Microfluidics

Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications
 
 
Wiley-VCH (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 4. Januar 2018
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-3-527-80062-9 (ISBN)
 

The first book offering a global overview of fundamental microfluidics and the wide range of possible applications, for example, in chemistry, biology, and biomedical science.

As such, it summarizes recent progress in microfluidics, including its origin and development, the theoretical fundamentals, and fabrication techniques for microfluidic devices. The book also comprehensively covers the fluid mechanics, physics and chemistry as well as applications in such different fields as detection and synthesis of inorganic and organic materials.

A useful reference for non-specialists and a basic guideline for research scientists and technicians already active in this field or intending to work in microfluidics.



Yujun Song is Professor in School of Mathematics and Physics at USTB in Beijing, China, focusing on synthesis, interface structure control and application of metal-based nanohybrids using microfluidic process and template-assisted growth process. Having obtained his Ph. D degrees in Materials Science and Engineering from Beijing University of Chemical Technology, he spent 5 years at Louisiana State University in microfluidics and bio-nanotechnology, 2 years working at Old Dominion University in surface plasmon resonance and biotechnology, 7 years working at Beihang University in microfluidic synthesis and template-assisted growth process. He also spent one year working at University of Toronto as a visiting professor working on fabrication of hybrid semiconductor nanowire thin films, before taking up his present appointment at USTB.
Daojian Cheng is Professor at Department of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China. He has been named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He obtained his Ph.D. Degree in Chemical Engineering from Beijing University of Chemical Technology in 2008. During 2008-2010, he worked as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Currently he has interests in theoretical study, computational design and experimental synthesis of metal clusters and nanoalloys as catalysts for renewable clean energy and environmental protection applications.
Liang Zhao is Assistant Professor at University of Science and Technology Beijing. Before that, he worked at Peking University as a postdoctoral associate (2010-2013). He received his Ph. D. in Nanjing University in 2009. In 2014-2015, he was a visiting researcher in UC Berkeley, in Prof. Luke Lee?s group. His research currently focuses on developing new microfluidic device which can be easily used to study cell patterning, tumor metastasis, tumor-stoma interactions, and organ on chip. He also works on single cell RNA-Seq in integrated microfluidic platform, which may bring some valuable merits such as high throughput and efficiency comparing with conventional way of molecular biology.
  • Englisch
  • Großbritannien
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978-3-527-80062-9 (9783527800629)
352780062x (352780062x)
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Yujun Song is Professor in School of Mathematics and Physics at USTB in Beijing, China, focusing on synthesis, interface structure control and application of metal-based nanohybrids using microfluidic process and template-assisted growth process. Having obtained his Ph. D degrees in Materials Science and Engineering from Beijing University of Chemical Technology, he spent 5 years at Louisiana State University in microfluidics and bio-nanotechnology, 2 years working at Old Dominion University in surface plasmon resonance and biotechnology, 7 years working at Beihang University in microfluidic synthesis and template-assisted growth process. He also spent one year working at University of Toronto as a visiting professor working on fabrication of hybrid semiconductor nanowire thin films, before taking up his present appointment at USTB.
Daojian Cheng is Professor at Department of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China. He has been named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He obtained his Ph.D. Degree in Chemical Engineering from Beijing University of Chemical Technology in 2008. During 2008-2010, he worked as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Currently he has interests in theoretical study, computational design and experimental synthesis of metal clusters and nanoalloys as catalysts for renewable clean energy and environmental protection applications.
Liang Zhao is Assistant Professor at University of Science and Technology Beijing. Before that, he worked at Peking University as a postdoctoral associate (2010-2013). He received his Ph. D. in Nanjing University in 2009. In 2014-2015, he was a visiting researcher in UC Berkeley, in Prof. Luke Lee's group. His research currently focuses on developing new microfluidic device which can be easily used to study cell patterning, tumor metastasis, tumor-stoma interactions, and organ on chip. He also works on single cell RNA-Seq in integrated microfluidic platform, which may bring some valuable merits such as high throughput and efficiency comparing with conventional way of molecular biology.
Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction: The Origin, Current Status, and Future of Microfluidics 1
Kin Fong Lei

