People Flow in Buildings

Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 10. September 2021
  • |
  • 448 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-54555-2 (ISBN)
Discover how to measure, control, model, and plan people flow within modern buildings with this one-stop resource from a leading professional

People Flow in Buildings delivers a comprehensive and insightful description of people flow, analysis with software-based tools. The book offers readers an up-to-date overview of mathematical optimization methods used in control systems and transportation planning methods used to manage vertical and horizontal transportation.

The text offers a starting point for selecting the optimal transportation equipment for new buildings and those being modernized. It provides insight into making passenger journeys pleasant and smooth, while providing readers with an examination of how modern trends in building usage, like increasingly tall buildings and COVID-19, effect people flow planning in buildings.

People Flow in Buildings clearly defines the terms and symbols it includes and then moves on to deal with the measurement, control, modelling, and planning of people flow within buildings of all kinds. Each chapter contains an introduction describing its contents and the background of the subject. Included appendices describe measured passenger data and performed analyses.

Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:
* A thorough introduction to people-counting methods, including counting technology inside and outside buildings, passenger traffic components, and manual people-counting
* An examination of the passenger arrival process in building, including the Poisson arrival process and probability density function, and passenger arrivals in batches
* A consideration of daily vertical passenger traffic profiles, including two-way traffic profiles and the effects of inter-floor traffic
* An exploration of people flow solutions, including stairs, escalators, and elevators with collective and destination group control systems, as well as double-deck and multicar system
* People flow calculation and simulation models
* Elevator planning with ISO simulation method
* Elevator planning and evacuation of tall buildings

Perfect for software designers in the private sector and academia, People Flow in Buildings will also earn a place in the libraries of elevator consultants, manufacturers, and architects who seek a one-stop reference for transportation devices from a functional and design perspective, as opposed to a hardware perspective.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Dr. Marja-Liisa Siikonen (nee Jokela), PhD, is the CEO of MLS Lift Consulting. Earlier she worked as a Director of People Flow Planning in KONE Corporation, Finland. She received her M.Sc. in technical physics, and Lic.Sc. (Tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degree in applied mathematics from the Helsinki University of Technology. She has published around 100 articles and holds 250 patents in the field of elevator control systems and energy consumption, elevator traffic planning, building traffic simulation and evacuation, and people flow in buildings.
Symbols and Abbreviations


