A handbook of sustainable energy, covering entire energy aspects from present status to future alternatives under one umbrella
This book takes an interdisciplinary system approach to evaluating energy systems so that readers can gain the necessary technical foundation to perform their own performance evaluations and understand their interactions with socioeconomic indicators. Topics include the current and future availability of primary sources, energy supply chain, conversion between different forms of energy, security of energy supply, and efficient end-use of energy sources. Each chapter provides readers with comprehensive background information, an outline of the current technologies, and potential future developments. The book also examines the global, economic, societal, ethical, and environmental issues associated with currently used energy technologies.
Energy for Sustainable Society: From Resources to Users starts with ageneral overview of energy systems, and describes the major elements of energy transformation and supply chain. It then discusses interdisciplinary career opportunities in the "energy engineering" field. The fundamental concepts of energy conversion, transmission, and load flow in electrical systems are covered, as are conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, and the basics of nuclear power generation and reactor types. Other chapters look at: the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and basic operation of steam turbines, gas turbines, and combined cycle heat engines used in fossil fuel and nuclear power plants; current technologies in hydroelectric power generation; renewable and alternative energy sources; energy security issues; and more.
* Contains up-to-date information on renewable energy technologies such as grid-tie, net-zero energy, battery backup, and utility-independent micro grids
* Presents the status of the share of renewable sources in the current and future energy supply mix
* Provides solved examples, case studies, self-assessment quizzes, and problems to enhance the understanding of readers
* Includes an exclusive chapter on energy security issues
* Supplemented with a companion web site featuring a solutions manual, sample problems, and additional reading material
Energy for Sustainable Society gives readers a solid foundation to study energy related subjects and is an ideal book for a first course on energy systems for upper division undergraduate and first year graduate students.
OGUZ A. SOYSAL, PHD, is a Professor in the Department of Physics and Engineering at Frostburg State University, Maryland, USA. Dr. Soysal taught at several universities in Turkey, participated in research projects at the Ohio State University, Columbus OH and University of Toronto in Canada as a visiting scholar, and worked as a visiting professor at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, PA. His area of teaching includes energy systems, power electronics, control systems, and electromechanical energy conversion. He co-authored a textbook on Fault Conditions in Electric Energy Systems and published more than 50 papers in major journals and international conference proceedings.
HILKAT S. SOYSAL, LL.B, M.S.c, practiced law for over 15 years before she started teaching engineering-related law courses at the college of engineering at Istanbul University in Turkey. She also taught engineering courses in the Department of Physics and Engineering at Frostburg State University, Frostburg, Maryland. Since 2000, she directed several renewable energy projects including WISE Education Program, Hydrogen Collection and Storage for Power Systems, and Sustainable Energy Research Facility (SERF).
Image available at https://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=55167/ (Accessed in August 2018).
Credit: Data courtesy Marc Imhoff of NASA GSFC and Christopher Elvidge of NOAA NGDC. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.
City lights show urbanized areas around the world. Although the density of lights is not necessarily proportional to the population density and degree of development, use of electricity reflects various aspects of social and economic activities. Energy intensity is higher in brighter areas of the earth such as Europe, Middle East, Southeast Asia, North America, parts of South America, and Oceania. Big metropolitan areas around the world are visible as bright light clusters. In the USA, the interstate highway network is detectable from the city lights. Dark spots in Africa, South America, Asia, and Oceania correspond to sparsely populated and less industrialized areas. Polar regions are entirely dark since they are not populated. According to the World Bank database (The World Bank Group [US] 2018), about 13% of the world population still does not have access to electricity. In darker areas of the earth, vital elements of modern society such as sanitary services, healthcare, education, transportation, water, and food supply are minimal.
An energy system is a collection of elements that work together to supply the energy needs of a society. Inputs of an energy system are natural primary sources that can be economically converted to fuels, secondary energy sources, and energy carriers. Outputs are various forms of energy supplied to end-users.
Sun is the essential external energy source for life on earth. While sunlight is the natural source of heat, most primary energy sources available on earth are consequences of solar radiation heating the earth surface and atmosphere. Flowing water, wind, and firewood resulting from solar heat have energized human activities since early civilizations. Vegetation and living organisms initially developed due to the solar energy have been transformed over millions of years to coal, petroleum, and natural gas. In addition, periodic variations in gravitational attraction of the moon and other celestial bodies cause tidal motions and ocean waves.
Figure 1.1 outlines the interactions between the energy system, nature, and society. An energy system transforms primary sources into fuels and electric power to deliver various forms of energy needed for manufacturing, construction, agriculture, transportation, and public services. Commercial transactions, communication, computation, and data processing are essential economic functions that depend on energy. Economy delivers industrial products, buildings, roads, public services, food, treated water, education, recreation, and entertainment to the society.