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Development of Microfluidic Components 3

1.3 Development of Complex Microfluidic Systems 4

1.4 Development of Application-Oriented Microfluidic Systems 6

1.4.1 Applications of DNA Assays 6

1.4.2 Applications of Immunoassays 9

1.4.3 Applications of Cell-Based Assays 11

1.5 Perspective 14

References 14

2 Fundamental Concepts and Physics in Microfluidics 19
Yujun Song, Xiaoxiong Zhao, Qingkun Tian, and Hongxia Liang

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Basic Concepts of Liquids and Gases 21

2.2.1 Mean Free Path (;;) in Fluids among Molecular Collisions 21

2.2.2 Viscosity (;;) of Fluids 22

2.2.3 Mass Diffusivity (D) 29

2.2.4 Heat (Thermal) Capacity 34

2.3 Mass and Heat Transfer Principles for Fluid 41

2.3.1 Basic Fluidic Concepts and Law for Mass and Heat Transfer 42

2.3.1.1 Pascal's Law and Laplace's Law 42

2.3.1.2 Mass Conservation Principle (Continuity Equation) 44

2.3.1.3 Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation) 44

2.3.1.4 Poiseuille's Law 45

2.3.1.5 Velocity Profile of Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube 46

2.3.2 Important Dimensionless Numbers in Fluid Physics 47

2.3.3 Other Dimensionless Numbers in Fluids 50

2.3.4 Diffusion Laws 56

2.3.5 Conversion Equation Based on Navier-Stokes Equations 59

2.3.5.1 Conservation of Mass Equation 60

2.3.5.2 Conservation of Momentum Equation (Navier-Stokes Equation) 61

2.3.5.3 Conservation of Energy Equation 62

2.4 Surfaces and Interfaces in Microfluidics 62

2.4.1 Surface/Interface and Surface Tension 62

2.4.2 Surface-/Interface-Induced Bubble Formation 66

2.4.3 Effect of Surfactants on the Surface/Interface Energy forWetting 68

2.4.4 Features of Surface and Interface in Microfluidics 69

2.4.5 Capillary Effects in Microfluidic Devices 70

2.4.6 Droplet Formation in Microfluidics 71

2.5 Development of Driving Forces for Microfluidic Processes 74

2.5.1 Fundamental in Electrokinetic Methods for Microfluidics 76

2.5.2 Basic Principles of Magnetic Field-Coupled Microfluidic Process 81

2.5.3 Basic Principles in Optofluidic Processes for Microfluidics 83

2.6 Construction Materials Considerations 94

Acknowledgments 100

References 100

3 Microfluidics Devices: Fabrication and Surface Modification 113
Zhenfeng Wang and Tao Zhang

3.1 Introduction 113

3.2 Microfluidics Device Fabrication 113

3.2.1 Silicon and Glass Fabrication Process 114

3.2.1.1 Photolithography 117

3.2.1.2 Etching 117

3.2.1.3 Metallization 117

3.2.1.4 Bonding 117

3.2.2 Polymer Fabrication Process 119

3.2.2.1 Patterning 119

3.2.2.2 Bonding 125

3.2.2.3 Metallization 128

3.2.2.4 3D Printing 128

3.2.2.5 Surface Treatment 129

3.2.3 Fabrication for Emerging Microfluidics Devices 129

3.3 Surface Modification in Microfluidics Fabrication 129

3.3.1 Plasma Treatment 132

3.3.2 Surface Modification Using Surfactant 134

3.3.3 Surface Modification with Grafting Polymers 135

3.3.3.1 Surface Photo-Grafting Polymerization 135

3.3.3.2 Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI-ATRP) 137

3.3.3.3 Grafting-to Technique 142

3.3.4 Nanomaterials for Bulk Modification of Polymers 142

3.4 Conclusions and Outlook 143

References 144

4 Numerical Simulation in Microfluidics and the Introduction of the Related Software 147
Zheng Zhao, Adrian Fisher, and Daojian Cheng

