The Declaration of Independence in Historical Context

American State Papers, Petitions, Proclamations, and Letters of the Delegates to the First National Congresses
 
 
De Gruyter (Verlag)
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  • erschienen am 5. August 2014
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  • 224 Seiten
 
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Political science professor Barry Shain has collected 174 letters, papers, petitions, and proclamations from the years directly preceding the creation of the Declaration of Independence that challenge many of the dominant narratives that shape contemporary understanding of this all-important document. Rather than arising from strong philosophical convictions and a clearly perceived vision of the future, the Declaration, as these writings demonstrate, was more the result of chance occurrences and practical considerations, and reflective of a society less rebellion-minded and far more monarchically inclined than most Americans today have been taught to believe.
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978-0-300-15905-9 (9780300159059)
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Barry Alan Shain is professor of political science and chair of the department at Colgate University.
  • Cover
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Document Chronology
  • Note to the Reader
  • Introduction. Three Congresses, Anglo-American Constitutionalism, and British Imperialism and Monarchy: In Search of a New/Old Approach to Understanding American Revolutionary-Era History
  • ACT I: THE STAMP ACT CRISIS, 1764-1766
  • 1. New York Petitions Opposing the Sugar, Currency, and Stamp Acts, October 18, 1764
  • 1.1. Petition to the King
  • 1.2. Petition to the House of Commons
  • 2. A Massachusetts Protest against the Sugar Act, November 3, 1764
  • 2.1. Petition to the House of Commons
  • 3. Virginia Petitions to the King and Parliament, December 18, 1764
  • 3.1. Petition to the King
  • 3.2. Memorial to the House of Lords
  • 3.3. Remonstrance to the House of Commons
  • 4. Colonial Resolves Opposing the Stamp Act, June-December 1765
  • 4.1. Virginia Resolves in Governor Fauquier's Account, June 5, 1765
  • 4.2. Virginia Resolves as Printed in the Journal of the House of Burgesses, June 1765
  • 4.3. Virginia Resolves as Recalled by Patrick Henry, June 1765
  • 4.4. Virginia Resolves as Printed by the Newport Mercury, June 24, 1765
  • 4.5. Pennsylvania Resolves, September 21, 1765
  • 4.6. Maryland Resolves, September 28, 1765
  • 4.7. Connecticut Resolves, October 25, 1765
  • 4.8. Massachusetts Resolves, October 29, 1765
  • 4.9. South Carolina Resolves, November 29, 1765
  • 4.10. New Jersey Resolves, November 30, 1765
  • 4.11. New York Resolves, December 18, 1765
  • 5. Statements of the Stamp Act Congress, October 1765
  • 5.1. Declaration of Rights and Grievances, October 19, 1765
  • 5.2. Petition to the King, October 21, 1765
  • 5.3. Petition to the House of Commons, October 21, 1765
  • 5.4. Report of the Committee to Whom Was Referred the Considerations of the Rights of the British Colonies, October 8-18(?), 1765
  • 6. Statements of the Sons of Liberty, December 1765-March 1766
  • 6.1. Statement of the Sons of Liberty of New London, Connecticut, December 10, 1765
  • 6.2. Union in Arms, December 25, 1765
  • 6.3. Statement of the Sons of Liberty of North Carolina, February 18, 1766
  • 6.4. Statement of the Sons of Liberty of New Brunswick, New Jersey, February 25, 1766
  • 6.5. Statement of the Sons of Liberty of Norfolk, Virginia, March 31, 1766
  • 7. Benjamin Franklin Defends the Colonies before Parliament, February 1766
  • 7.1. Examination of Franklin in the House of Commons, February 13, 1766
  • 8. Parliament's Immediate Resolution of the Imperial Crisis, March 1766
  • 8.1. An Act Repealing the Stamp Act, March 18, 1766
  • 8.2. Declaratory Act, March 18, 1766
  • 8.3. Samuel Adams to Christopher Gadsden, December 11, 1766
  • ACT II: RESPONSE TO THE COERCIVE ACTS, 1774
  • 9. Massachusetts Opposition to the Declaratory Act and the Coercive Acts, September 1774
  • 9.1. Suffolk Resolves, September 17, 1774
  • 9.2. John Adams, Diary Entry, September 17, 1774
  • 9.3. Samuel Adams to Joseph Warren, September 25, 1774
  • 9.4. John Adams to William Tudor, September 29, 1774
  • 10. A Design for Unifying the Colonies within the Empire, September 1774
  • 10.1. Joseph Galloway, "Plan of Union," September 28, 1774
  • 10.2. Joseph Galloway, Statement on His "Plan of Union" (beginning), September 28, 1774
  • 10.3. Joseph Galloway, Statement on His "Plan of Union" (continued), September 28, 1774
