Green and Sustainable Manufacturing of Advanced Material

Elsevier (Verlag)
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  • erschienen am 18. August 2015
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  • 688 Seiten
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978-0-12-411526-2 (ISBN)

Sustainable development is a globally recognized mandate and it includes green or environment-friendly manufacturing practices. Such practices orchestrate with the self-healing and self-replenishing capability of natural ecosystems. Green manufacturing encompasses synthesis, processing, fabrication, and process optimization, but also testing, performance evaluation and reliability. The book shall serve as a comprehensive and authoritative resource on sustainable manufacturing of ceramics, metals and their composites. It is designed to capture the diversity and unity of methods and approaches to materials processing, manufacturing, testing and evaluation across disciplines and length scales. Each chapter incorporates in-depth technical information without compromising the delicate link between factual data and fundamental concepts or between theory and practice. Green and sustainable materials processing and manufacturing is designed as a key enabler of sustainable development.

  • A one-stop compendium of new research and technology of green manufacturing of metals, ceramics and their composites
  • In-depth cutting-edge treatment of synthesis, processing, fabrication, process optimization, testing, performance evaluation and reliability which are of critical importance to green manufacturing
  • Stimulates fresh thinking and exchange of ideas and information on approaches to green materials processing across disciplines
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 53,47 MB
978-0-12-411526-2 (9780124115262)
0124115268 (0124115268)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Green and Sustainable Manufacturing of Advanced Materials
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part I: Material Conservation, Recovery, Recycling and Reuse
  • Chapter 1: Green and Sustainable Manufacturing of Advanced Materials-Progress and Prospects
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Focus Areas
  • 2.1 Material Conservation, Recovery, and Recycling
  • 2.2 Sustainable Manufacturing-Metallic Materials
  • 2.3 Sustainable Manufacturing-Ceramic Materials
  • 2.4 Sustainable Manufacturing-Polymeric and Composite Materials
  • Chapter 2: Moving Beyond Single Attributes to Holistically Assess the Sustainability of Materials
  • 1. Evolution of Views of Environmentally Preferable Materials and Products
  • 2. Examination of Specific Single Environmental Attributes
  • 2.1 Recycled Content
  • 2.2 Recyclability
  • 2.3 Bio-Based Materials
  • 3. The Use of Life-Cycle Analysis to Evaluate Multiple Product Attributes
  • 3.1 The Development of LCA as a Methodology
  • 3.2 Use of Life-Cycle Assessment to Quantify and Reduce Environmental Impacts
  • 3.3 The Use of Life-Cycle Analyses to Compare Products or Materials
  • 3.4 Requirements for Using Life-Cycle Assessments and Environmental Product Declarations
  • 4. Design for the Environment
  • 5. Continual Evolution
  • 6. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Eco-Materials and Life-Cycle Assessment
  • 1. Eco-Materials
  • 1.1 Introduction to Eco-Materials
  • 1.2 Development of Eco-Materials Concept
  • 1.3 Research and Development of Eco-Materials and Related Technology in China
  • 2. Introduction of Life-Cycle Assessment
  • 2.1 Sustainability and Life-Cycle Thinking
  • 2.2 Definition of Life-Cycle Assessment
  • 2.3 Framework of Life-Cycle Assessment
  • 2.4 Development and Application of Life-Cycle Assessment
  • 2.5 Database and Analysis Tool of LCA
  • 3. Development of LCIA Methodology in China
  • 3.1 LCIA Model of Abiotic Resource Depletion in China
  • 3.2 LCIA Model of Land Use in China [24]
  • 3.3 Methodology of LCIA Needs to Be Improved Continuously
  • 4. LCA Practice on Materials Industry in China
  • 4.1 Case Study: LCA of Iron and Steel Production in China
  • 4.2 Case Study: LCA of Magnesium Production in China [28]
  • 4.3 Case Study: Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Chinese Aluminum Production Based on LCA [29]
  • 4.4 Case Study: Layout Adjustment of Cement Industry in Beijing Based on LCA [30]
  • 4.5 Case Study: LCA of Flat Glass Production in China [31]