4.1 Introduction 147

4.2 Numerical SimulationModels in Microfluidics 148

4.2.1 Molecular Dynamics (MD) 148

4.2.2 The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Method 151

4.2.3 The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) 153

4.2.4 Continuum Method (CM) 155

4.2.5 The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) 158

4.2.6 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 160

4.3 Numerical Simulation Software in Microfluidics 161

4.3.1 CFD-ACE+ Software: Microfluidics Applications 162

4.3.2 CFX Software: Microfluidics Applications 162

4.3.3 FLOW-3D Software: Microfluidics Applications 164

4.3.4 Other Software: Microfluidics Applications 166

4.4 Conclusions 166

Acknowledgments 167

References 168

5 Digital Microfluidic Systems: Fundamentals, Configurations, Techniques, and Applications 175
Mohamed Yafia, Bara J. Emran, and Homayoun Najjaran

5.1 Introduction to Microfluidic Systems 175

5.2 Types of Digital Microfluidic Systems 177

5.3 DMF Chip Fabrication Techniques 179

5.4 Different Electrode Configurations in DMF Systems 181

5.5 Digital Microfluidic Working Principle 183

5.5.1 Electromechanical and Energy-Based Models 183

5.5.2 Numerical Models 184

5.5.3 AnalyticalModels 184

5.6 Electrical Signals Used andTheir Effect on the DMF Operations 185

5.6.1 Types of the Signals Used in Actuation 185

5.6.2 The Effect of Changing the Frequency 187

5.7 Droplet Metering and Dispensing Techniques in DMF Systems 188

5.8 The Effect of the Gap Height between the Top Plate and the Bottom Plate in DMF Systems 189

5.9 Modeling and Controlling Droplet Operations in DMF Systems 192

5.9.1 Feedback Control in DMF Systems 192

5.9.2 Droplet Sensing Techniques in DMF Systems 195

5.9.3 Droplet Routing in DMF Systems 195

5.9.4 Controlling and Addressing the Signals in DMF Systems 197

5.10 Prospects of Portability in DMF Platforms 199

5.11 Examples for Chemical and Biological Applications Performed on the DMF Platform 199

References 203

6 Microfluidics for Chemical Analysis 211
Peng Song, Adrian C. Fisher, LuwenMeng, and Hoang V. Nguyen

6.1 Introduction 211

6.2 Microfluidics for Electrochemical Analysis 212

6.2.1 Voltammetric Analysis 212

6.2.2 Amperometric Protocol 216

6.2.3 Potentiometric Protocol 219

6.2.4 Conductivity Protocol 221

6.3 Advanced Microfluidic Methodologies for Electrochemical Analysis 223

6.3.1 The Rotating Microdroplet 223

6.3.2 The Microjet Electrode 224

6.3.3 Channel Multiplex 225

6.4 Numerical Modeling of Electrochemical Microfluidic Technologies 226

References 229

7 Microfluidic Devices for the Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) 237
Caroline C. Ahrens, Ziye Dong, and Wei Li