Energy systems use water for extraction and processing of coal, petroleum, and natural gas; irrigation of crops for biofuel production; and cooling of power plants. Air is necessary for combustion of fuels and cooling of engines, motors, and generators.
On the other hand, natural resources are critical for life, productivity, and economy of the society. Obviously, all creatures need fresh water, clean air, and food to survive. Food supply depends on adequate irrigation of farmlands and drinking water for livestock. Nature offers feedstock for industrial processes and production.
Modern society cannot sustain without abundant energy, water, and food. Such commodities strongly depend on each other. Agriculture and food production rely on both water and energy supply. Energy systems use significant amount of water for fuel production and cooling purposes. Part of this water is recycled to the source, but some part is evaporated. In addition, energy systems are major sources of air, water, and land pollution. If not eliminated properly, toxic compounds released from energy facilities may be deposited in plants, seafood, and other living organisms. Air and water pollution strongly affect human health and can even cause fatal diseases. In populated areas, noise and vibration produced by mining equipment, fuel transportation trucks, freight trains, and generation units create public reactions.
Society is the receiving end of the energy system. Institutions collecting energy data categorize end-users based on their energy consumption profiles. Industrial, commercial, transportation, and residential sectors are the major groups of energy users. Each one may be expanded to subcategories for more detailed statistical evaluations of energy use.
Government offices closely watch the interactions between the energy system and society using "social and economic indicators." Such indicators reflect the welfare, living standards, and productivity of the society. Since food supply, water, and air quality affect the health and well-being of the population, social and economic indicators include pollution and climate change information too. Legislators, government administrators, and decision makers issue laws, policies, regulations, codes, and guidelines to ensure proper management of the energy system for the benefits of the society.
Figure 1.1 Interactions of an energy system with nature and society.
Intergovernmental organizations are also part of the feedback process. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) established the International Energy Agency (IEA) to help countries in a broad range of energy issues including oil, gas, and coal supply and demand, renewable energy technologies, electricity markets, energy efficiency, and access to energy. International agreements establish global dialog on energy related issues. Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement are examples of international movements to reduce the greenhouse effect and global warming resulting from human activities, especially from operation of energy systems.
As Figure 1.1 illustrates, an energy system is the central element of a closed loop global scheme, which also includes natural resources and society. Stakeholders are diverse groups concerned about energy production and consumption. Legislators, government offices, and local administrators regulate the management and development of the energy system on behalf of stakeholders.
1.2 Elements of an Energy System
The goal of an energy system is to transform primary sources into various forms of fuels and energy carriers to supply energy needs of the society. Figure 1.2 outlines a wide-area energy system such as a country or large geographic region where diverse types of primary sources are available and are used to supply different sectors.
Sun and earth crust offer all primary energy sources for the world. Energy systems use a mixture of renewable and non-renewable natural resources. The major components of an energy system are fuel extraction and processing facilities, energy conversion plants, and distribution networks.
Crude oil, coal, and natural gas are not suitable for practical uses in their original forms as extracted from the earth. Refineries, coal processing plants, and natural gas treatment facilities prepare fuels for diverse applications. In the Figure 1.2, fuel production facilities are grouped in a dashed box.
Energy sources reach the end users either in the form of a fuel or an energy carrier, such as ground transportation, railroads, and ships, which carry fuels to users. Pipelines are convenient means to transport natural gas and liquid fuels to consumers. Electric transmission and distribution networks deliver electricity to the point of use.
Fuel storage is imperative for continuous energy supply to end users. Massive quantities of coal, oil, and gas can be stocked for later use without significant degradation or losses. Electric power plants and transportation sectors are especially in need of uninterruptible fuel supply for reliable operation. Fuels can be stored in silos, tanks, bunkers, or piles in designated fields. Fire safety and environmental protection agencies issue codes, standards, regulations, and guidelines to ensure proper management of fuel storage facilities.
Nuclear fuel production starts with uranium mining; uranium undergoes several steps such as milling, conversion, and enrichment during fabrication of fuel rods used in nuclear reactors. After the fuel has reached the end of its useful life, it is removed from the reactor and reprocessed to make new fuel. The series of industrial processes from uranium mining to disposal of the nuclear waste is called the "nuclear fuel cycle."
Electricity is the principal energy carrier for modern society because it is convenient for long distance transmission and wide area distribution. Electric energy is easy to control, and it can be converted to thermal, mechanical, and chemical energy. Moreover, most renewable energy sources and nuclear energy can reach end users only in the form of electric power.
Centralized electric generation plants are interconnected via high voltage (HV) transmission lines, where overhead HV lines transmit electric energy to populated areas. Utility companies deliver electric energy to consumers through medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) lines.
Transmission and distribution substations connect transmission lines coming from or going to various directions. In a substation, transformers...