Handbook of Fiber Finish Technology

 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 3. Oktober 2018
  • |
  • 540 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF ohne DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-351-44276-3 (ISBN)
 
Discusses the components of textile finishes, and the chemical and physical properties of, as well as their effects on, various fibres. The book covers fundamentals of fibre finish science, such as theories of friction; laboratory testing of formulations, from preliminary component evaluation to analyses for material characterization; and the influence of wetting, emulsification and finish distribution on coatings.
  • Englisch
  • Boca Raton
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • 16,62 MB
978-1-351-44276-3 (9781351442763)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1 Art and Technology
  • 1.2 Requirements for Spin Finishes
  • 1.3 Components in Spin Finishes
  • References
  • CHAPTER 2: TENSION, FRICTION, AND LUBRICATION
  • 2.1 General Mechanism of Friction
  • 2.2 Polymer Friction
  • 2.3 Fiber Friction
  • 2.3.1 Introduction
  • 2.3.2 Boundary Friction
  • 2.3.3 Hydrodynamic Friction
  • 2.3.4 Influence of Yarn Attributes, Finishing Agents, and Contact Surfaces on Friction
  • 2.3.5 Relationships Among Friction and Other Yarn and Fabric Properties
  • References
  • CHAPTER 3: LABORATORY TESTING AND COMPONENT PROPERTIES
  • 3.1 Preliminary Component Evaluation
  • 3.1.1 Thermal Stability
  • 3.1.2 Viscosity
  • 3.2 Laboratory Testing of Yarn With Finish
  • 3.2.1 Very Slow Speed Fiber to Fiber Friction
  • 3.2.2 High Speed Friction
  • 3.2.3 Static Electricity and Finish Level on Fiber
  • 3.2.4 Wicking
  • 3.2.5 Surface Energy
  • 3.2.6 Wettability Scanning and Finish Distribution
  • 3.2.7 Finish Absorption Into Yarn
  • 3.2.8 Amount of Finish on Yarn
  • 3.3 Specification Analyses
  • 3.3.1 Saponification Value (Number)
  • 3.3.2 Acid Value (Number)
  • 3.3.3 Hydroxyl Value (Number)
  • 3.3.4 Iodine Value
  • 3.3.5 Other Specification Analyses
  • 3.4 Analyses for Material Characterization
  • References
  • CHAPTER 4: YARN TO HARD SURFACE LUBRICANTS FOR FIBER FINISHES
  • 4.1 Water-Insoluble Lubricants
  • 4.1.1 Petroleum Based Lubricants
  • 4.1.2 Natural Product Glycerides and Esters
  • 4.1.2.1 Esters of Myristic Acid
  • 4.1.2.2 Esters of Palmitic Acid
  • 4.1.2.3 Esters of Stearic Acid
  • 4.1.2.4 Esters of Oleic Acid
  • 4.1.2.5 Coconut Oil and Esters of Coconut Fatty Acids
  • 4.1.3 Esters of Synthetic Monocarboxylic Acids
  • 4.1.4 Esters of Synthetic Dicarboxylic Acids
  • 4.1.5 Polymers
  • 4.1.6 Silicones
  • 4.2 Water-Soluble Lubricants
  • References
  • CHAPTER 5: COHESIVE AGENTS AND FIBER TO FIBER LUBRICANTS
  • 5.1 Attractive Forces at Interfaces
  • 5.2 Finish Components Affecting Fiber Cohesion
  • 5.3 Nonionic Surfactants as Cohesive Agents
  • 5.3.1 Alcohol Ether Ethoxylates
  • 5.3.2 Derivatives of Alcohol Ether Ethoxylates
  • 5.3.3 Ethoxylated Fatty Acids and Polyethylene Glycol Acid Esters
  • 5.3.4 Derivatives of Fatty Acid Esters of Ethylene Oxide
  • 5.4 Fiber Lubricants and Softeners
  • 5.4.1 Fatty Acid Ethoxylates as Fiber Lubricants
  • 5.4.2 Softeners and Softener Bases
  • References
  • CHAPTER 6: EMULSIFIERS
  • 6.1 Particle Size
  • 6.2 Zeta Potential
  • 6.3 HLB Concept
  • 6.3.1 The Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) of Surfactants
  • 6.3.2 Determination of HLB
  • 6.3.3 HLB of Cohesive Agents
  • 6.4 Surfactants Used as Emulsifiers
  • 6.4.1 Soaps
  • 6.4.2 Alcohol Ether Ethoxylates
  • 6.4.3 Ethoxylated Alkylphenols
  • 6.4.4 Ethoxylated Glycerides
  • 6.4.5 Ethoxylated Fatty Acids