Scope of the book


1. Building design population

1.1 Office building population

1.2 Number of inhabitants in residential buildings

1.3 Number of hotel guests

1.4 People arriving from parking areas

1.5 Population in hospitals

1.6 Other types of populated buildings

2. People counting methods

2.1. Counting technology inside and outside buildings

2.2. Passenger traffic components

2.3. Manual people-counting

2.4. Use of optical vision

2.5. Visitor-counting with photocell signals and infra-red beams

2.6. People-counting with access control system

2.7. Passenger-counting by load-weighing device

2.8. Elevator monitoring systems

2.9. External traffic measurement devices

2.10. Smart sensing and mobile computing

3. Passenger arrival process in buildings

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Poisson arrival process

3.2.1 Probability density function

3.2.2 Example of passenger arrivals through security cages

3.3 Passenger arrivals in batches

3.3.1 Batch arrivals in elevator lobbies

3.3.2 Batch arrivals in escalators

3.3.3 Observed batch size distributions in several building types

3.3.4 Batch size variation in elevator lobbies during the day

3.3.5 Modelling of batch size distribution

4. Daily vertical passenger traffic profiles

4.1 Introduction

4.1 Vertical building traffic components

4.1 Two-way traffic profiles

4.1 Effect of inter-floor traffic

4.1 Occupancy in buildings

4.2 Passenger trips with elevators

4.3 People flow in office buildings

4.3.1 Traffic in offices

4.3.2 Observed daily two-way traffic profiles

4.3.3 Daily traffic profiles with interfloor traffic

4.4 People flow in hotels

4.4.1 Traffic in hotels

4.4.2 Daily traffic profiles in hotels

4.5 People flow in residential buildings

4.5.1 Traffic in residential buildings

4.5.2 Traffic profiles in residential buildings

4.6 People flow profiles in hospitals

4.6.1 Hospital traffic

4.6.2 Daily traffic in hospitals

4.7 People flow in commercial and public buildings

4.7.1 Traffic in commercial and public buildings

4.7.2 Daily people flow in escalators

4.7.3 Daily people flow in elevators in shopping centers

4.7.4 Duration of a visit in a shopping centre

4.7.5 People flow by GPS in public buildings

4.8 People flow on cruise ships

4.8.1 Traffic in cruisers

4.8.2 Daily traffic profiles for typical days

5. Monitored elevator traffic data

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Service quality parameters

5.3 Measured passenger service level

5.3.1 Measured passenger traffic with external device

5.3.2 Call time distribution

5.3.3 Waiting time distribution with destination control

5.3.4 Monthly service times

5.4 Measured elevator performance

5.4.1 Number of starts during a month

5.4.2 Correlation between cycle time and round trip time

Part II: People flow solutions

6. Historical overview

7. Push button control systems

7.1 Signal operation

7.2 Single-button collective control

7.3 Down collective control

7.4 Interconnected full collective control principle

8. Collective group control system

8.1 Software-based collective control system

8.2 Bunching

8.3 Next car up

8.4 Dynamic sub-zoning

8.5 Channeling

8.6 Queue selective control system

9. Intelligent group control systems

9.1 Performance requirements

9.2 Control system architectures

10. Artificial Intelligence in elevator dispatching

10.1 Introduction

10.2 AI architectures

10.3 Traffic forecasting

10.4 Fuzzy logic

10.5 Genetic algorithm

10.6 Neural networks

10.7 Optimization objective functions

10.8 Elevator lobby with collective control system

10.9 Hospital service modes

11. Destination control system

11.1 Adaptive call allocation algorithm