  • 10.4. John Adams, Notes of Debates, September 28, 1774
  • 10.5. Albany Plan of Union, July 9, 1754
  • 11. Colonial Boycotts of British Goods, September-October 1774
  • 11.1. Nonimportation, Noncomsumption, and Nonexportation Resolutions, September 27 and 30, 1774
  • 11.2. Continental Association, October 20, 1774
  • 11.3. John Adams, Proposed Resolutions, September 30, 1774
  • 11.4. Congressional Resolutions, October 7-11, 1774
  • 12. Congress Defends Itself to Metropolitan Britons and Continental Colonists, October 21, 1774
  • 12.1. Address to the People of Great Britain
  • 12.2. Memorial to the Inhabitants of British America
  • 13. A Statement of Principles and Complaints, October 1774
  • 13.1. Bill of Rights and List of Grievances, October 18-26, 1774
  • 13.2. James Duane, Propositions before the Committee on Rights, September 7-22, 1774
  • 13.3. John Adams, Notes of Debates, September 8, 1774
  • 13.4. Silas Deane to Thomas Mumford, October 16, 1774
  • 14. Messages to Other British Colonies, October 1774
  • 14.1. Messages to the Colonies of St. John's, Nova Scotia, Georgia, East Florida, and West Florida, October 22, 1774
  • 14.2. "To the Inhabitants of the Province of Quebec," October 26, 1774
  • 15. Congress Pleads with George III, October 1774
  • 15.1. Petition to the King, October 26, 1774
  • 15.2. Silas Deane, Diary Entries, October 1 and 3, 1774
  • 15.3. Congressional Resolutions, October 3 and 5, 1774
  • 15.4. Patrick Henry, Draft Petition to the King, October 21, 1774
  • ACT III: THE FIGHTING BEGINS, 1775
  • 16. Congress Justifies Itself to Canadian and American Colonists, May 1775
  • 16.1. "To the Oppressed Inhabitants of Canada," May 29, 1775
  • 16.2. Certain Resolutions Respecting the State of America, May 26, 1775
  • 17. Political Recommendations for Massachusetts and Religious Recommendations for the Colonies, June 1775
  • 17.1. Response to Massachusetts Bay's Request for Instructions on Forming a New Government, June 2, 3, and 9, 1775
  • 17.2. First Proclamation for a Day of Humiliation, Fasting, and Prayer, June 12, 1775
  • 18. Congress Plans for War, July 1775
  • 18.1. Declaration on Taking Arms, July 6, 1775
  • 18.2. George III, Speech from the Throne at the Opening of Parliament, November 30, 1774
  • 18.3. New England Restraining Act, March 30, 1775
  • 19. Congress Issues a Final Plea for Peace, July 1775
  • 19.1. Olive Branch Petition to the King, July 8, 1775
  • 19.2. John Dickinson to Arthur Lee, July 1775
  • 20. Congress Appeals to Britons, July 8, 1775
  • 20.1. The Twelve United Colonies to the Inhabitants of Great Britain
  • 20.2. Congress to the Lord Mayor of London and the Colonial Agents
  • 21. Congress Appeals to Native Americans, July 13, 1775
  • 21.1. A Speech to the Six Confederate Nations
  • 22. Congress Appeals to the Irish, July 28, 1775
  • 22.1. An Address of the Twelve United Colonies to the People of Ireland
  • 23. Congress Rejects Parliament's Peace Overtures, July 1775
  • 23.1. Report on Lord North's Peace Proposal, July 31, 1775
  • 23.2. Grey Cooper's Letter Written for Lord North, May 30, 1775
  • 23.3. The Earl of Chatham, Bill for Settling the Troubles in America, February 1, 1775
  • 23.4. Benjamin Franklin, Vindication, June-July(?) 1775
  • 24. Plans for New Colonial Governments, November-December 1775
  • 24.1. Congress, Response to New Hampshire's Request for Instructions on Forming a New Government, and Instructions for South Carolina and Virginia Concerning Forming New Governments, November 3, November 4, and December 4, 1775
  • 24.2. John Adams, Autobiography, October 18, 1775
  • 24.3. Samuel Ward to Henry Ward, November 2, 1775
  • 24.4. John Adams to Joseph Hawley, November 25, 1775
  • 24.5. Congress to Colonial Agents, November 29, 1775
  • 24.6. Josiah Bartlett to John Langdon, March 5, 1776
  • 25. Congress Responds to the King's Charge of Insurgency, December 1775
  • 25.1. Congress, Answer to the King's Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition, December 6, 1775
  • 25.2. George III, Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition, August 23, 1775
  • 25.3. Edward Rutledge to Ralph Izard, December 8, 1775
  • 25.4. Benjamin Franklin to Charles William Frederic Dumas, December 9, 1775
  • 25.5. Robert Morris to an Unknown Correspondent, December 9, 1775
  • ACT IV: TOWARD INDEPENDENCE, 1776
  • 26. The State of Affairs in America before and after Paine, January 1776
  • 26.1. "The Origin, Nature, and Extent of the Present Controversy," January 2, 1776
  • 26.2. George III, Speech to Parliament, October 26, 1775
  • 26.3. John Jay, "Essay on Congress and Independence," January 1776