  • 4.6 Case Study: CO 2 Emission Analysis of Calcium Carbide Sludge Clinker [32]
  • 4.7 Case Study: LCA in Chinese Energy Sector
  • 4.8 Case Study: LCA of Civilian Buildings in Beijing [35]
  • 5. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Exergetic Aspects of Green Ceramic Processing
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Illustrative Example for Understanding Exergy and Heat Energy [1-3]
  • 2.1 Exergy Analysis 1: Entropy Increase due to Mixture and Exergy Calculation of N 2 and O 2 Gas
  • 2.2 Exergy Analysis 2: Chemical Exergy of Metal and Inorganic Compounds
  • 2.3 Exergy Analysis 3: Chemical Exergy of Organic Materials
  • 2.4 Exergy Analysis 4: Increase of Entropy during "Mixing"
  • 2.5 Exergy Analysis 5: Electric Power and Gas Fuel Mixture
  • 2.6 Exergy Analysis 6: Si 3 N 4 Ceramics Processing
  • 3. Overview of Normal Process (N-Process)
  • 4. Overview of Reaction-Bonding Followed by Post-Sintering Process (RBPS-Process)
  • 5. Exergy Analysis [11]
  • 5.1 Exergy Analysis 7: Si 3 N 4 Heat Tubes Manufacturing Process
  • 5.2 Exergy Analysis 8: Life-Cycle Assessment of Si 3 N 4 Tubes
  • 6. Aluminum Casting Line Operation and Role of Heater Tube
  • 7. Exergy Consumption in Each Stage
  • 7.1 Wear and Material Disposal
  • 7.2 Running
  • 7.2.1 Melting and Holding Furnace
  • 7.2.2 Die Cast Machine
  • 7.3 Manufacture, Use, and Disposal
  • 8. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part II: Sustainable Manufacturing-Metallic Materials
  • Chapter 5: Lead-Free Soldering: Environmentally Friendly Electronics
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Current State of EU Legislation in Relation to the use of Lead
  • 2.1 The RoHS Directive
  • 2.2 The REACH Regulation
  • 2.3 The WEEE Directive
  • 3 The Current Situation in Lead-Free Soldering
  • 3.1 The Lead-Free Solders for Mainstream Application
  • 3.2 Lead-Free Solders for High-Temperature Application
  • 3.3 Possible new Materials for Lead-Free Soldering
  • 3.3.1 New Approaches for Mainstream Application
  • 3.3.2 New Materials for High-Temperature Application
  • 4. New Ways in the Development of new Materials
  • 4.1 Computational Thermodynamics as a Research Tool
  • 4.2 Application of the CALPHAD Method for the Development of new Solder Materials
  • 5. New Technologies for Materials Joining
  • 6. Implementation of new Materials into an Industrial Environment
  • 6.1 A Summary of Protocols for Validating Material Substitutions in Electronic and Electrical Equipment
  • 7. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 6: High-Performance Steels for Sustainable Manufacturing of Vehicles
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Manufacturing Implications by using HSS
  • 3. Metallurgical Optimization Toward Improved Properties of Automotive Steel
  • 4. Optimizing Dual-Phase Microstructure
  • 5. Low-Carbon DP Steel
  • 6. Requirements to Improved Press-Hardening Steel
  • 7. Improved Alloy Design for Press-Hardening Steel
  • 8. Toughness Improvement by Nb Microalloying
  • 9. Microstructural Control and Robustness in Press-Hardening Steel
  • 10. Bendability Improvement by Nb Microalloying
  • 11. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Advanced Steel Alloys for Sustainable Power Generation
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Steel in Plants for Thermal Power Generation
  • 3. Ferritic Steels with High Creep Resistance
  • 4. Steel in Hydroelectric Power Plants
  • 5. Development of Penstock Materials
  • 6. Weldability of High-Strength Steels
  • 7. Thermomechanical Treatment and Microstructures
  • 8. Practical Consideration During Field Welding
  • 9. Steel in Wind Power Generation
  • 10. High-Strength Casting Alloys
  • 11. High-Performance Gear Steels
  • 12. Summary
  • References
  • Part III: Sustainable Manufacturing-Ceramic Materials
  • Chapter 8: Smart Powder Processing for Green Technologies
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Particle Bonding Process
  • 3. Applications of Particle Bonding Process for Advanced Materials
  • 3.1 Development of High Efficient Thermal Insulation Materials
  • 3.2 Development of Fuel Cell Electrodes
  • 4. Applications for Low Temperature Reaction and One-Pot Synthesis of Nanoparticles
  • 4.1 Low Temperature Reaction of Powder Materials
  • 4.2 One-Pot Synthesis of Nanoparticles from Raw Powder Materials
  • 5. One-Pot Mechanical Process to Synthesize Nanoparticles and Their Bonding to Make Nanocomposite Granules