7.1 Introduction 237

7.2 Affinity-Based Enrichment of CTCs 241

7.2.1 CTC-Chip 243

7.2.2 Geometrically Enhanced Differential Immunocapture (GEDI) 243

7.2.3 Herringbone (HB)-Chip 244

7.2.4 CTC-iChip 244

7.2.5 High-Throughput Microsampling Unit (HTMSU) 245

7.2.6 OncoBean Chip 246

7.2.7 NanoVelcro Rare Cell Assays 246

7.2.8 GO Chip 246

7.2.9 CTC Subpopulation Sorting 247

7.3 Nonaffinity-Based Enrichment of CTCs 247

7.3.1 Microfluidic Filtration 249

7.3.2 InertialMethods 250

7.3.2.1 Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD) 250

7.3.2.2 Microfluidic Spiral Separation 250

7.3.2.3 Vortex Platform 251

7.3.2.4 Multiorifice Flow Fractionation (MOFF) 251

7.3.3 Dielectrophoresis and Acoustophoresis 251

7.4 Conclusions and Outlook 252

References 254

8 Microfluidics for Disease Diagnosis 261
Jun-Tao Cao

8.1 Introduction 261

8.2 Protein Analysis 261

8.2.1 Secreted Proteins in Biological Fluids 261

8.2.2 Membrane Protein 264

8.3 Nucleic Acid Analysis 267

8.4 Cell Detection 269

8.5 Other Species 272

8.6 Summary and Overlook 275

References 275

9 Gene Expression Analysis on Microfluidic Device 279
Liang Zhao

9.1 Introduction 279

9.2 Analysis Cell Population Gene Expression on Chip 281

9.2.1 Nucleic Acid Analysis 281

9.2.2 Protein Level Analysis of Gene Expression 283

9.3 Single-Cell Gene Expression Profiling 288

9.3.1 Imaging-Based Single-Cell Analysis on Microfluidics 289

9.3.2 Microfluidic Methods to Single-Cell Nucleic Acid Analysis 292

9.3.3 Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms Based on Miniaturized Systems 301

9.4 Conclusion 305

Acknowledgment 306

References 306

10 Computational Microfluidics Applied to Drug Delivery in Pulmonary and Arterial Systems 311
Clement Kleinstreuer and Zelin Xu

10.1 Introduction 311

10.2 Modeling Methods 312

10.2.1 Governing Equations 312

10.2.2 Model Closure 312

10.2.3 Turbulence Modeling 313

10.2.4 Fluid-Particle Dynamics Modeling 313

10.2.5 Ferrofluid Dynamics 315

10.2.6 Nonspherical Particle Dynamics 316

10.2.7 Flow through Porous Media 316

10.2.8 Fluid-Structure Interaction 317

10.3 Pulmonary Drug Delivery 318

10.3.1 Inhalers and Drug-Aerosol Transport 319

10.3.2 Drug-Aerosol Dynamics 322

10.3.3 Methodologies and Design Aspects for Direct Drug Delivery 323

10.3.3.1 Smart Inhaler System Methodology 325

10.3.3.2 Enhanced Deeper Lung Delivery of Drug Aerosols via Condensational Growth 326

10.3.3.3 Shape Engineering for Novel Drug Carriers 326

10.3.3.4 Multifunctional Nanoparticles 327

10.3.3.5 Particle Absorption and Translocation 328

10.4 Intravascular Drug Delivery 328

10.4.1 Nanoparticle-Based Targeted Drug Delivery 329

10.4.2 Catheter-Based Intravascular Drug Delivery 330

10.4.2.1 Particle Hemodynamics 331

10.4.2.2 Tissue Heat and Mass Transfer 332

10.4.3 Magnetic Drug Delivery 333

10.4.4 Direct Drug Delivery 335

10.5 Conclusions and FutureWork 338

References 339

11 Microfluidic Synthesis of Organics 351
Hongxia Liang and Yujun Song

11.1 Introduction 351

11.2 Microfluidic Nebulator for Organic Synthesis 355

11.3 Coiled Tubing Microreactor for Organic Synthesis 356

11.4 Chip-Based Microfluidic Reactor for Organic Synthesis 360

11.5 Packed-Bed Microreactors for Organic Synthesis 363

11.6 Ring-Shaped (Tube-in-Tube) Microfluidic Reactor for Organic Synthesis 365

11.7 Summary and Outlook 368

Acknowledgments 369

References 369

12 Microfluidic Approaches for Designing Multifunctional PolymericMicroparticles from Simple Emulsions to Complex Particles 375
Jongmin Kim and Chang-Soo Lee