  • 26.4. Josiah Bartlett to John Langdon, January 13, 1776
  • 26.5. John Hancock to Thomas Cushing, January 17, 1776
  • 27. Congressional Moderates' Unpublished Last Defense of Empire and Reconciliation, February 1776
  • 27.1. Address to the Inhabitants of the Colonies, February 13, 1776
  • 27.2. John Dickinson, Proposed Resolutions on a Petition to the King, January 9-24(?), 1776
  • 27.3. Richard Smith, Diary Entry, February 13, 1776
  • 28. American and British Calls for Fasting, March and October 1776
  • 28.1. Second Proclamation for a Day of Humiliation, Fasting, and Prayer, March 16, 1776
  • 28.2. George III, A Proclamation for a General Fast, October 30, 1776
  • 29. Congress and Parliament Declare a Trade War-The Colonies' First Steptoward Independence, March 1776
  • 29.1. Declaration on Armed Vessels, March 23, 1776
  • 29.2. American Prohibitory Act, December 22, 1775
  • 29.3. Richard Smith, Diary Entry, March 18, 1776
  • 29.4. Joseph Hewes to Samuel Johnston, March 20, 1776
  • 29.5. Richard Smith, Diary Entry, March 22, 1776
  • 29.6. John Adams to Horatio Gates, March 23, 1776
  • 30. Congress Intensifies the Trade War-A Bolder Step toward Independence, April 1776
  • 30.1. Declaration Opening American Ports to Non- British Trade, April 6, 1776
  • 30.2. Richard Smith, Diary Entry, February 16, 1776
  • 30.3. Abigail Adams to John Adams, March 31, 1776
  • 30.4. John Adams to Abigail Adams, April 14, 1776
  • 30.5. Carter Braxton to Landon Carter, April 14, 1776
  • 30.6. John Adams to Mercy Warren, April 16, 1776
  • 31. More Plans for New Colonial Governments-Almost Independence, May 1776
  • 31.1. Congressional Recommendation to the United Colonies, Where Needed, to Adopt New Governments, May 10 and 15, 1776
  • 31.2. John Adams, Notes of Debates, May 13-15, 1776
  • 31.3. Carter Braxton to Landon Carter, May 17, 1776
  • 31.4. James Duane to John Jay, May 18, 1776
  • 31.5. John Adams to James Warren, May 20, 1776
  • 31.6. Thomas Stone to James Hollyday(?), May 20, 1776
  • 31.7. John Adams to James Sullivan, May 26, 1776
  • 32. Prelude to the Declaration and Independence, June 1776
  • 32.1. Richard Henry Lee, Three Resolutions Respecting Independency, June 7, 8, 10, and 11, 1776
  • 32.2. Resolutions of the Virginia Convention, May 15, 1776
  • 32.3. Address and Petition of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons of London to the King, and His Answer, March 22-23, 1776
  • 32.4. Robert Morris to Silas Deane, June 5, 1776
  • 32.5. Edward Rutledge to John Jay, June 8, 1776
  • 32.6. The Maryland Delegates to the Maryland Council of Safety, June 11, 1776
  • 32.7. Thomas Jefferson, Notes of Proceedings in Congress, June 7-28, 1776
  • 33. Independence Is Declared, July 1776
  • 33.1. Resolutions Declaring Independence, and the Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America, June 28, July 1-4, and July 19, 1776
  • 33.2. John Adams to Timothy Pickering, August 6, 1822
  • 33.3. Elbridge Gerry to James Warren, June 25, 1776
  • 33.4. Edward Rutledge to John Jay, June 29, 1776
  • 33.5. Thomas Jefferson, Notes of Proceedings in Congress, July 1-4, 1776
  • 33.6. John Adams, Diary Entries, June 28, July 1, and July 4, 1776
  • 33.7. John Dickinson, Notes for a Speech in Congress, July 1, 1776
  • 33.8. John Adams to Abigail Adams, July 3, 1776
  • ACT V: NEW NATIONS, 1776-1777
  • 34. First Draft of a Plan for a National Government-The Four Principal Issues of Concern, July 1776
  • 34.1. John Dickinson's Committee, Draft of the Articles of Confederation, July 12, 1776
  • 34.2. Thomas Jefferson, Notes of Proceedings in Congress, July 12-August 1, 1776
  • 34.3. Joseph Hewes to Samuel Johnston, July 28, 1776
  • 34.4. John Adams to Abigail Adams, July 29, 1776
  • 34.5. John Adams, Notes of Debates, August 2, 1776
  • 35. A Meager Offer of Peace from the King, July 1776
  • 35.1. Resolution to Publish Lord Howe's Circular Letter and Declaration, July 19, 1776
  • 35.2. Lord Howe, Circular Letter, June 20, 1776
  • 35.3. Lord Howe, Declaration, June 20, 1776
  • 35.4. Congressional Resolution on the Howe Peace Commission, May 6, 1776
  • 35.5. William Ellery to Ezra Stiles(?), July 20, 1776
  • 35.6. Benjamin Franklin to Lord Howe, July 20, 1776
  • 35.7. Robert Morris to Joseph Reed, July 21, 1776
  • 36. The Howe Peace Commission, September 1776
  • 36.1. An Exchange of Letters Preparatory to Arranging a Meeting on Staten Island between Lord Howe and a Committee of Three Congressional Delegates, September 3, 5, and 6, 1776
  • 36.2. Benjamin Rush, Record of Congress Debating Its Response to Howe, September 5, 1776(?)