  • 6. Mechanically Assisted Deposition of Nanocomposite Films by One-Pot Processing
  • 7. Novel Recycling of Composite Materials for Sustainability
  • 7.1 New Concept of Recycling
  • 7.2 Recycling of GFRP for Advanced Materials
  • 7.3 Recovery of Useful Elements from Waste Composite Materials by Applying Particle Disassembling Process
  • 8. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Green Manufacturing of Silicon Nitride Ceramics
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Sintered Reaction Bonding Process with Rapid Nitridation
  • 3. Low-Temperature Sintering with Atmospheric Pressure
  • 4. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Green Processing of Particle Dispersed Composite Materials
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. TiN-Nanoparticle-Dispersed Si 3 N 4 Ceramics
  • 3. CNT-Dispersed Ceramics
  • 4. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Environmentally Friendly Processing of Macroporous Materials
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Pore Structures Created by the Gelatin-Gelation-Freezing Method
  • 2.1 Overview of the Processing Strategy and Method in Gelatin-Gelation-Freezing
  • 2.2 Porous Morphology
  • 2.3 Pore Formation Mechanism
  • 2.4 Effects of Antifreeze Additives
  • 3. Engineering Properties of Macroporous Ceramics Prepared by the Gelation-Freezing Method
  • 3.1 Air Permeability
  • 3.2 Mechanical Strength
  • 3.3 Machinability
  • 3.4 Electrochemical Performances
  • 3.5 Thermal Insulation Performances
  • 4. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Manufacturing of Ceramic Components using Robust Integration Technologies
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Active Metal Brazing
  • 3. High Temperature Bonding by Localized Heating
  • 3.1 Joining of Silicon Nitride Ceramics
  • 3.1.1 Microwave Local Heating
  • 3.1.2 Local Heating Using an Electric Furnace
  • 4. Diffusion Bonding
  • 5. Reaction Bonding
  • 4. Summary and Future Developments
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Three-Dimensional Sustainable Printing of Functional Ceramics
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Three-Dimensional Printing
  • 2.1 Laser Scanning Stereolithography
  • 2.2 Micropatterning Stereolithography
  • 3. Artificial Bone
  • 3.1 Bioceramics Formation
  • 3.2 Coordination Number
  • 3.3 Biological Scaffold
  • 4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
  • 4.1 Energy Generation
  • 4.2 Porous Structures
  • 4.3 Dendritic Electrode
  • 5. Photonic Crystals
  • 5.1 Band Gap Formation
  • 5.2 Dielectric Lattices
  • 5.3 Terahertz Wave Resonator
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Future Development of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics by Domain Wall Engineering
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. History of Engineered Domain Configuration
  • 3. Effect of Engineered Domain Configuration on Piezoelectric Property
  • 4. Crystal Structure and Crystallographic Orientation Dependence of BaTiO 3 Crystals With Various Engineered Domain Co ...
  • 4.1 Piezoelectric Properties Measured Under High E-Field
  • 4.1.1 [001] c Oriented BaTiO 3 Single Crystals
  • 4.1.2 [111] c Oriented BaTiO 3 Single Crystals
  • 4.1.3 Crystal Structure and Crystallographic Orientation for the Best Engineered Domain Configuration in BaTiO 3 Sing ...
  • 4.2 Piezoelectric Properties Measured Under Low ac E-Field
  • 5. Domain Size Dependence of BaTiO 3 Crystals With Engineered Domain Configurations
  • 5.1 Domain Size Dependence on E-Field and Temperature
  • 5.2 Domain Size Dependence of the Piezoelectric Property Using 31 Resonators
  • 5.3 Domain Size Dependence of the Piezoelectric Property Using 33 Resonators
  • 6. Role of Non-180° Domain Wall Region on Piezoelectric Properties
  • 7. New Challenge of Domain Wall Engineering Using Patterning Electrode
  • 8. New Challenge of Domain Wall Engineering Using Uniaxial Stress Field
  • 9. What Is Domain Wall Engineering?
  • 10. Conclusions and Future Trends
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Nanostructuring of Metal Oxides in Aqueous Solutions
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Nanostructuring of Barium Titanate
  • 2.1 Acicular Crystals [15]
  • 2.2 Platy Crystals, Polyhedron Crystals, and Multineedle Crystals [33]
  • 2.2.1 Synthesis of Polyhedron BaTiOF 4 Particles
  • 2.2.2 Synthesis of Platy BaTiOF 4 Particles
  • 2.2.3 Influence of Organic Molecules on BaTiOF 4 Particles