12.1 Introduction 375

12.2 Flow Regimes in Microfluidics: Dripping, Jetting, and Coflowing 376

12.2.1 Dimensionless Numbers 377

12.2.2 T-Junction Microfluidics 377

12.2.3 Flow-Focusing Microfluidics 378

12.2.4 Coflowing Microfluidics 379

12.3 Design of Multifunctional Microparticles from Emulsions 380

12.3.1 Microfluidic Approaches with Control of the Hydrodynamic Parameters 380

12.3.2 Microfluidic Approaches with Phase Separation 393

12.3.3 Microfluidic Approaches with Spreading Coefficients 397

12.4 Conclusions and Outlooks 398

References 399

13 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanomaterials 405
Ali Abou-Hassan

13.1 Introduction 405

13.2 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanomaterials Using Microreactors 406

13.2.1 Magnetic Iron Oxide-Based Nanomaterials 406

13.2.2 Synthesis of Metallic and Magnetic Nanomaterials 412

13.2.3 Synthesis of Core-Shell Magnetic Nanomaterials 414

13.3 Conclusion 416

References 416

14 Microfluidic Synthesis of Metallic Nanomaterials 419
Jugang Ma and Yujun Song

14.1 Introduction 419

14.2 Microfluidic Processes for Metallic Nanomaterial Synthesis 421

14.3 Crystal Structure-Controlled Synthesis of Metallic Nanocrystals 422

14.4 Size- and Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Metallic Nanocrystals 426

14.5 Multi-Hierarchical Microstructure- and Composition-Controlled Synthesis of Metallic Nanocrystals 434

14.6 Summary and Outlook 437

Acknowledgments 439

References 439

15 Microfluidic Synthesis of Composites 445
JunmeiWang and Yujun Song

15.1 Introduction 445

15.2 Microfluidic Synthesis Systems and the Design Principles 447

15.3 The Formation Mechanism of Composites 451

15.4 Microfluidic Synthesis of Composites 452

15.4.1 Composites Composed of Nonmetal Inorganics 452

15.4.1.1 Microfluidic Synthesis of Oxide-Coated Multifunctional Composites 453

15.4.1.2 Microfluidic Synthesis of Semiconductor-Semiconductor Composites 455

15.4.2 Composites Composed of Metal and Nonmetal Inorganics 457

15.4.2.1 Microfluidic Synthesis of Dielectric-Plasmonic Composites 457

15.4.2.2 Microfluidic Synthesis of Plasmonic-Semiconductor Composites 459

15.4.2.3 Microfluidic Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Composites 461

15.4.3 Composites Composed of Polymers and Metals 464

15.4.4 Composites Composed of Metal or Metal Alloy Materials 464

15.4.5 Composites Composed of Polymer and Organic Molecular 466

15.4.6 Composites Composed of Two or More Polymers 469

15.4.7 Microfluidic Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) 470

15.5 Summary and Perspectives 471

Acknowledgments 472

References 472

16 Microfluidic Synthesis of MOFs and MOF-Based Membranes 479
Fernando Cacho-Bailo, Carlos Tellez, and Joaquin Coronas

16.1 Microfluidic Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) 479

16.1.1 Zeolite Background 479

16.1.2 Microfluidic MOF Synthesis 480

16.2 Microfluidic Synthesis of MOF-Based Membranes 488

16.2.1 Context 488

16.2.2 MOF Membranes by Microfluidics 489

16.2.3 Inorganic versus Polymeric Supports: Intensification of Processes 501

16.2.4 Support Influence on MOF Synthesis Method 504

16.2.5 Advantages of Inner MOF Growth 506

16.3 Conclusions and Outlook 507

Acknowledgments 508

References 508

17 Perspective for Microfluidics 517
Yujun Song and Daojian Cheng

17.1 Design, Fabrication, and Assemble of Microfluidic Systems 518

17.2 Precise Control of Critical Device Features for Chemical Analysis and Biomedical Engineering 521

17.3 Control of Critical Kinetic Parameters for Chemical and Materials Synthesis 522

17.4 Development of FundamentalTheory at Micro-/Nanoscale and Fluid Mechanism at Nanoliter Picoliter for Microfluidic Systems 525

Acknowledgments 529

References 529

Index 541

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