11.2 Destination control system

11.3 Hybrid destination control system

11.4 "Harmonized" elevator dispatching

11.5 Elevator lobby with destination control system

12. Multi-car control systems

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Paternoster

12.3 Odyssey

12.4 Double-deck elevators

12.4.1 Functional principle of double-deck elevators

12.4.2 Double-deck collective control

12.4.3 Double-deck destination control

12.4.4 Harmonized dispatching for double-deck elevators

12.5 TWIN

12.6 MULTI

12.7 Other possible multi-car elevator control systems

13. Access control systems

2.11. Application areas

2.12. Access control by an external provider

2.13. Access control embedded in an elevator control

14. Architectural considerations of elevators

14.1 Layouts with conventional control

14.2 Layouts with destination control system

14.3 Dimensions of passenger elevators

14.1 Vertical elevator dimensions

14.2 Lobby arrangement with double-deck elevators

15. Architectural considerations of other people flow solutions

15.1 Escalator arrangements

15.2 Horizontal escalator dimensions

15.3 Vertical escalator dimensions

15.4 Dimensions of moving walkways

15.5 Staircase dimensions

15.6 Building door types

Part III: People flow calculation methods

16. Introduction

17. Elevator traffic calculation methods

17.1 Elevator performance parameters

17.2 Elevator handling capacity equation

17.3 Elevator kinematics

17.3.1 Elevator rated speed

17.3.2 Flight time calculation

17.4 Up-peak roundtrip time equations

17.4.1 Uniform passenger arrivals

17.4.2 Poisson arrival process

17.4.3 Uniform arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps

17.4.4 Poisson arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps

17.4.5 Uniform arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs

17.4.6 Poisson arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs

17.4.7 A generalized roundtrip time formula

17.5 Round trip time related equations

17.5.1 Shuttle elevators

17.5.2 Express zones

17.5.3 Dynamic zoning in up-peak

17.5.4 Unsymmetric elevator groups

17.5.5 Multiple entrance floors

17.5.6 Two-way traffic

17.6 Multicar traffic analysis

17.6.1 Paternoster performance

17.6.2 Double-deck performance

17.6.3 Number of MULTI cabins and shafts

18. Passenger service level

18.1 Queuing theoretical approach

18.1.1 Waiting times

18.1.2 Transit times

18.1.3 Journey time

18.2 Queuing at hot spots

18.3 Egress time with elevators

19. Pedestrian traffic

19.1 People flow density

19.1.1 Level of Service

19.1.2 Human body size

19.1.3 Passenger characteristics

19.1.4 Passenger space demand in elevators

19.2 Escalator handling capacity

19.3 Handling capacity of moving walkways

19.4 People flow in walkways

19.5 People flow in staircases

19.6 People flow in corridors and doorways

19.7 Handling capacities of turnstiles and ticket counters

19.8 Number of destination operation panels

Part IV: People flow simulation methods

20. Introduction

21. Traffic simulation methods

21.1 Monte Carlo simulation

21.2 Passenger traffic generation

21.3 Traffic simulation of an elevator group

21.4 Building traffic simulation

21.5 People flow simulation

21.5.1 Simulation software architecture

21.5.2 Passenger routing model

22. Simulation procedure

22.1 Simulated handling capacity

22.2 Initial transient

22.3 Stepwise or ramp arrival profiles

22.4 Traffic patterns

22.4.1 Introduction

22.4.2 Office traffic templates

22.4.3 Hotel traffic templates

22.4.4 Traffic templates of residential buildings

23. Validation of elevator traffic simulation software

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Verification of simulator models