  • 2.2.4 Phase Transition to BaTiO 3 by Annealing
  • 3. Nanostructuring of Zinc Oxide
  • 3.1 Hexagonal Cylinder Crystals, Long Ellipse Crystals, and Hexagonal Symmetry Radial Whiskers [46]
  • 3.2 Multineedle ZnO Crystals and Their Particulate Films [53]
  • 3.2.1 Design of ZnO Particle and Particulate Film Morphology
  • 3.2.2 Control of ZnO Particle Morphology
  • 3.2.3 Control of ZnO Particulate Film Morphology
  • 3.3 High c -Axis-Oriented, Standalone, Self-Assembled Films [71]
  • 4. Nanostructuring of TiO 2
  • 4.1 Nanocrystal Assemblies [98]
  • 4.1.1 Liquid Phase Crystal Deposition of Anatase TiO 2
  • 4.1.2 Crystal Phase of TiO 2 Particles
  • 4.1.3 TEM Observation of TiO 2 Particles
  • 4.1.4 Zeta Potential and Particle Size Distribution
  • 4.1.5 N 2 Adsorption Characteristics of TiO 2 Particles
  • 4.2 Multineedle TiO 2 Particles [139]
  • 4.2.1 Control of Multineedle TiO 2 Particle Morphology
  • 4.2.2 Surface Coating of Microstructured Substrates with Multineedle TiO 2 Particles
  • 4.3 Acicular Nanocrystal Coating and Its Patterning [140]
  • 4.3.1 Aqueous Synthesis of Acicular Nanocrystal Coating and Its Patterning
  • 5. Nanostructuring of SnO in Aqueous Solutions
  • 5.1 Nanosheet Assembled Crystals [33]
  • 5.1.1 Aqueous Synthesis of Nanosheet Assembled SnO Particles
  • 5.1.2 Morphology of Nanosheet Assembled SnO Particles
  • 5.1.3 N 2 Adsorption Characteristics of NanoSheet Assembled SnO Particles
  • 5.2 Morphology Control and Enhancement of Surface Area [197]
  • 5.3 SnO Coatings on Polytetrafluoroethylene Films [198]
  • 5.4 Nanosheet Assembled Films for Superhydrophobic/Superhydrophilic Surfaces and Cancer Sensors [207]
  • 5.4.1 Synthesis of SnO Nanosheet Coatings on FTO Substrates
  • 5.4.2 Surface Modification of SnO Nanosheets with Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • 5.4.3 Morphology, Crystal Structure, and Chemical Composition of SnO Nanosheet Coatings on FTO Substrates
  • 5.4.4 XPS Analysis of SnO Nanosheet Coating on FTO Substrate
  • 5.4.5 XRDD of SnO Nanosheet Coatings on FTO Substrate
  • 5.4.6 Transparency of an SnO Nanosheet Coating on an FTO Substrate
  • 5.4.7 Superhydrophobicity of an SnO Nanosheet Coating on an FTO Substrate
  • 5.4.8 Superhydrophilicity of an SnO Nanosheet Coating on an FTO Substrate
  • 5.4.9 Photoluminescence and Photocurrent from SnO Nanosheets With dye-Labeled Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • 6. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Green Manufacturing of Photocatalytic Materials for Environmental Applications
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. TiO 2 -Based Photocatalytic Materials with Various Morphologies
  • 3. TiO 2 -Based Photocatalysts with One-Dimensional Morphology
  • 4. Fibrous Photocatalyst (TiO 2 /SiO 2 Photocatalytic Fiber)
  • 4.1 Synthesis of the TiO 2 /SiO 2 Photocatalytic Fiber
  • 4.2 Palladium-Deposited Mesoporous Photocatalytic Fiber with High Photocatalytic Activity
  • 4.3 Environmental Application of TiO 2 /SiO 2 Photocatalytic Fibers
  • 5. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Solution Processing of Low-Dimensional Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide: Titania Nanotubes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Fabrication of 1D Oxide Nanotubes
  • 2.1 Synthesis Route of Oxide Nanotubes
  • 2.2 Formation of TNTs
  • 2.3 Chemical Synthesis Using a Low-Temperature Solution
  • 2.4 Nanostructures and Their Formation Mechanism
  • 3. Photocatalytic and Physical-Photochemical Functions
  • 3.1 Fundamental Properties of Nanotubular Titania
  • 3.2 Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Performance
  • 3.3 Novel Environmental Purification Multifunctions
  • 3.4 Size Control of TNTs and Their Application to Solar Energy Conversion
  • 4. Structure Tuning of TNTs for Further Property Enhancements
  • 4.1 Lattice-Level Tuning of TNTs by Ion Doping
  • 4.2 Multifunctionality in TNTs Doped with Rare Earth Elements
  • 4.3 Development of 0-Dimensional/1-Dimensional Nanocomposites Based on NP Loading and Their Multiple Functions
  • 5. Conclusion and prospects
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Environmentally Friendly Processing of Transparent Optical Ceramics
  • 1. Introduction to Gelcasting
  • 2. Gelcasting Principles
  • 2.1 Solid Loading of Slurry
  • 2.2 Colloidal Stability
  • 2.3 Gelation Process
  • 2.4 Degassing
  • 2.5 Drying Process