  • 6.4.6 Ethoxylated Sorbitol Esters
  • 6.4.7 Sorbitan Esters and Ethoxylated Sorbitan Esters
  • 6.4.8 Alkyl Polyglycosides
  • 6.4.9 Ethoxylated Alkylamines
  • References
  • CHAPTER 7: ANTISTATS
  • 7.1 Technical Background
  • 7.1.1 Conductivity of Polymers and Fibers
  • 7.1.2 Conductivity Through Antistatic Agents
  • 7.2 Measurement of Static Electricity
  • 7.2.1 Resistivity
  • 7.2.2 Fabric to Metal Cling Test
  • 7.2.3 Sail Test
  • 7.2.4 The Ash Test
  • 7.2.5 Hayek-Chromey Wheel
  • 7.2.6 The Static Honestometer
  • 7.2.7 Rothschild Static Voltmeter
  • 7.3 Chemicals Used as Antistatic Finish Components
  • 7.3.1 Quaternary Amines
  • 7.3.2 Alcohol Phosphates
  • 7.4 Commercial Antistatic Agents
  • 7.4.1 Quaternary Amines
  • 7.4.2 Phosphate Esters
  • 7.4.2.1 Aliphatic Alcohol Phosphates, Free Acids
  • 7.4.2.2 Aliphatic Alcohol Phosphates, Potassium Salts
  • 7.4.2.3 Polyoxyethylene Aliphatic Alcohol Phosphates, Free Acids
  • 7.4.2.4 Polyoxyethylene Aliphatic Alcohol Phosphates, Potassium Salts
  • 7.5 Other Antistatic Agents
  • References
  • CHAPTER 8: OTHER FINISH ADDITIVES: ANTIOXIDANTS, DEFOAMERS, ANTIMICROBIALS, AND WETTING AGENTS
  • 8.1 Antioxidants
  • 8.1.1 Initiation and Initiation Inhibitors
  • 8.1.2 Propagation and Propagation Inhibitors
  • 8.1.3 Synergism
  • 8.1.4 Photooxidation and Stabilization
  • 8.1.5 Lubricant and Fuel Stabilization
  • 8.1.6 Vitamins and Antioxidants in Food
  • 8.2 Defoamers
  • 8.2.1 Foaming and Chemical Structure
  • 8.2.2 Chemical Structure of Antifoaming Agents
  • 8.2.3 Commercial Antifoaming Agents
  • 8.3 Antimicrobials
  • 8.4 Wetting and Wetting Agents
  • 8.4.1 Contact Angle
  • 8.4.2 Thermodynamics of Wetting
  • 8.4.3 The Effects of Surfactants on Wetting and Spreading
  • 8.4.4 Fiber, Yarn, and Textile Wetting
  • 8.4.5 Commercially Available Wetting Agents
  • References
  • CHAPTER 9: SOIL- AND STAIN-RESISTANT TEXTILE FINISHES
  • 9.1 Soiling and Soil-Resistant Finishes
  • 9.1.1 Types of Soil and the Character of Soiling
  • 9.1.2 Measurement of Textile Soiling
  • 9.1.3 Effect of Fiber, Yarn, and Fabric Structure on Soiling
  • 9.1.4 Fiber Surface Properties Affecting Soiling
  • 9.1.5 Soil-Resistant Finishes for Fibers and Textiles
  • 9.1.5.1 Metal Oxides and Salts for Fabric Treatment
  • 9.1.5.2 Carboxymethyl Cellulose Finishes for Soil Resistance
  • 9.1.5.3 Acrylic and Vinyl Polymer Soil-Repellant Finishes
  • 9.1.5.4 Silicone Soil-Resistant Finishes
  • 9.1.5.5 Fluorochemical Compounds Affecting Textile Soiling
  • 9.1.5.6 Miscellaneous Chemicals Affecting Fabric Soiling
  • 9.2 Staining and Stain-Resistant Finishes
  • 9.2.1 Types of Staining Materials
  • 9.2.2 Labqratory Evaluation of Carpet Staining
  • 9.2.3 Chemicals Used as Stain-Resistant Additives
  • 9.2.4 Yarn Processing and Procedures for Stainblocker Application
  • 9.2.5 Mechanism of Stainblocking
  • References
  • CHAPTER 10: ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF FINISH MATERIALS
  • 10.1 Water Resources
  • 10.2 Water Pollution
  • 10.3 Dissolved Oxygen
  • 10.4 Oxidation of Organic Matter
  • 10.5 Prediction of Waste Degradation
  • 10.5.1 Nonspecific Methods
  • 10.5.1.1 Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD)
  • 10.5.1.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
  • 10.5.1.3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • 10.5.1.4 River Die-Away Test
  • 10.5.2 Specific Methods
  • 10.6 Degradation of Specific Chemicals
  • 10.6.1 Mineral Oils and Other Petroleum Products
  • 10.6.2 Esters
  • 10.6.3 Nonionic Surfactants
  • References
  • AUTHOR INDEX
  • SUBJECT INDEX

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