23.3 Validation of the elevator traffic simulator

24. Simulated elevator performance and passenger service level

24.1 Introduction

24.1 Up-peak boosting

24.1.1 Traffic boosting with destination control

24.1.2 Boosting with double-deck system

24.1.3 Effect of elevator group size

24.2 Traffic simulations with diverse control systems

24.2.1 Simulation setup for an example building

24.2.2 Conventional control with single-car elevator system

24.2.3 Destination control with single-car elevator system

24.2.4 Conventional control double-deck system

24.2.5 Destination control double-deck system

24.3 Comparison handling capacities

24.4 Service time distributions with conventional system

Part V: People flow planning and evacuation

25. Introduction

26. ISO 8100-32

26.1 Background

26.2 Design process

26.3 ISO calculation method

26.1 ISO simulation method

26.2 Selection of rated load based on mass

26.3 Selection of rated load based on area and mass

27. Design criteria

27.1 ISO 8100-32 design criteria

27.2 BCO design criteria for offices

27.3 Other design criteria

28. Elevatoring low and mid-rise buildings

28.1 Offices

28.2 Hotels

28.3 Residential buildings

28.4 Hospitals

28.5 Parking areas

29. People transportation in commercial and public buildings

29.1 Mass transits

29.2 Public transportation buildings

29.3 Commercial buildings

29.4 Observation decks

30. Elevatoring tall buildigs

30.1 Background

30.2 Zoning of supertall buildings

30.3 Example zonings of a supertall building

30.4 Arrangements with zoning from the ground

30.4.1 Elevator arrangement selection with ISO simulation method

30.4.2 Elevator group lobby layouts

30.4.3 Main entrance core areas

30.5 Sky lobby arrangement

30.5.1 Double-deck shuttle elevators

30.5.2 Multi-car shuttle elevators

30.5.3 Elevator selection with ISO simulation method

30.5.4 Elevator group loofbby layouts

30.5.5 Main entrance core areas for sky lobby arrangements

31. Core space of different arrangements

32. Building evacuation

32.1 Introduction

32.2 Egress time calculation in building design

32.2.1 Background

32.2.2 Egress by stairs

32.2.3 Egress by elevators

32.3 Generic emergency evacuation types

32.3.1 Non-fire emergency evacuation

32.3.2 Fire evacuation modes

32.3.3 Scenatio configuration from BMS

32.4 Elevator evacuation-related standards and guidelines

32.4.1 Evacuation elevator requirements

32.4.2 Firefighters lifts - EN 81-72:2015

32.4.3 Evacuation of disabled persons using lifts - CEN/TS 81-76:2011

32.4.4 Occupant Evacuation Operation - ASME A17.1:2013

32.4.5 Elevators used to assist in building evacuation - ISO/TS 18870:2014

32.5 Evacuation strategies of megatall buildings

32.5.1 Introduction

32.5.2 Jeddah Tower

32.5.3 Shanghai Tower

32.5.4 Royal Clock Tower, Makkah

32.5.5 One World Trade Center, New York

33. How high can we go?




Scope of the Book

The global trend in urbanization in the beginning of the second millennium has seen more and more people moving to cities and the urban environment. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH 2016) review, there are nearly 45 megacities in the world with the total populations of 10 million people or more. The majority of tall buildings are located in such megacities. In 2018, there were more than 160 completions of buildings taller than 200 m, and 60 of these were taller than 350 m. In the 1990s, about 80% of tall buildings over 200m were located in North America, but now most of them (80%) are in Asia and the Middle East. The number of tall buildings is growing exponentially, being currently about 10 times more than at the turn of the second millennium. The tallest building at the moment is Burj Khalifa in Dubai with height 828m (0.52 miles) and 160 levels. The Kingdom Tower is under construction in Jeddah and it will reach nearly 1000m(0.62 miles) with about 250 levels. Building heights are getting closer to Frank Lloyd Wright's 1956 vision of the 1 mile (1609 m)-high building with 528 storeys (Zevi 1991). With the current growth of building heights, this vision may become true in the near future. On the other hand, some countries are considering to limit tall building heights, e.g. to 500 m. However, it yet remains for future generations to see if such a building will ever be built. Without elevators and escalators, the construction of such tall buildings would not be possible. Just as important as elevator technology is the planning of vertical transportation devices to make tall buildings attractive to the owners.

Recent trends forbid people smoking inside the buildings. Buildings are changing to open-plan offices and office rooms or seats can also be rented to users for some hours or days as in hotels. Working places are designed with flexibility so that the seats can be freely occupied for the time needed, and after becoming free they can be occupied by other people. Possible personal belongings are stored in lockers. Canteens or restaurants can be spread around the building floors, and employees are encouraged to meet each other for a coffee and chat. All these trends cause additional traffic in buildings, which should be considered during elevator planning.

Another trend today is to decrease the ecological footprint of products and design. This reflects in higher energy efficiency of products and utilization of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal and wind energy. Attention is paid to the life cycle of products and recycling of components. Waste disposal, e.g. hydraulic lifts with oil, has become rarer. In the 1980-1990, Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) with gearless machineries and permanent magnet technology decreased the elevator machinery size, and energy consumption during the run decreased considerably compared to the earlier relay technology. The daily passenger traffic is related to the running energy consumption of elevators. With motor-generator sets and Ward Leonard control, energy was no longer pushed to the resistors but could be regenerated to the building or global network, which further saved energy. Running energy has decreased, and the standby energy has increased compared to relay technology. Elevators have started to spend energy to hold cars standing still during a stop when relay elevators used brakes (Jappsen 2018). About 10 years ago, VDI 4707 (VDI 2009) and ISO (ISO 25745-3 2015) paid attention to elevator energy consumption during standby. Elevator controls started to adopt standby modes where the components were shut down during standby time, and again energy consumption dramatically decreased.