  • 2.6 Inner Stress in the Gelcasting Process
  • 3. Transparent Ceramics Prepared by Gelcasting
  • 4. Introduction to a New Water-Soluble, Spontaneous Gelling Agent: ISOBAM
  • 5. ISOBAM Acts as Dispersant
  • 5.1 Mechanisms of Dispersants
  • 5.2 The Mechanism of ISOBAM to be Qualified as a Dispersant
  • 5.3 The Application of ISOBAM as a Dispersant
  • 5.3.1 The Application of ISOBAM on Nonhydrated Ceramics Powder
  • 5.3.2 The Application of ISOBAM on Waterproof Paint-Coated Ceramic Powders
  • 6. ISOBAM Acts as Spontaneous Gelling Agent at Room Temperature in Air
  • 6.1 The Mechanism of the ISOBAM Spontaneous Gelling Process
  • 6.1.1 Dissolution of ISOBAM in a Suspension Medium (Water)
  • 6.1.2 Possible Mechanism for ISOBAM104 Spontaneous Gelling Process
  • 6.2 Application of the Spontaneous Gelling Agent ISOBAM
  • 6.2.1 Spontaneous Gelling of Traditional Al 2 O 3 Ceramics Using ISOBAM
  • 6.2.2 Spontaneous Gelling of Porous Al 2 O 3 Ceramic Using ISOBAM
  • 6.2.3 Spontaneous Gelling of Translucent Al 2 O 3 Ceramics Using ISOBAM104
  • 6.2.4 Application of a Spontaneous Gelling Agent in Water-Reactive Ceramics Powder
  • 7. Application of ISOBAM as Binder for Tape Casting
  • 7.1 Mechanism of a Binder
  • 7.2 Application of ISOBAM104 for Tape Casting of Traditional Al 2 O 3, Translucent Al 2 O 3, and Transparent YAG
  • 7.2.1 Application of ISOBAM for Tape Casting of Traditional Al 2 O 3
  • 7.2.2 Application of ISOBAM for Tape Casting of Translucent Al 2 O 3
  • 7.2.3 Application of ISOBAM for Tape Casting of Traditional YAG
  • 8. Other Research on Spontaneous Gelling Systems
  • References
  • Chapter 19: A Perspective on Green Body Fabrication and Design for Sustainable Manufacturing
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Theoretical Models
  • 2.1 Rumpf's Theory of Particle Adhesion
  • 2.2 Fracture Mechanics
  • 2.3 Young's Modulus
  • 3. Different Processing Additives for Fabricating Ceramic Green Bodies
  • 3.1 Common Types of Binders
  • 3.2 Plasticizers and the Effect of Humidity and Glass Transition Temperature ( T g) of the Binder on Green Bodies
  • 3.3 Lubricants, Dispersants, and Foaming and Antifoaming Agents
  • 4. Methods of Characterizing Green Bodies
  • 4.1 Mechanical Behavior
  • 4.2 Microstructure Analysis
  • 5. Mechanical Behavior of Green Bodies
  • 6. Novel Approaches for Designing Green Bodies
  • 6.1 Low Binder Systems
  • 6.2 Multifunctional Additives
  • 6.3 Organic Binder-less Processing
  • 6.4 IM and Related SFF Techniques
  • 6.5 Colloidal Processing
  • 6.5.1 Consolidation by Fluid Removal
  • 6.5.2 Consolidation by Particle Flow
  • 6.5.3 Consolidation by Gelation
  • 6.6 Controlling the Thermomechanical Behavior of Green Bodies
  • 7. Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • References
  • Part IV: Sustainable Manufacturing-Polymeric and Composite Materials
  • Chapter 20: Adoption of an Environmentally Friendly Novel Microwave Process to Manufacture Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
  • 1. Manufacturing Methods of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
  • 2. Rapid Resin-Curing of CFRPs (a CF-Reinforced Epoxy Composite) By Microwaves
  • 3. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Continuous CFRPs
  • 4. Effect on Thermal Conductivity of CFRPs Matrix Resin on Microwave Process
  • 5. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Green Manufacturing and the Application of High-Temperature Polymer-Polyphosphazenes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. One-Pot Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polyphosphazene Micro- and Nanomaterials
  • 2.1 Synthesis of the PZS Nanofibers
  • 2.2 Synthesis of PZS Nanotubes
  • 2.3 Synthesis of PZS Microspheres
  • 2.4 Synthesis of PZS Nanotubes With Active Hydroxyl Groups
  • 3. Synthesis of Cross-Linked PZS-Based Composite Materials
  • 3.1 Silver/PZS Nanocables
  • 3.2 CNT/PZS Nanocomposites
  • 3.3 Synthesis of Highly Magnetically Sensitive Nanochains Coated With PZS
  • 3.4 Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 -PZS Hybrid Hollow Microspheres
  • 4. Applications of PZS-Based Micro- and Nanomaterials
  • 4.1 Carrier Materials as Noble Metal Nanoparticles
  • 4.2 Adsorbent of Dyes
  • 4.3 Drug Delivery Carriers
  • 4.4 Precursors for Preparing Porous Carbon Materials
  • 5. Other Kinds of Cyclophosphazene-Containing, Cross-Linked Polyphosphazenes
  • 6. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index
Chapter 1