  • 36.3. Benjamin Franklin to Lord Howe, September 8, 1776
  • 36.4. Henry Strachey, Notes on Lord Howe's Meeting with a Committee of Congress, September 11, 1776
  • 36.5. Report of the Committee Appointed to Confer with Lord Howe, September 17, 1776
  • 37. Difficulties in Overseeing the Continental Army-States versus Congressional Authorities, February 1777
  • 37.1. Report on the Discouraging and Preventing of Desertions from the Continental Army, February 13 and 25, 1777
  • 37.2. John Adams to Henry Knox, September 29, 1776
  • 37.3. Thomas Burke, Notes of Debates, Short Form, February 25, 1777
  • 37.4. Thomas Burke, Notes of Debates, Long Form, February 25, 1777
  • 38. Debating State Sovereignty and a Bicameral National Legislature-Thomas Burke's Amendments to the Articles of Confederation, May 1777
  • 38.1. Debating the Articles of Confederation and Thomas Burke's Failed Amendment, May 5, 1777
  • 38.2. Thomas Burke to Richard Caswell, on Burke's Successful Amendment, April 29, 1777
  • 39. Testing the Extent of Popular Sovereignty-Congress Limits the Reach of the Declaration's Rights Claims, June 1777
  • 39.1. Congressional Response to the Petition of the Inhabitants of the New Hampshire Grants for Independence, June 30, 1777
  • 39.2. Declaration and Petition of the Inhabitants of the New Hampshire Grants, January 15, 1777
  • 39.3. The New York Delegates to the New York Council of Safety, July 2, 1777
  • 39.4. William Duer to Robert R. Livingston, July 9, 1777
  • 40. Congress' First "National" Day of Thanksgiving and Its Support for Ordering Bibles, September and November 1777
  • 40.1. Congress, Thanksgiving Proclamation, November 1, 1777
  • 40.2. Henry Laurens to the States, November 1, 1777
  • 40.3. Resolution and Vote of Congress on Importing Twenty Thousand Protestant Bibles, July 7 and September 11, 1777
  • 41. Another Inadequate and Unsuccessful British Effort at Reconciliation, November 1777
  • 41.1. The Earl of Chatham, Speech in the House of Lords, November 20, 1777
  • 42. Finalizing the Articles of Confederation and Resolving the Four Principal Issues of Concern, November 1777
  • 42.1. Circular Letter to the States Accompanying the Final Articles of Confederation, November 17, 1777
  • 42.2. Final Votes and Language for Contested Sections of the Articles of Confederation, October 7, October 14, and November 15, 1777
  • 42.3. Cornelius Harnett to Richard Caswell, October 10, 1777
  • 42.4. Cornelius Harnett to Thomas Burke, November 13, 1777
  • 42.5. Richard Henry Lee to Roger Sherman, November 24, 1777
  • 43. Continuing Difficulties in Overseeing the Continental Army, December 1777
  • 43.1. Resolutions on Supplying the Needs of the Continental Army and an Accompanying Circular Letter to the States, December 20, 1777
  • 43.2. John Harvie to Thomas Jefferson, December 29, 1777
  • 43.3. Committee on Emergency Provisions to Thomas Wharton, December 30, 1777
  • Appendix: Four Additional Documents, Informative but Off-Stage
  • 44.1. Benjamin Franklin, Articles of Confederation, July 21, 1775
  • 45.1. The Declaration of Independence in Thomas Jefferson's Notes, July 1-4, 1776
  • 46.1. Ratified Text of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, March 1, 1781
  • 47.1. Royal Instructions to the Carlisle Peace Commission, April 12, 1778
  • Notes
  • Selected Bibliography
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Y

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