Along with advances in healthcare, the number of middle-aged people has increased, especially in Europe with an estimated 80 million elderly and disabled people. For elderly people, accessibility in and out of buildings has become important, but the same is true of young families with children. After the collapse of the World Trade Center in New York during 9/11, debate began on the evacuation of people from tall buildings. Consequently, there has been a broad impact on building and elevator design, and elevator planning. The International Building Code, IBC, of the United States, depending on the building occupancy and height, now requires either three exit stairs, or two exit stairs supplemented by occupant evacuation elevators, OEEs. According to the European Union directives 98/34/EC and 98/48/EC, an elevator for disabled people is required for every new building with more than three floors, which is adopted in local building codes. The European codes requires accessibility of passengers in and out of buildings (EN 81-70 2018), and evacuation of disabled people with elevators (ISO TS 8101-1 2020). Down-peak and building evacuation for non-fire and fire situations are adopted in the elevator planning and design of tall buildings.

This book explains how modern trends in building usage affect the people-flow planning in buildings. Elevator planning for tall office buildings has by far mostly been based on uppeak traffic calculation. In addition to up-peak, down-peak and mixed lunch hour traffic peaks have become important factors in determining transportation devices in building design. Important in traffic planning is to compare different results. This is possible only if the traffic terms have common definitions. The book has gathered definitions to the traffic terms from the ISO standards, published traffic books, the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, CIBSE, planning guides and articles in this order. Also, some new traffic terms are introduced.

The ongoing world-wide Covid-19 pandemic is currently raging all over the world. The virus infection spreads through airborne exposure and breath, and therefore people need to avoid social contacts. It has created a 'new normal' way for people to cope with the virus, which has widespread effects in all fields in the society-life, e.g. working surroundings, travelling and cultural life. The future will show what kind of requirements the pandemic will set for the building industry and elevators to provide residents safe and healthy environment to live and work.

The book starts with the definitions of terms and symbols, and continues with five parts dealing with measurement, control, modelling and planning of people flow in buildings. Each part begins with an introduction describing the contents and the background of the item. In the appendices, measured passenger data and performed analysis results are added. The first part concentrates on measured people flow in buildings. Firstly, the method to define population in different types of buildings is explained. Secondly, passenger counting methods introduced in buildings and elevator lobbies are considered. The arrival process was studied more than 40 years ago by Alexandris (1977) who showed that in office buildings during morning up-peak the passenger arrivals followed a Poisson process. The latest passenger counting measurements have shown that individual passenger arrivals can follow a Poisson process in the morning up-peak. More often during the day, however, arrivals of passenger batches followa Poisson process. This conclusion is based on measured passenger arrivals in offices, hotels and residential buildings. Thirdly, daily passenger traffic profiles in different types of buildings are shown. Most of the measurements were made by elevator control system that counted the passengers using a load-weighing device below the car floor and photocell signals in the car door opening. The measured profiles are compared to the profiles introduced by Strakosch already in 1967 (Strakosch 1983). Finally, elevator service level and performance statistics monitored from real buildings are shown. They include passenger waiting times, call times, number of calls and elevator starts.

The second part of the book concentrates on people flow solutions which affect directly the passenger service quality, such as principles of elevator control systems, passenger access and guidance provided by each control system. This part begins with a historical review from the 1960s and goes shortly through group control technology with relays up to the microprocessor-based systems. Elevator traffic and control systems were described by Barney et al. in 1970s (Barney and Dos Santos 1977). Group control principles of elevator manufacturers are described on a general level. At first, the group control systems were memoryless, serving one call at a time. With memory, control systems could remember all given hall calls and serve them according to some logic. Full collective control could be used for the up and down calls. With microprocessors, the control systems became more intelligent and could use various mathematical methods in deciding the order in which the elevators could serve the existing calls. In multi-car systems, where several cars can move in the same shaft, collective control principle can be applied, but mostly the principles are totally different. People flow solutions in buildings also include building doors, escalators, moving walks and staircases, which are briefly reviewed in the second part.

The third part of the book shows calculation methods for handling capacities of transportation devices. Elevator group handling capacity is calculated with uniform and Poisson arrival assumptions with six different approaches for single-deck elevators, and some theory is introduced also for multi-car elevator systems. Queuing theory can be used to...

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