Green and Sustainable Manufacturing of Advanced Materials-Progress and Prospects

Mrityunjay Singh1; Tatsuki Ohji2; R. Asthana3    1 Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA,
2 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya, Japan,
3 University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA


Sustainability is pervasive and impacts every aspect of human activity. Over the last decades, sustainability has emerged as a critical force uniting humanity in its relentless focus on development and growth that in the past often ignored the interdependence of humanity and the ecosystem in which it resided. Perhaps nowhere is the power of sustainable development revealed as remarkably as in the development of new materials, manufacturing technologies, and systems. Future progress in the materials area will critically depend on our engagement with the sustainable practices in research and technology. The chapter provides a broad overview of the current status of sustainability in materials science and engineering and a brief introduction to the themes that subsequent chapters capture and develop in greater depth.


Green manufacturing


Material conservation

Metallic materials

Ceramic materials

Polymeric materials

Composite materials


Fossil fuels

1 Introduction

Manufacturing is a substantial part of global economy, and manufacturing practices play a critical role in all aspects of modern life. Green and sustainable manufacturing has emerged as a globally recognized mandate. Sustainable manufacturing is defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce as "the creating of manufactured products that use processes that are nonpolluting, conserve energy and natural resources, and are economically sound and safe for employees, communities, and consumers" ( It has given impetus to development of green materials and technologies that orchestrate with self-healing and replenishing capability of natural ecosystems. It has focused attention on conservation of energy and precious materials, and recovery, recycling, and reuse in virtually all industrial sectors including but not limited to transportation, agriculture, construction, aerospace, energy, nuclear power, and many others.

Historically, industry and governments have been responsive to environmental issues even before sustainability became a recognized global movement. For example, in the United States, a number of acts and Codes of Federal Regulations (CFR) have addressed key environmental issues for several decades. Examples included the Water Pollution Control Act (amended 1987 Clean Water Act), Clean Air Act (amended 1990), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (amended 1984), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (1980), and many others. These regulations provided "cradle-to-grave" programs for protecting human health and the environment from the improper management of hazardous materials including toxic effluents. Other CFRs specifically addressed the health and environmental effects of specific chemicals and materials such as the known carcinogens formaldehyde (29 CFR 1910.1048) and cadmium (29 CFR 19190.1027).

