good Laboratory Practices
  • Focus-GLPs in Operation
  • Toxicity Testing Under Field and Laboratory Conditions
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 3 Bioindicators of Contaminant Exposure
  • Introduction
  • Bioindicators versus Biomarkers
  • Bioindicators and Diagnoses
  • Types of Bioindicators
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Cytochrome P450
  • Antioxidants Including Glutathione
  • Plasma Enzymes
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
  • Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
  • Creatinine Kinase (CK)
  • Aminolevulinate Dehydratase (ALAD)
  • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
  • Other Blood Panel Measurements
  • Examples of Blood Enzymes in Practice
  • Other Blood Components
  • Hematocrit
  • Hemoglobin
  • Protoporphyrin IX
  • Differential White Blood Cell Counts
  • Evidence of Endocrine Disruption
  • Vitellogenin
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis and Endocrine Disruption
  • Genetic and Chromosomal Damage
  • 32P-Postlabeling Technique
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Visual Inspection
  • Eggshell Thinning
  • Heinz Bodies
  • Chromosomal Breakage
  • Histology
  • Genomics and Proteomics
  • Reproductive and Developmental Bioindicators
  • Teratogenesis
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • II. Chemistry and Effect of Major Families of Contaminants
  • 4 Organochlorine Pesticides
  • Introduction
  • Sources and Use
  • General Chemical Characteristics
  • Structure
  • Persistence
  • Bioaccumulation, Bioconcentration, and Biomagnification
  • Examples of OCP Concentrations in Environmental Sources
  • Concentrations of OCPs in Animals
  • Maternal Transfer
  • OCP Concentrations Vary Among Tissues
  • Biological Effects of Organochlorine Pesticides
  • Considerations with Plants
  • An Interesting Relationship
  • Effects in Animals
  • Field Effects
  • Chronic Effects
  • Endocrine Disruption
  • Effects of Organochlorines on Humans
  • Focus-Eggshell Thinning
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 5 Current Use Pesticides
  • Introduction
  • What Is a Current Use Pesticide?
  • Pesticide Use Is Controversial
  • Regulation of Pesticides
  • Alternatives to Conventional Uses of Pesticides
  • Economics of Current Use Pesticides
  • A Brief History of Pesticide Use
  • Types of Pesticides
  • Anilides
  • Azoles
  • Carbamates
  • Mode of Action for Carbamates and Organophosphorus Pesticides
  • A Tragedy Due to Carbamate Production
  • Dinitronanilines
  • Inorganics and Metals
  • Neonicotinoids
  • Costs and Benefits of Neonicotinoid Use
  • Organochlorines
  • Organophosphates
  • Metabolism of OPs Can Increase Their Toxicity
  • Phosphonoglycine
  • Glyphosate and Amphibians
  • Pyrethroids
  • Triazines
  • Atrazine and Human Health Concerns
  • Atrazine and Feminization of Male Frogs
  • Other Inorganic and Biologic Pesticides
  • Inorganic Chemicals Used in Pest Control
  • Biologically Derived Pesticides
  • Biological Control Agents
  • Focus-Examples of Pesticide Use
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 6 Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Dioxins and Furans
  • Chemical Characteristics of PCBs, Dioxins, and Furans
  • Sources and Uses of PCBs, Dioxins, and Furans
  • Persistence
  • Breakdown of PCBs
  • Examples of PCB Concentrations in Environmental Sources
  • Concentrations of PCBs in Some Animal Tissues
  • Biological Effects of PCBs
  • Toxicity of Dioxins, Furans, and Dioxin-Like Compounds
  • General Mechanisms of Toxicity
  • More on the Cytochrome P450 System
  • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polybrominated Biphenyls
  • Focus-In Situ Testing with Tree Swallows
  • Problem-Determine Whether the Contaminants in Wetlands Bioaccumulate and If They Have Any Effect on Wildlife Using Them
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 7 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Introduction
  • Chemical Characterististics of PAHs
  • Sources and Uses of PAHs
  • Persistence
  • Remediation of PAH-Contaminated Soils and Sediments
  • Environmental Concentrations
  • Some Examples of Biological Concentrations
  • Biological Effects of PAHs
  • Effects on Plants
  • Effects in Animals
  • Focus-Oil Spills and Wildlife
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 8 Metals
  • Introduction
  • Sources of Metals in the Environment
  • Biological Effects of Metals
  • Characteristics of Selected Metals
  • Arsenic
  • General Characteristics
  • Environmental Concentrations and Uses of Arsenic
  • Biological Effects of Arsenic
  • Cadmium
  • General Characteristics
  • Environmental Concentrations and Uses of Cadmium
  • Biological Effects of Cadmium
  • Chromium
  • General Characteristics
  • Environmental Concentrations and Uses of Chromium
  • Biological Effects of Chromium
  • Copper
  • General Characteristics
  • Environmental Concentrations and Uses of Copper
  • Concentrations of Copper in Organisms
  • Biological Effects of Copper
  • Lead
  • General Characteristics
  • Uses of Lead
  • Environmental Concentrations of Lead
  • Concentrations of Lead in Organisms
  • Biological Effects of Lead
  • Mercury
  • General Characteristics
  • Environmental Concentrations of Mercury
  • Uses for Mercury
  • Concentrations of Mercury in Organisms
  • Effects of Mercury on Animals
  • A Major Human Catastrophe
  • Zinc
  • General Characteristics
  • Environmental Concentrations and Uses of Zinc
  • Biological Effects of Zinc
  • Focus-Avian Mortality Due to Lead Shot, Bullets, and Weights
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 9 Other Contaminants
  • Introduction
  • Plastics
  • Munitions
  • Acid Deposition
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Nanoparticles
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • III. Identifying and Evaluating Large Scale Contaminant Hazards
  • 10 Population Ecotoxicology: Exposure and Effects of Environmental Chemicals
  • Introduction: Working Beyond Individual Organisms
  • Spatiotemporal Scales in Ecology and Ecotoxicology
  • Population Ecotoxicology
  • Field Surveys
  • Integration of Toxicity Tests With Field Surveys
  • Population Models in the Ecotoxicologist's Toolbox
  • Additive Versus Compensatory Mortality and Ecotoxicology
  • Life Table Analysis
  • Stochasticity and Uncertainty
  • Segue
  • Focus-Almost, But Still Not There: The Story of Contaminants and Population Status of California Amphibians
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 11 Community-Level and Ecosystem-Level Effects of Environmental Chemicals
  • Introduction
  • Communities, Ecosystems, and Spatiotemporal Scales
  • Scientific Support for Community Effects From Contaminants
  • Biological Assessments
  • Communities and Ecosystems: Exposures and Effects
  • Exposure Within a Community and Ecosystem Context
  • Effects at Community and Ecosystem Levels
  • Community-Level Effects
  • Index of Biological Integrity
  • Effects at the Ecosystem Level
  • Communities and Ecosystems: Network Analysis and Modeling
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 12 Modeling in Ecotoxicology
  • Introduction
  • Different Models, Different Realizations
  • Conceptual Models
  • Physical Models
  • Mathematical Models
  • Statistical Models
  • Brief Explanations of Some Common Models in Ecotoxicology
  • Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models
  • Physiologically Based Toxicokinetics Modeling
  • Statistical Models
  • Mathematical Tools and Ecotoxicology
  • Modeling Dose-Response Relations
  • Beyond Mathematical and Statistical Models: Uncertainty and Its Role in Modeling
  • Focus-PCBs and Crab Orchard Lake
  • Background
  • Fishes, Recreational Fishery, and the Fish-Consumption Advisory
  • Biodegradation, Environmental Fate, and Bioavailability of PCBs
  • Developing Models of Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation for COL
  • Bioaccumulation in Sediment-Water Systems
  • Modeling Biomagnification
  • Compartment Models Focused on Accumulation of PCBs by Fish
  • Models Underlying Fish-Consumption Advisory Implementation
  • Summary: Models and Modeling
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 13 Chemical Stressors and Ecological Risk
  • Introduction
  • Terms of the Tradecraft
  • Historical Perspectives on Chemical Stressors and Ecological Risks
  • Generalized Process for Evaluating Environmental Risks
  • Steps in Risk Assessment Processes
  • Assigning Risk
  • Hazards and Risks
  • Exposure Models and Food-Chain Analysis for Birds and Mammals
  • Estimating Risks Using Simple Ratio Estimators
  • Cause-and-Effect Relationships, Multiple Stressors, Uncertainty, and Risks
  • Types of Multiple Risks
  • Competing Risks
  • Cumulative Adverse Effects and Cumulative Risks
  • Aggregate Risks
  • Residual Risks
  • Landscape and Regional Risk
  • Vulnerability Analysis
  • Uncertainty
  • Cause-and-Effect Analysis
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 14 Contaminant Considerations in Humans
  • Introduction
  • How Are Humans Exposed to Contaminants?
  • Contaminants in Food and Water
  • Exposure to Agricultural Chemicals
  • Urban Air Pollution
  • Maternal Transfer
  • Workplace Exposures
  • Some Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Humans
  • Dioxins, Furans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • Current-Use Pesticides
  • Emerging Contaminants
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Metals
  • Focus-Examples of Major Contaminant-Human Disasters
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 15 Regulation of Environmental Chemicals and Damage Assessment
  • Introduction
  • International Authorities
  • United Nations
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
  • European Union
  • National Regulation of Contaminants
  • State Department
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior
  • Department of Commerce
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Regulation at the State and Municipal Levels
  • Study Questions
  • References
  • 16 Wrap Up
  • Introduction
  • From Whence It Came
  • Where Are We Now?
  • Toxicology
  • Ecology
  • Chemistry
  • Regulation and Civil Law
  • What Remains to be Done?
  • Africa
  • Middle Eastern Countries
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • India
  • Europe
  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Arctic and Antarctica
  • Oceans
  • Needs and Suggestions for the Future of Risk Assessment and Regulation
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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