Although a focus on sustainable technologies in various forms has been around for a long time in part due to government regulations and sporadic public support for isolated cases that impacted regional concerns, a paradigm shift toward and awareness of the importance of transformative green and sustainable materials and manufacturing has only recently begun to gain momentum. As a field of academic enquiry and discussion, green manufacturing is relatively young. As an emerging global movement, it has gained considerable traction as part of the broader goals of sustainable development. It is now being increasingly recognized that the integration of green practices is crucial to sustainable technological development and the economic competitiveness of current society as well as that of future generations.

A number of important and widely practiced industrial processes such as case hardening, plating, casting, brazing, soldering, chemical vapor deposition, organic coatings, and numerous others involve consumption or release of harmful ingredients that are injurious to both human health and the environment. All such processes and technologies are candidates for a careful reassessment of the efficiencies and structural changes that could potentially make such processes sustainable. A classic example of sustainable practices is the abolition of lead in electrical and electronic assemblies and in public utility systems owing to the possibility of water and food contamination with extremely serious consequences to human health and the environment. Major initiatives in Europe, North America, China, Korea, and elsewhere have either banned or strictly limited lead use. Major global initiatives are currently in progress to develop green substitute materials for lead and similar hazardous and/or scarce metals and materials. Critical materials including rare earths have a major economic and strategic importance, but they are limited in supply. New materials need to be developed in an environmentally conscientious manner to offset the dependence of naturally occurring critical and strategic materials.

Another focus area of sustainable development involves component weight reduction by use of light materials (foams, magnesium, and titanium) with high specific strength and other key properties. This is being vigorously pursued for reducing fuel consumption and waste emissions mainly in the transportation sector (automotive and aerospace). This also offers additional benefits of lower losses, higher operating temperatures, and higher engine efficiency. Environmentally friendly materials such as ecoceramics, ecobrass, ecosolders, and ecocoatings, as well as energy-efficient light materials such as foamed metals and ceramics and composites have gained phenomenal ascendency in research and technology. Additionally, energy and emission reduction with the aid of established and novel technology such as microwaves, lasers, and biofuels has become increasingly important.

New materials developed from natural and renewable arboreal and biological resources should continue to gain importance into the future. Ceramics such as silicon carbide developed from such resources consume less energy for their production and less waste for disposal. Environmentally conscious ceramics (ecoceramics) are produced out of renewable resources such as wood. For example, biomorphic silicon carbide is obtained by pyrolysis and infiltration of natural wood-derived preforms. It reduces energy consumption and chemical by-products of conventional ceramic production methods such as hot pressing, sintering, reaction bonding, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Other methods include freeze casting of ceramics and microwave sintering that are devoid of binders and fugitive chemicals. Through conscious intervention, materials and products can be designed and manufactured in a more environmentally friendly manner to facilitate assembly, recycling, and reuse with reduced waste emission and energy consumption.

A large proportion of the world's energy originates from fossil fuels while greener technologies such as nuclear, wind, and hydroelectrics generate the remaining share of total energy. The wide variety of materials used in these technologies-mainly metals, ceramics, and their composites-critically affect the performance of such technologies. Materials are enablers of advanced technology, and their properties and performance determine the system function and efficiency. Conversely, efficient development and production of current and emerging materials depends on the availability of innovative technologies for their production and fabrication. A competitive advantage in technology development can be accelerated through the development and application of new materials and processes. This complementary symbiotic relationship can help promote and advance sustainable practices with the materials producer, product designer, and manufacturer working in concert on shared concerns about environmental impact and sustainability while pushing the boundaries of the technology.

Over the next several decades, global demand for materials and energy is projected to sharply rise. This inevitably will impact the environment via increased carbon emission and energy consumption. In this context, an important goal of sustainability is the training and educational needs of a new generation of workforce that can think and act holistically about "cradle-to-grave" and "cradle-to-cradle" progression of materials and technologies. Many major industrial mishaps in the past have been linked to mistakes that could have been avoided with proper training and awareness. Examples include the mercury accumulated in fish originating from a fertilizer plant in Japan in the 1960s and leakage of toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a former Union Carbide plant in India in the 1980s.

Nanotechnology is beginning to revolutionize modern manufacturing by offering an unprecedented range of functionalities that are possible only in the nanometer range. Novel functionalities can be achieved via atomic- and molecular-level design...

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